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struction and laughter, and prepare them for a view of those barbarities that will be laid open in the fu. turé part of this history. The manner in which Monsieur Gerard was introduced, the letter from the French King, which he delivered, his speech to the Congress, and the president's answer, shall be given in their own words.

Last Thursday, August 11th, being the day appointed by Congress for the audience of the Sieur Gerard, minister and plenipotentiary from his Most Christian Majesty, that minister received audience ac. cordingly. In pursuance of the ceremonial establish, ed by Congress, the Hon. Richard Henry Lee, Líq; one of the delegates from Virginia, and the Hon. Sa. muel Adams, one of the delegates from Massachusett's Bay, in a coach and six provided by Congress, waited upon the minister at his house. In a few minutes the two delegates entered the coach, Mr Lee placing himself at the minister's left hand, on the back feat, Mr Adams occupying the front seat; the minister's chariot being behind, received his secretary. The carriages being arrived at the State House in the city, the two members of Congress, placing themselves at the minilter's left hand, a little before one o'clock, introduced to his chair in the Congress Chamber.

The president and Congress sitting, the minister being seated, he gave his credentials into the hands of the secretary, who advanced and delivered them to the president. The secretary of Congress then read and translated them ; which being done, Mr Lee announced the minister to the president and Con. grefs : at nine the president, the Congress, and the minister rose together; he bowed to the president and the Congrels; they bowed to him ; whereupon



the whole feared themselves. In a moment the minifter role and made a speech to Congrefs, while they were all fitting. The speech being finished, the minister fat down, and giving a copy of his speech to his fecretary, he presented it to the president. The president and the Congress then rose, and the president pronounced their answer to the speech, the migifter standing all the time. The answer being ended, the whole were again feated, and the president giving a copy of the answer to the secretary of Con. gress, he presented it to the minister. The president, the Congress, and the minister then rose together ; the minister bowed, to the president, who returned the falute, and then to the Congress, who also bowed in their turn; and the minister having bowed to the prelident, and received his bow, he withdrew, and was attended home in the fame manner in which he had been conducted to the audience.

Within the bar of the house the Congrefs formed a on each side of the president and the mipister; the president fitting at one extremity of the çircle, at a table upon a platform elevated two steps ; the minister fitting at the opposite extremity of the circle, in an arm chair, upon the fame level with the Congress. The door of the Congress Chamber bejog thrown open, below the bar, about 200 gentle. men were admitted to the audience, among whom were the vice-president of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, the Supreme Executive Council, the speaker, and members of the House of Alsembly, several foreigners of distinction and officers of the army. The audience being over, the Congress and the minister, at a proper hour, repaired to an entertainment, given by the Congress to the mini:

fter ; at which were prefent, by invitation, feveral
foreigners of distinction, and gentlemen of public
character. The entertainment was conducted with a
decorum fuited to the occasion, and gave great fatis.
faction to the whole company.
The Congress gave the following account of this
audience, figned by their president and secretary,

In Congress, August 6, 1778.
According to order, the Hon. Sieur Gerard be-
ing introduced to an audience by the two members,
for that purpose appointed, and being feated in his
chair, his secretary delivered to the president a letter
from his His Most Christian Majefty, which was read
in the words following:

Very dear great Friends and Allies. The treaties which we have signed with you, in confequence of the proposals your commissioners made to ps in your behalf, are a certain assurance of our affection for the United States in general, and for each of them in particular, as well as of the interest we take, and constantly shall take, in their happiness and prosperity. It is to convince you more particularly of this, that we have nominated the Sieur Gerard, fecretary of our Council of State, to refide among you in the quality of our minister and plenipotentiary: he is the better acquainted with our sentiments to wards you, and the more capable of testifying the same to you, as he was entrusted on our part to negotiate with your commissioners, and signed with them the treaties which cement our upion. We pray you to give credit to all he fliall communicate to you from us, more especially when he shall ashure you of our affection and constant friendship for you. We pray



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God, very great Friends and Allies, to have you in his holy keeping.

Your good Friend and Ally,

(Signed) LOUIS. The minister was then announced to the president and the House, whereupon he arose and addressed Congress, in the speech, wbich, when he had finished, his fecretary delivered the fame in writing to the President as follows:

Gentlemen, The connection formed by the King my Master, with the United States of America is su agreeable to him, that he could no longer delay sending me to refide among you, for the purpose of, : It will give his Majesty great satisfaction to learn, that the sentiments which have shone forth on this occa. fion, justify that confidence with which he hath been inspired by the zeal and character of the United States, in France, ehe wisdom and fortitude which have dire&ted the resolutions of Congress, and the courage and perseverance of the people they reprefent ; a confidence which you know, Gentlemen, has been the basis of that truly amicable, and difinterested system, on which he hath treated with the United States.

It is not his Majesty's fault that the engagements he hath entered into, did not establish your independency and repose, without the further effufion of blood, and without aggravating the calamities of mankind, whose happiness it is his highest ambition to promote and secure. But fince the hostile measures and designs of the common enemy have given to engagements, purely eventual, an immediate, perfuasive, permanent, and indissoluble forçe, it is the opinion of


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the King my master, that the allies should turn their whole attention to fulfil those engagements in the manner most useful to the common cause, and best calculated to obtain that peace which is the objeet of the alliance.

It is upon this principle his majesty has hastened to send you a powerful affistance, which you owe only to his friendship, to the sacred regard he has for every thing which relates to the advantage of the United States, and to his desire of contributing, with efficacy, to establish your repose and prosperity, upon an ho. nourable and solid foundation. And farther, it is his expectation, that principles, which may be adopted by the respective governmenis, will tend to strengthen those bonds of union, which have originated in the mutual interest of the two nations.

The principal object of my instructions is to conne& the interests of France with those of the United States. I flatter myself, gentlemen, that my past conduct in the affairs which concern them, hath already convinced you of the determination I feel to endea. vour to obey my instructions, in such manner as to deserve the confidence of Congress, the friendship of its members, and the esteem of the citizens of America.

To this Speech the president was pleased to return the following answer ;


The treaties between his Most Christian Majesty and the United States, so fully demonstrates his wisdom and magnanimity, as to command the reverence of all nations. The virtuons citizens of America in particular, can never forget his beneficent attention to their violated rights; nor cease to acknowledge the hand of a gracious providence, in raising them up so


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