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the epithet natural had been applied to these

rights, and this state. The bulk of

The bulk of mankind are little able, and mankind think of no other

less habituated, to analyze the import and rights, than such as they can enjoy, which are

tendency of words and phrases ; and few Social rights. amongst them will separate the idea, which

they conceive the word natural conveys, from the state of their physical existence. They will plainly argue, that such as God hath made them, such they are; nor do they think of, nor demand any other rights, thán fuch, as God hath given them for the puppose, for which in his goodness he created them. The practical doctrine from such argument will be, what I before quoted from Mr. Locke. “ God having made man such a creature, that, in his own judgment, it was not good for him to be alone, put lim under strong obligations of necessity, convenience, and inclination, to drive him into society, as well as fitted him with understanding and language to continue and enjoy it.” Thus, perhaps, more properly, though less technically speaking, we come to consider man in his real natural state, which is that of society. For Buchanan says truly: *

* Buchanan of the due Privilege of the Scots Government, p. 198.

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“ First of all, then, we agree, that men by nature are made to live in society together, and for a communion of life.” *" Hitherto we have spoken only (and that but in part) of the natural Rights of Man. We have now to consider the civil Rights of Man, and to shew how the one originates out of the other. Man did not enter into society to become worse, than he was before, nor to have less rights, than he had before, but to have those rights better secured. His natural rights : are the foundation of all his civil rights." These will be the subject of the ensuing chapter.

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OCIETY was the necessary consequence

of the experimental discovery of man's wants and insufficiency to supply them in the theoretical state of pure nature. These wants were coeval with his physical existence; for, as Mr. Locke says, God fo made man, as to put him under strong obligations of neceffity, convenience, and inclination, to drive him into fociety, as well as fitted him with understanding and language to continue and enjoy it. And here, as

Mr. Payne allows, Our enquiries find a resting Origin of fo- place, our reason finds a hone. This insufficiciety.

ency of individuals fought a remedy in the affistance of others; mutual assistance brought on obligations, and obligations produced dependance. The diversity of age, strength, or talents, probably gave the first superiority over a promiscuous multitude (for parentage certainly gave the first fuperiority over individuals); this multiplied and varied, as the objects who possessed it; envy ever followed the possessor; and the consequences


broke out into strifes, feuds, and wars. So
* “ as foon as mankind enter into a state of
society, they lose the sense of their weakness;
the equality ceases, and then commences the
state of war." These ruinous effects in-
creased, as mankind was multiplied, and the
natural tendency to superiority urged indivi-
duals to reduce their neighbours into a state
of subjection: Still was man sensible of his
own insufficiency; and he applied in need to
his neighbour for aflistance. This gradually origin of na-
formed men into distinct bodies : each body
had their own respective views and interests;
and hence arose the difference of communities
or nations.

Societies then once formed, the interests of
the individuals forming them became united
in one coinmon centre; they dropped the
former sense of that weakness and indigence;
which had driven them into society, and af-
sumed a consequence (which I call political)
from the newly acquired strength of their cola
lected associates. The subsistence and pre-
servation of their owă community was their
first concern; to defend themselves against
the power and encroachments of others was
their next. Thus did their collective exi, Origin of go-

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* Montesq. Spirit of Laws, b. i. 26.


The rights of individuals in the state of na

to the community in that of

gencies enforce the necessity of order and government.

It is a postulatum, that when men formed

themselves into fociety, their natural rights ture transferred were not given up nor destroyed, but were

transferred only from the individual to the lociety.

body at large. Whatever the former had an indefeasible right to do in the state of nature, the latter has an indefeasible right to do in the state of society; and throughout this ftate of society, the general interest of the community is the principle, upon which the constitution and particular laws of each state must be founded. The private considerations of individuals were given up, in the exchange of our natural rights, for the improved liberties of civil intercourse and society.

* “ Men being, as has been said, by nature all free, equal, and independent, no one can be put out of his estate, and subjected to the political power of another, without his own confent. The only way, whereby any one divests himself of his natural liberty and puts on the bonds of civil society, is by agreeing with other men, to join and unite into a community, for their comfortable, fafe, and peaceable living one amongst ano

• Locke of civil Government, p. 194.


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