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INDUCTION

SCENE I.—" Before an Alehouse on a Heath." But soft, what sleepy fellow is this lies here?

Or is he dead, see one what he doth lack ? In the play of 'The Taming of a Shrew,' we Serv. My lord, 't is nothing but a drunken sleep; find the outline of Shakspere's most spirited His head is too heavy for his body, Induction. There are few things in our poet And he hath drunk so much that he can go no further.

Lord. Fie, how the slavish villain stinks of drink! which more decidedly bear the stamp of his Ho, sirrah, arise. What! so sound asleep?

peculiar genius than this fragment of a comedy, Go, take him up, and bear him to my house, if we may so call it; and his marvellous supe- And bear him easily for fear he wake,

And in my fairest chamber make a fire, riority over other writers is by nothing more and set a sumptuous banquet on the board, distinctly exhibited than by a comparison of And put my richest garments on his back, this with the parallel Induction in the other Then set him at the table in a chair:

When that is done, against he shall awake, play. It must be observed that the play to Let heavenly music play about him still. which Shakspere's was probably a rival, is by Go two of you away, and bear him hence, no means an ordinary performance. It is evi. And then I 'll tell you what I have devis'd; dently the work of a very ambitious poet. The But see in any case you wake him not.

[Ereunt Two with SLIE. passage, for example, in which the Lord directs Now take my cloak, and give me one of yours, his servants how to effect the transformation of All fellows now, and see you take me so: Sly is by no means deficient in force or har. To see his countenance when he doth awake,

For we will wait upon this drunken man, mony. But compare it with the similar passage And find himself clothed in such attire, of Shakspere, beginning

With heavenly music sounding in his ears,

And such a banquet set before his eyes, "Sirs, I will practise on this drunken man,"

The fellow sure will think he is in heaven : and we at once see the power which he possessed But we will [be] about him when he wakes, of adorning and elevating all that he touched. And see you call him lord at every word, It will be necessary for us to furnish several And thou his hawks, and hounds to hunt the deer,

And offer thou him his horse to ride abroad, examples of. The Taming of a Shrew.'

And I will ask what suits he means to wear, We first select the opening scene :

And whatsoe'er he saith, see you do not laugh,

But still persuade him that he is a lord.
Enter a TAPSTER, beating out of his doors Slie, drunken.
Tup. You whoreson drunken slave, you had best be gone

The players then enter, and Sander, a clown, And empty your drunken paunch somewhere else, is the principal speaker. The scene, when Slie For in this house thou shalt not rest to-night.

awakes in his lordly guise, succeeds. Compare

[Erit TAPSTER. Slie. Tilly vally, by crisee, Tapster, I 'll fese you anon.

it with the rich poetry and the even richer Fill's the other pot, and all 's paid for, look you. humour of Sly (reminding us, as Hazlitt well I do drink it of mine own instigation: [Omne bene. observes, of Sancho Panza). The Slie of the old Here I 'II lie a while: why, Tapster, I say, Fill's a fresh cushen here:

play is but a vulgar tinker, the lord and atten. Heigh ho, here's good warm lying. [He falls asleep. dants somewhat fustian ranters :Enter a NOBLEMAN and his Men from hunting.

Enter Two with a table and a banquet on it, and Two others Lord. Now that the gloomy shadow of the night,

with SLIE asleep in a chair, richly appareled, and the Longing to view Orion's drizzling looks,

music playing. Leaps from th' antarctic world unto the sky,

One. So, sirrah, now go call my lord, And dims the welkin with her pitchy breath,

And tell him that all things are ready as he will'd it. And darksome night o'ershades the crystal heavens,

Another. Set thou some wine upon the board, Here break we off our hunting for to-night.

And then I'll go fetch my lord presently. (Exit. Couple up the hounds, let us hie us home, And bid the huntsman see them meated well,

Enter the LORD and his Men. For they bave all deserv'd it well to-day.

Lord. How now? what! is all things ready?

Slie. For which lord ?

One. Yea, my lord.

with some of his favourites, he found lying upon Lord. Then sound the music, and I 'll wake him straight;

the stones a certain artisan that was very drunk, And see you do as erst I gave in charge. My lord! my lord! (he sleeps soundly,) my lord !

and that slept soundly. It pleased the prince, Slie. Tapster, give 's a little small ale: heigh-ho. in this artisan, to make trial of the vanity of Lord. Here's wine, my lord; the purest of the grape.

our life, whereof he had before discoursed with Lord. For your honour, my lord.

his familiar friends. He, therefore, caused this Slie. Who, 1? Am I a lord? Jesus, what fine apparel sleeper to be taken up, and carried into his have I got !

palace: he commands him to be laid in one of Lord. More richer far your honour hath to wear, And if it please you I will fetch them straight.

the richest beds; a rich night-cap to be given Wil. And if your honour please to ride abroad, him ; his foul shirt to be taken off, and to have I'll fetch your lusty steeds, more swift of pace

another put on him of fine holland. When as Than winged Pegasus in all his pride, That ran so swiftly over Persian plains.

this drunkard had digested his wine, and began Tom. And if your honour please to hunt the deer, to awake, behold there comes about his bed Your hounds stand ready coupled at the door,

pages and grooms of the Duke's chamber, who Who in running will o'ertake the roe, And make the long-breathed tiger broken-winded.

draw the curtains, and make many courtesies, Slie. By the mass, I think I am a lord indeed.

and, being bareheaded, ask him if it please What's thy name?

him to rise, and what apparel it would please Lord. Simon, an if it please your honour. Slie. Sim, that's much to say Simion, or Simon;

bim to put on that day.—They bring him rich Put forth thy hand, and fill the pot,

apparel. This new Monsieur, amazed at such Give me thy hand, Sim; am I a lord indeed ?

courtesy, and doubting whether he dreamed or Lord. Ay, my gracious lord, and your lovely lady Long time hath mourned for your absence here,

waked, suffered himself to be dressed, and led And now with joy behold where she doth come

out of the chamber. There came noblemen To gratulate your honour's safe return.

which saluted him with all honour, and conduct

him to the mass, where with great ceremony SCENE I.—“ What think you, if he were

they gave him the book of the Gospel and Pixe conveyed to bed ?"

to kiss, as they did usually to the Duke. From The story upon which this Induction is the mass, they bring him back into the palace ; founded in all probability had an Eastern he washes his hands, and sits down at the table origin. "The Sleeper Awakened,' of the 'Thou- well furnished. After dinner, the Great Chamsand and One Nights,' is conjectured by Mr. berlain commands cards to be brought, with a Lane, in the notes to his admirable translation, great sum of money. This Duke in imaginanot to be a genuine tale, its chief and best por- tion plays with the chief of the court. Then tion being “an historical anecdote related as a

they carry him to walk in the garden, and to fact.” Mr. Lane adds,—“The author by whom hunt the hare, and to hawk. They bring bim I have found the chief portion of this tale re- back unto the palace, where he sups in state. lated as an historical anecdote is El-Is-hakee Candles being lighted, the musicians begin to who finished his history shortly before the close play; and, the tables taken away, the gentlemen of the reign of the 'Osmánlee Sultán Mustafa, and gentlewomen fell to dancing. Then they apparently in the year of the Flight 1032 (A.D. played a pleasant comedy, after which followed 1623). He does not mention his authority; and a banquet, whereat they had presently store of whether it is related by an older historian, I ipocras and precious wine, with all sorts of do not know; but perhaps it is founded upon confitures, to this prince of the new impression, fact."

so as he was drunk, and fell soundly asleep. The following story, which has been extracted Thereupon the Duke commanded that he should by Malone from Goulart's ‘Admirable and be disrobed of all his rich attire. He was put Memorable Histories,' translated by E. Grime into his old rags, and carried into the same stone, 1607, is to be found in Heuterus, 'Rerum place where he had been found the night before ; Burgund.,' lib. iv. Malone thinks that it had where he spent that night. Being awake in the appeared in English before the old • Taming of morning, he began to remember what had a Shrew:'

happened before ;-he knew not whether it “Philip, called the Good, Duke of Burgundy, were true indeed, or a dream that had troubled in the memory of our ancestors, being at his brain. But in the end, after many disBruxelles with his court, and walking one night courses, he concludes that all was but a dream after supper through the streets, accompanied that had happened unto him ; and so entertained

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' his wife, his children, and his neighbours, with | lanes, and in its general aspect it is solitary and out any other apprehension.”

neglected. Of the “heath,” however, from The Shakspere Society, in their 'Papers,' which it partly takes its name, no traces revol. ii., have printed a much longer version of main, the land being wholly enclosed. this story, furnished from a fragment of a book containing - The Waking Man's Dreame.'

• SCENE II.-—" The fat ale-wife of Wincot."

We believe that in this passage, as in ‘Henry SCENE II.—Old Sly: son of Burton-heath."

IV., Part II.,' the place to which Shakspere Barton-on-the-Heath is a small village on the alludes is the hamlet of Wilmecote, anciently borders of Warwickshire and Oxfordshire. In Wylmyncote, about three miles to the north of Domesday-Book, according to Dugdale, it is Stratford, in the parish of Aston-Cantlow. written Bertone, so that the Burton of the Here lived Robert Arden, our poet's maternal text may be correct. It consists of some twenty grandfather; and his youngest daughter, the or thirty cottages, intermixed with a few small mother of Shakspere, inherited a house and farmn-houses, making together one short irregu- lands here situate. It is most probable, there| lar street. The church is small and peculiar in fore, that this hamlet, which Malone says its architectural arrangements; an old mansion (though he gives no authority) was also called near it of the Elizabethan era is the rectory. Wyncote, was in Shakspere's thoughts. WilmeThe village is situated two miles from Long cote is a straggling village with a few old houses, Compton, on the road to Stratford from Oxford, amongst whose secluded fields our poet no and the approaches on all sides are by lonely doubt passed many of his boyish hours.

ACT I.

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SCENE I.-—" Fair Padua, nursery of arts." dents who meet and accost in the "public During the ages when books were scarce and places,” and the servants who buy in the market : seminaries of learning few, men of accomplish-while there may be many an accomplished ment in literature, science, and art, crowded Bianca among the citizens' daughters who take into eities which were graced by universities. their walks along the arcades of the venerable Nothing could be more natural and probable streets. Influences of learning, love, and mirth, than that a tutor, like Licio, should repair to are still abroad in the place, breathing as they Padua from Mantua ;

do from the play.

The university of Padua was founded by " His name is Licio, born in Mantua;"

Frederick Barbarossa, early in the thirteenth or a student, like Lucentio from Pisa,

century, and was, for several hundred years, a " As he that leaves

favourite resort of learned men. Among other A shallow plash to plunge him in the deep;"

great personages, Petrarch, Galileo, and Christoor “a pedant,” (Act IV. Sc. 2.) turning aside pher Columbus studied there. The number of from the road to Rome and Tripoli, to spend “a students was once (we believe in Shakspere's Feek or two” in the great “ nursery of arts" of age) eighteen thousand. Now that universities the Italian peninsula. The university of Padua have multiplied, none are so thronged; but that was in all its glory in Shakspere's day; and it of Padua still numbers from fifteen hundred to is difficult to those who have explored the city twenty-three hundred. Most of the educated to resist the persuasion that the poet bimself youth of Lombardy pursue their studies there, had been one of the travellers who had come and numbers from a greater distance. “The from afar to look upon its seats of learning, if mathematics” are still a favourite branch of not to partake of its “ingenious studies." learning, with some “Greek, Latin, and other There is a pure Paduan atmosphere hanging languages ;” also natural philosophy and mediabout this play; and the visitor of to-day sees cine. History and morals, and consequently other Lucentios and Tranios in the knots of stu- politics, seem to be discouraged, if not omitted

VOL. I.

D D

The aspect of the university of Padua is now Emelia. And should my love, as erst did Hercules,

Attempt the burning raults of hell, somewhat forlorn, though its halls are respect

I would, with piteous looks and pleasing words, ably tenanted by students. Its mouldering As once did Orpheus with his harmony, courts and dim staircases are thickly hung with And ravishing sound of his melodious harp,

Entreat grim Pluto, and of him obtain the heraldic blazonry of the pious benefactors of

That thou might'st go, and safe return again. the institution. The number of these coats-of

Philema. And should my love, as erst Leander did, arms is so vast as to convey a strong impression attempt to swim the boiling Hellespont of what the splendour of this seat of learning

For Hero's love, no towers of brass should hold,

But I would follow thee through those raging floods, must once have been.—(M.)

With locks disshever'd, and my breast all bare:

With bended knees upon Abidae's shore, 6 SCENE I. "fruitful Lombardy,

would, with smoky sighs and brinish tears,

Importune Neptune and the watery gods,
The pleasant garden of great Italy."

To send a guard of silver-scaled dolphins,
The rich plain of Lombardy is still like “a With sounding Tritons, to be our cou voy,

And to transport us safe unto the shore, pleasant garden,” and appears as if it must ever

Whilst I would hang about thy lovely neck, continue to be so, sheltered as it is by the vast Redoubling kiss on kiss upon thy cheeks, barrier of the Alps, and fertilised by the streams And with our pastime still the swelling waves

Eme. Should Polidor, as Achilles did, which descend from their glaciers. From the

Only employ himself to follow arms, walls of the Lombard cities, which are usually Like to the warlike Amazonian queen, reared on rising grounds, the prospects are en

Penthesilea, Hector's paramour,

Who toild the bloody Pyrrhus, murd'rous Greek, chanting, presenting a fertile expanse, rarely

I'll thrust myself amongst the thickest throngs, disfigured by fences, intersected by the great Via

And with my utmost force assist my love. Æmilia-one long avenue of mulberry trees; gleaming here and there with transparent lakes, & SCENE I.—The Presenters above speak." and adorned with scattered towns, villas, and

In the second scene of the Induction, the churches, rising from among the vines. Corn, original stage-direction is “ Enter aloft the oil, and wine, are everywhere ripening together; drunkard with attendants,” &c. In the same and not a speck of barrenness is visible, from the northern Alps and eastern Adriatic, to the

way, in the parting scene of Romeo and Juliet, unobstructed southern horizon, where the plain and Juliet aloft.” In the illustrations of the

we have a similar direction,—“Enter Romeo melts away in sunshine.-(M.)

third act of Romeo and Juliet will be found a 7 SCENE I.

description and representation of the construe I saw sweet beauty in her face,

tion of the balcony, or upper stage, of our old Such as the daughter of Agenor had," &c.

theatres, to which these directions refer. There are in this play a few delicate touches

SCENE II.— "Nay, 't is no matter what he 'leges of mythological images, as in the passage

in Latin." before us.

But the old ‘Taming of a Shrew' is crammed full of the learning of a university stu

“Petrucio," says Steevens," has been just dent, paraded with an ostentation totally in speaking Italian to Hortensio, which Grumio consistent with dramatic propriety. The classi

mistakes for the other language." Monck cal allusions introduced by Shakspere in this and

Mason has a delicious remark on this:-* Mr. other comedies are just such as a gentleman Steevens appears to have been a little abent might use without pedantry. But the following when he wrote his note. He forgot that Italian passage from the old play (and there are many of

was Grumio's native language, and that there a similar character) is as far removed from the fore he could not possibly mistake it for Latin." language of nature as it is from that of high To this Steevens rejoins, “I was well aware that scholarship. It is nothing beyond a school

Italian was Grumio's native language, but 133 boy's exercise :

not, nor am now, certain of our author's atten

tion to this circumstance, because his Italians Philema. Not for great Neptune, no, nor Jove himself, Will Philema leave Aurelius' love:

necessarily speak English throughout the play, Could he instal me empress of the world,

with the exception of a few colloquial sentences." Or make me queen and guidress of the heaven,

But if our author did attend “to this circumYet would I not exchange my love for his: Thy company is poor Philera's heaven,

stance," he could not have made Grumio And without thee heaven were hell to me.

blunder more naturally. The “ Italians neces

O yes,

sarily speak English throughout the play;"– provided she gave him the key to a riddle, upon and when they speak "a few colloquial sen- the solution of which his life depended. tences" of Italian, they speak them as an Eng

Il SCENE II. lishman would speak that or any other foreign

Were she as rough language. To make the citizens and scholars of

As are the swelling Adriatic seas." Padua speak English at all is—to test poetry The Adriatic, though well land-locked, and in by laws which do not apply to it—a violation summer often as still as a mirror, is subject to of propriety. But that violation admitted, the severe and sudden storms. The great sea-wall mistake of Grumio is perfectly in keeping. which protects Venice, distant eighteen miles

from the city, and built, of course, in a direction ** SCENE II.—"Be she as foul as was Florentius' where it is best sheltered and supported by the

islands, is, for the three miles abreast of Paleslove."

trina, a vast work for width and loftiness; yet it In Gower, ‘De Confessione Amantis,' we have is frequently surmounted in winter by “the the description of a deformed hag whom Florent, swelling Adriatic seas," which pour over it into a young knight, had bound himself to marry, the Lagunes.—(M.)

ACT II. 13 SCENE I.—“And this small packet of Greek Fer. Twenty good morrows to my lovely Kate. and Latin books."

Kate. You jest, I am sure; is she yours already ?

Fer. I tell thee, Kate, I know thou lov'st me well. It is not to be supposed that the daughters of

Kate. The devil you do! who told you so? Baptista were more learned than other ladies of Must wed, and bed, and marry bonny Kate

.

Fer. My mind, sweet Kate, doth say I am the man, their city and their time.

Kate. Was ever seen so gross an ass as this? Under the walls of universities, then the only

Fer. Ay, to stand so long, and never get a kiss.

Kate. Hands off, I say, and get you from this place; eentres of intellectual light, knowledge was

Or I will set my ten commandments in your face. shed abroad like sunshine at noon, and was Fer. I prithee do, Kate; they say thou art a shrew, naturally more or less enjoyed by all. At the And I like thee the better, for I would have thee so. time when Shakspere and the university of

Kate. Let go my hand for fear it reach your ear.

Fer. No, Kate, this hand is mine, and I thy love. Padua flourished, the higher classes of women Kate. I' faith, sir, no, the woodcock wants his tail. were not deemed unfitted for a learned educa- Fer. But yet his bill will serve if the other fail. tion. Queen Elizabeth, Lady Jane Grey, the

Alf. How now, Ferando? what, my daughter?

Fer. She's willing, sir, and loves me as her life. daughters of Sir Thomas More, and others, will Kate. "T is for your skin, then, but not to be your wife. at once occur to the reader's recollection in Alf. Come hither, Kate, and let me give thy hand proof of this. “Greek, Latin, and other lan

To him that I have chosen for thy love,

And thou to-morrow shall be wed to him. guages," "the mathematics,” and “to read

Kate. Why father, what do you mean to do with me, philosophy," then came as naturally as “music" To give me thus unto this brainsick man, within the scope of female education. Any That in his mood cares not to murder me? association of pedantry with the training of And yet I will consent and marry him,

(She turns aside and speaks. the young ladies of this play is in the preju. (For 1, methinks, have lived too long a maid,) dices of the reader, not in the mind of the And match him too, or else his manhood 's good.

Alf. Give me thy hand; Ferando loves thee well, poet-(M.)

And will with wealth and ease inaintain thy state.

Here Ferando, take her for thy wife,
13 SCENE I.—Good morrow, Kate." And Sunday next shall be our wedding-day.

Fer. Why so, did I not tell thee I should be the man? The first scene between Petrucio and Kate is Father, I leave my lovely Kate with you: founded upon a similar scene in “The Taming For I must hie me to my country-house

Provide yourselves against our marriage-day, of a Shrew. Our readers may amuse them- In haste, to see provision may be made selves by a comparison of Shakspere and his To entertain my Kate when she doth come. anonymous rival :

Alf. Do so; come, Kate, why dost thou look

So sad? Be merry, wench, thy wedding-day's at hand; Ais. Ha, Kate, come hither, wench, and list to me: Son, fare you well, and see you keep your promise. Use this gentleman friendly as thou canst.

(Ereunt Alfonso and KATE.

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