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ceeding to the destruction of the prison, when its fafea ty was procured by the enlargement of their companions. But their rage was too much heated by liquor to be appeased by concessions. They not only proceeded to destroy the houses of obnoxious perfons, but marched in a body to demolish the exchange. The exchange was barricaded, shut up, and defended by the merchants and townsmen, and fome lives


this occasion ; but the arrival of fome light horse

put an end to this disorder. In a short time there was sufficient employment found for the failors in the King's service.

About this time Mr Penn, late Governor, and one of the proprietors of Pennsylvania, arrived from thence with a petition from the general congress to the King, which he presented through the hands of the Earl of Dartmouth. During the time that this petition hung in suspence; the most fanguine hopeswere formed by those who were earnest for peace, or friends to America, that it would have led to an happy reconciliation, especially as it had already transpired that it contained expressions of the greatest loyalty, and was couched in the inost humble and moderate terms. But in proportion as these hopes were received, was the degree of the difáppointment to those who fo eagerly wilhed for fo defireable an. event, when they found that Mr Penn was informed that no answer would be given to his petition. The Americans had alfo laid great stress upon the success of this final application, and were said to bave relaxed their operations considerably upon that idea, until they heard the event.' This petition, which was subfcribed by all the members of the congress, was full of expressions of duty, respect, and loyalty to the King


and of affection to the parent ftate. They attributed all the differences and misfortunes which had hitherto taken place, to a pernicious system of government adopted at the end of the last war, and to the evil designs, and conduct of ministers since that time. They declared that they not only ardently desired, that the former harmony between the mother country and the colonies might be restored, that a concord might be, established between them, upon so firin a basis as to perpetuate its blessings, uninterrupted by future differences, to succeeding generations in both cound; tries. That notwithstanding the fufferings of his Majesty's loyal colonies during the course of the present controversy, their breasts retain too tender a regard to the kingdom from whence they derived their ori. gin, to request such a conciliation as might in any manner be inconsistent with their dignity or wel. fare. That these, related as they were to her, honour and duty, as weil as inclination, induce them to support and advance; and the apprehenfions that now oppress their hearts with unspeakable grief being once removed, his Majesty will find his faithful subjects ou that continent ready and willing at all times, as they have ever been, with their lives and fortunes, to afsert and maintain the rights and interests of his Majesty, and of their mother country.

When this Tuinous war and all its consequences are considered, and the lengths which the parties had proceeded to are remembered, they suggest a doubt of the finecrity of the sentiments that were set forth in this petition. But the following part explains the particular intentio n of what has just now been mentioned.

With all humility submitting to your Majesty's wise consideration, whether it may not be expedient for


facilitating these importånt purposes, that yourmajesty be pleased to direct some mode by which the united applications of your faithful colonists to the throne, in pursuance of their common councils may be improved into a happy and permanent reconcilia tion, and that in the mean time measures may be taken for preventing the furtlier destruction of the lives of your majesty's subjects, and that such statutes as more immediately distress any of your Majesty's colonies may be repealed.”

Whatever the inward intentions of the parties might be, the language was conciliatory, and the re. quest not immoderate. Such as favourad the plan of pacification by concession, complamed loudly of Lord Dartmouth's answer, as calculated to drive the colonies to the last extremities of independence and foreign connections: for this reception, they faid, of fo dutiful and decent an address, amounted to no less than a renouncing of their allegiance. The friends of the ministry took it in a different light. They granted that the petition had a very decent appearance : but then the authority of parliament was not formally acknowledged. They were also still in arms, and on that account there was no security that they could give that could be relied on. It was said that they wanted to gain time by a negotiation, until they had formed a government, and established their strength in such a manner as would render all efforts for their reduction ineffectual. We had already gone too far in the expence of a war, and should not now stop short, but reap the benefits to government which always arise from an unsuccessful rebellion. And be. fides these great objc&ts of punishing the obnoxious, and providing for our friends, to river, without leav


ing room for a future contest, that unconditional fub. mission upon America, which no treaty or negotiation could ever obrain. If amicable terms were entered into, all our expence and preparation would be thrown away; we must shrink back from our propofals made to foreign princes for hiring their troops, which would disgrace us in their eyes, as our tameness in putting up with the infolence of our own people, would render us contemptible in the eyes of all Eu. rope ; and all that we have done would neither impress the colonies with a fense of our dignity nor with the terror of our power. It was added, that the nation was prepared, by the language of war, for the event, and it was not certain, if the temper of the nation was suffered to cool, that the people at another time would be so ready to support such an undertaking. This favourable disposition was therefore to be cultivated and employed in the critical moment. This was a part of the ministerial reasoning at that time, and shews the spirit with which they were possessed.

As the time of the meeting of the parliament drew near, addreffes were poured in from all quarters, fome in the most violent, and some in a more moderate stile, but all condemning the conduct of the Americans, approving of all the acts of government, and in general recommending a perseverance in the same strong measures, until the colonies were reduced to a thorough obedience, and brought to a full sense both of their errors and duty. In some of these addresses, severe and unjust reflections were thrown forth against those gentlemen who had opposed ad. nistration in the present American measures, who were represented as factious and desperate men, and stigma.

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matized, as being not only encouragers, but in a greac, meafure; the authors, of the American rebellion, This greatly inflamed the leaders of the minority against the procurers of the addresses, and only served to irritate the spirit of opposition against the ministers. and measures which the addresses were intended to support. It is well known with how much difficulty many of the addresses were procured, and how few, after all the diligence of ministerial agents, subscribed them. All sensible men considered them as nothing more than the di&tates of the ministry, and the subs feriptions forced signatures or testimonies of the worthlessness of the subferibers. In some places the fubfcribers confifted principally of pensioners, crown-officers, and dependents upon some friends at the court, Some of these were truly reputable and of an inde: pendent principle of mmd, and refused to sign such addresses as their heart could not consent to. What made some of these addressers more. suspicious, was, they were generally promoted by such as were never remarkable for their attachment to the revolution principles, and who had been deeply involved in an unnatural rebellion against King George the Second, in, behalf of the Pretender. Thefe were now leading men in promoting the addresses 'both in England and Scotland, which made those who were called whigs, fufpe& that there was some secret carrying on, unfriendly to the constitution, and that the American war was only a colour for a deeper scheme, which was excogitated in secret, and would be revealed when all things were ready for its execution. People who were acquainted with the Jacobites.throughout the kingdom, and knew something of their private conversation, could not but be astonished at their


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