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intelligence, and for various other exigencies which might contribute to keep the country quiet. There was another great call upon them for workmen to compleat the fortifications at Sorrel, St Johns, Cham. blee, and the ille of Noix, which it was supposed, would amount to 2000 men. But a still greater call upon the Canadians, and the more grievous as it was at their feeding season, was for the transport of all provisions, artillery, stores, and baggage of the army, from the different repositories to the water, and afterwards at the carrying places, beside the corves for making the roads. It was estimated that their service would for some țime before, and at the opening of the campaign, require no fewer than 2000 men, besides a very large proportion of horses and çarts. The ministry certainly did not make a fair estimate of the profit and lofs that would arise to the empire in pursuing this expedition : for suppose all things had succeeded according to their wilhes, and they had been able to subdue all the colonies, the destruction made in the mean time would not have again been made up for ages to come, nor would the money expended ever again be put into a circulation for the common advantage of the community. This war has been a war founded in mioisterial vengeance and ambition, without having so much as a single principle, or one object of tommon utility in its complexion. The friends and foes of government have both suffered, and would have suffered suppose they had united in supporting their meafures without the least war or oppofition. Had all the British empire joined mutually in supporting the schemes of the present ministry, without a diffenting voice, and be measures had been pursued for half a century, there would

have been very little difference between the inhabibitants of that empire, and the Indian favages. The tendency of the whole of this administration has been 10 depress the spirit of liberty which is the soul of true greatness, without which neither commerce, arts, or fciences ever flourished.

General Burgoyne, who was now at the head of this expedition, was assisted by able and excellent officers. Of these were Major General Philips of the artillery, who had acquired much honour by his conduct in the late war in Germany. He had likewise under him Brigadier General Frazer, Powel, and Hamilton, all oficers who had distinguished theinselves in former services; and with these the Brunswick Major General Baron Reidesel, and Brigadier General Specht. The army was in every respect in the best condition that could possibly be expected or desired, the troops being, in the stile, of the army, in high spirits, admirably disciplined and very healthy.

An expedition was determined to the Mohawk river, and Colonel St Ledger was appointed to the command thereof. The troops employed in this expedition from the army were about 7 or 800, confisting of 200 drawn from the 8th and 34th regi. ments, a regiment of the New-Yorkers, lately raised by Sir John Johnson, being chiefly emigrants from his own country adjoining to the intended scene of action, with some Hanau Chasseurs, a company of Ca. nadians, and another of newly raised rangers. These were joined by a strong body of Savages, in part con: ducted, or more properly commanded by officers from Britain and America. The regular force left in Canada, including the Highland emigrants under that denomination, amounted to about 3700 men.


The army being at length arrived and encamped at the River Bouquet, ' on the west side of Lake Champlain, and at no very great dillance to the northward of Crown Point, General Burgoyne, there met the Indians in congress, and afterwards, in compliance with the customs of those people, gave them a war fealt. The speech which he made to the favages upon this occasion has been published. It was cal. culated, in those powerful strains of elocution by which that gentleman is distinguished, to excite their ardour in the common cause, and at the same time to repress their barbarity. For this purpose he took pains in explaining to them the distinction between a war carried on against a common enemy, in which the whole country and people were hoftile, and the present, in which good and faithful subjects were largely, and of necessity, intermixed with rebels and traitors. Upon this principle he laid down several injun&ions for the government of their conduct, particularly, that they should only kill those who were opposed to them in arms; that old men, women, children, and prisoners should be held facred from the knife or hatchet, even in the heat of a&iual conflict ; that they should only scalp those whom they had flain in fair opposition ; but that under no pretence, fub:lety, or colour of prevarication, they should scalp the wounded, or even dying ; much less kill persons in that condition, by way of evading the injunction. And they were promised a compensation for prisoners, but in.formed that they should be called to an account for scalps. These endeavours did in some measure miti. gate, but were not of force wliolly to restrain their ferocity, of which some unhappy instances afierwards appeared.


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By the most favourable account of this matter which has just now been given from a very impartial authority, it appears that the favages were to be paid both for their prisoners and scalpe, only they were to be called to an account for the latter. But it does not seem a matter very clear bow they were to be brought to an account, or how the general was to know the difference between a scalp taken from the head of one that was already dead, and one that was alive when scalped. . They were to scalp those only whom they had flain in fair opposition, but this was a matter not easily to be decided, and the proclamation that followed foon after this speech, seems to hint that scalps of all sorts might be taken from the heads of those described in the proclamation. Gene. ral Burgoyne's argaments and the colouring be gives to the cause and characters of the Americans, imply that their conld be very small offence in the Indians proceeding to extremities. The horrible denounciations of war drest in the most formidable and terrific fhapes against those who persisted in hostility, but too plainly hinted, how agreeable Indian barbarity was to the commander in chief.

The General soon after dispersed a manifesto, calculated to spread terror among the contumacious, and particularly to revive in their minds every latent impreffion of fear, derived from knowledge or information of the cruel operations of the savages, whose numbers were accordingly magnified, and their eagernefs to be let loose to their prey, described with un. common energy. The force of that great power, which was now fpread by sea and land, to embrace or to crush every part of America, was displayed in full, lofty, and expreflve language. The rebellion,


with its effects, and the conduct of the present governors and governments, were charged with the highest colouring, and exhibited a most hideous picture, of unparalleled injustice, cruelty, persecution and ty: ranny. Encouragement and employment were assured to those, who with a disposition and ability suited to the purpose, should actually assist in redeeming their country from llavery, and in the re-establish. ment of legal government. Protection and security, clogged with conditions, restricted by circumstances, and rather imperfe&tly or inexplicitly expressed, were held out to the peaceable and industrious, who continued in their 'habitations. “And all the calamities

outrages of war, arrayed in their most terrific forms, were denounced agaiuft those who persevered in their hostility:

The army having made a short stay ai Crown Point, for the establishment of magazines, an hospital, and other necessary services, proceeded, in concert with the naval armament, to invest Ticonderoga, which was the first object of their destination. Although the rash and ill "conducted attempt made upon that place in the year 1758, with the consequent repulse

and heavy loss-sustained by the British army, rendered it at that time an object of general attention, it may not at this distance of time be wholly unneces. sary to take some notice of its situation, as well as of its state of defence.

T'iconderoga lies on the western shore, and only a few miles to the northward from the commencemeni of that narrow inlet, by which the water from Lake George is conveyed to Lake Champlain. Crown Point lies about a dozen miles farther north at the extremity of that inlet. The first of these places 'is


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