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bill of rights; that it would establish a precedent of a most, alarming and dangerous tendency, as it recognized a right in the crown to introduce foreigners into Britain, and to raise armies without the consent of parliament ; that it was still more alarming, and 'rea quired the more immediate reprobation, from its bei ing wanton and unneceflary in point of policy, and from its being fo ftrenuouly defeoded by the ministers, both of which offered too much room for apprehenfion, that its arowed purposes covered others of a very different nature. The ministry vindicated the measures upon the plea of neceslicy, and the ground of precedent, namely, that of the Dutch troops being brought into England in the year 1745. It was also infifted upon as thoroughly legal and constitutional, and the crown lawyers endeavoured to restrain the construction of the bill of rights, by friewing that its operation extended no farther than this island. The minister was now pushed hard, both by some of his friends and those who had been uniformly in the op. position, to shew his real intention in propofing such a clause in the address to the King, as hinted that they considered it as a favour to have Hanoverian troops sent to Gibraltar, and wanted him to give af. furance, that if the address was suffered to pass in that form, that he would on fome future day to be appointed, bring the legality of the measure under the confideration of the House. The minister was however absolutely inflexible upon that point. He considered this peevichness of his party as deserving Father reprehenfion than indulgence. They could obtain no direct answer from him; and at length, when he could no longer shift an answer, he said, with an apparent indifference, which he supposed would intimidate the deferters, chat another time


would afford a firser opportunity of discussing the fubject than the present, Many of the country gentle. men confidered this teadiness of the minister as exa ceedingly ill-tiined; but he had as much interest and address as to, deç matters right for the present and got the threatened form pus prers'

One particular circumítance which attended these debates, was, the defection of General Conway from administrațiorf, who after exprefling his utmost deteftation of that ministerial principle, that persons hold, ing places must implicitly support government in all cases whatsoever, and however contrary to their principles; he then condemned in the most decisive terms the American war, which he declared to be cruel, unpatural, and unnecessary; calling it in plain terms, the butchery of his fellow-subjects, and to which his conscience forbad him to give assent. He condemned every idea of conquering the colonists, upon all the rules of justice, expedience, and practicability. Ho spoke in the moit ynreserved terms against the right of taxation, and wished tu see the declaratory law re, praled, though it had been passéd under his own aus. piċes, when io administratign.; and though on abstract legal principles he thought it right, and at the time of pasiling proper and necessary, rather than it should be employed to colour defigns the most opposite to the intentions publicly declared of those who supported it in parliament, and particularly opposite to those of his own at the time of his moving it. He called upon the minister to give some information concerning the ftate of affairs in merica, that they might know with certainty upon what ground they stood, and were likely hereafter to stand, before they passed a bloody address which would be a standing record a. gainst them, and which, potwithstansting the profufion


hard upon

of sophistical arguments, that were now used to be palmed upon them, by endeavouring to explain away its substance, and to reprefent it only as froth and compliment, would not only be found a curb upon, but must in a great degree influence their conduct throughout the fellion, notwithstanding any information they might have to the contrary: Some of the coungry gentlemen likewise faid, that they had


with the minister in the preceding seslion, upon the suppofition, that he ḥad given them authentic information with regard to America, but now finding by the event that they had been impos'd upon, and totaily deceived, it became abfolutely necessary to have a full and clear state of affairs laid before them, prior to their entering upon any business upon the subject. : This matter pressed very:

administration, and yexed them exceedingly. The accounts, from America were ag this time unfavourable ; and it was doubtful whether we had any thing left there. The minister had influence enough to wave off any particu. Jar enquiry concerning information that was in his poffeffion, but there was as much already gone abroad and published from o:her sources, as rendered it difficult to account for the failure of success in many in

stances, and to guard against the censure which of courfe artended' it. Indirect acknowledgments were made, that matters had not been carried on as could have been wilhed, but where the error lay they could noi reil : but that a great force was now to be sent out, which would ensure success, and matters would take a new turn, Thus did the ministry promise onę time after another, without having either any formed plan or design tliat had the smallest probability in them.

The Duke of Grafton at this time deserted the mi. Aistry, which alarmed them greatly ;-he gave


a realog


reason that they had miled him by false information, and had never given a' true account of the state of American affairs : that they had never given a true account of the facts with regard to the disposition of the colonists, and that he had always been made to believe that matters would never come to an extremi.

of that nature which had happened, but that an ap: pearance of coercion was all that was requisite to establish a reconciliation, and that the stronger government appeared, and the better it was supported, the sooner all disputes would be adjusted. He decla. red, that nothing less than a repeal of all the Ame: rican laws which had been passed since the year 1763, could now restore peace and happinefs, or prevent the most destructive and fatal confequences--conse: quences which could not even be thought of without feeling the utmost degree of grief and horror. In the House of Lords it was fairly proved, upon the Duke of Manchester's motion concerning the Hanoverian troops, that it was inconsistent with the bill of rights to bring in foreiga troops, without an act of parlia: ment, into any part of the British dominions; and that the doing thereof was diffolving the constitution, and setting asiđe the laws of the land, whereby the crown was made superior to all law, and the liberties of the subject totally overturned. The debates upon this subject on this occasion were warm, and all the argu. ments in favour of arbitrary power, and those against it, were cansassed again and again. Some lawyers maintained doctrines in defence of the measures totally opposite to the whole British constitution, for which they were severely reproved.

After many debates to no purpose, the estimates for carrying on the war were laid before parliament, and passed by a large majority. After this, some


brought before the Lords, among several other place might be examined, in order to establish the authenti. A.D. 7776 THE WAR IN AMERICA. changes happened in administration. The Duke of Grafton resigned the privy seal, and was succeeded by the Earl of Dartmonth, who was succeeded by Lord George Germaine. The Earl of Rochford hav. ing retired from business, was fucceeded by Lord Weymouth, who had continued out of employment fince his resignation on the affair of Faulkland's Ifland. Several other changes happened about this time, according as the humours of the court chanced so operate.

The petition of the congress, which had been deli vered to his Majesty by Mr Penn, became now the fubject of a warm debate. A copy of this petition was pers, when a noble Duke in opposition observed, that he faw Mr Penn below the bar, and moved that he city of the petition, before they entered into any de. bates apon its contents, thereby to obviate the doubts which might arise upon that head, and be a mean of interrupting their proceedings. This motion alarm ed the ministry cxceedingly. They easily perceived that the motion was not merely intended to authenticate the petition, but that it extended to laying before the House all the information concerning America, which they could draw from a person so much master of the subject as Mr Peon. They objected to the morion in point of order ; on its informality ; om its want of precedent, being contrary to the establillaed mode of proceeding ; that the bringing in of extraneous matter by surprise, and breaking in upon the molt serious and important deliberations, by suddenly calling their intention off to the examination of witnesses, and to new subjects of discussion, would be defructive of the order and gravity which always distin


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