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14 SCENE I. “I will unto Venice,
thing sooner than their pictures. The " tents To buy apparel gainst the wedding-day."
and canopies,” and “ Turkey cushions boss'd with pearl,” now no longer seen, were appro
priate to the days when Cyprus, Candia, and My house within the city
the Morea were dependencies of Venice, seat• Is richly furnished with plate and gold,” &c.
tering their productions through the easter If Shakspere had not seen the interior of cities of Italy, and actually establishing many Italian houses when he wrote this play, he must of their customs in the singular capital of the have possessed some effectual means of knowing Venetian dominion. After Venice, Padua was and realising in his imagination the particulars naturally first served with importations of of such an interior. Every educated man might luxury. be aware that the extensive commerce of Venice Venice was, and is still, remarkable for its , must bring within the reach of the neighbour jewellery, especially its fine works in gold. ing cities a multitude of articles of foreign “Venice gold” was wrought into “valance"production and taste. But there is a particu- tapestry-by the needle, and was used for every larity in his mention of these articles which variety of ornament, from chains as fine as if strongly indicates the experience of an eye- made of woven hair, to the most massive form witness. The “cypress chests,” and “ivory in which gold can be worn.
At the present coffers,” rich in antique carving, are still exist- day, the traveller who walks round the Piazza ing, with some remnants of “ Tyrian tapestry," of St. Mark's is surprised at the large proper to carry back the imagination of the traveller tion of jewellers’ shops, and at the variety and to the days of the glory of the republic. The elegance of the ornaments they contain,-the plate and gold” are, for the most part, gone, shell necklaces, the jewelled rings and tiaras, to supply the needs of the impoverished aristo- and the profusion of gold chains.—(M.) cracy, who (to their credit) will part with every
ACT III. 15 SCENE I.—" Gamut I am, the ground of all 16 SCENE II._" His horse hipped," &e. accord,” &c.
Shakspere describes the imperfections and GAMUT, or, more correctly, Gammut, is, in the unsoundness of a horse with as much precision sense here intended, the lowest note of the as if he had been bred in a farrier's shop. In musical scale, established in the eleventh cen- the same way, in the 'Venus and Adonis," he is tury by a Benedictine monk, Guido, of Arezzo equally circumstantial in summing up the in Tuscany. To sound (G, the first line in qualities of a noble courser :the base,) he gave the name of the third letter
“ Round-hoof'd, short-jointed, fetlocks shag and long, in the Greek alphabet, r (Gamma), cutting off Broad breast, full eye, small head, and nostrils wide, the final vowel, and affixing the syllable ut.
High crest, short ears, straight legs and passing strong,
Thin mane, thick tail, broad buttock, tender hide." This, and the other syllables, re, mi, fa, &c., names assigned by Guido to the notes of the 17 SCENE II.—"A health, quoth he." diatonic scale, were suggested to him by the
It was the universal custom, in our poet's following verses, which form the first stanza of time, at the marriage of the humblest as well as a hymn, by Paulus Diaconus, to St. John the the highest, for a bride-cup, sometimes called Baptist :
"a knitting-cup,” to be quaffed in church. At “ Ut queant laxis resonare fibris,
the marriage of Philip and Mary, in Winchester Mira gestorum fumuli tuorum, Solve polluti labii reatum,
cathedral, in 1554, this part of the ceremony is
thus described :—"The trumpets sounded, and The tune to which this hymn was anciently they both returned to their traverses in the sung in the Catholic church, ascends by the quire, and there remained until mass was done; diatonic intervals G, A, B, C, D, and e, at the at which time wine and sops were hallow'd and syllables here printed in italics.
delivered to them both.” (Leland's Collectanca.)
Sanctæ Joannes !"
In Laneham's Letter (1575), describing the
Kate. Not for me, for I will not go.
San. The ostler will not let me have him; you owe tenentertainments at Kenilworth, we have an ac
pence count of a real rustic wedding, in which there for his meat, and sixpence for stuffing my mistress' saddle. was borne before the bride, The bride-cup, Fer. Here, villain, go pay him straight. formed of a sweet sucket barrel, a fair turned
San. Shall I give them another peck of lavender?
Fer. Out, slave! and bring them presently to the door. post set to it, all seemingly besilvered and
Alf. Why, son, I hope at least you 'll dine with us. parcel-gilt.” Laneham adds that “the busy San. I pray you, master, let's stay till dinner be done. fies flocked about the bride-cup for the sweet
Fer. Zounds, villain, art thou here yet? (Erit SANDER
Come, Kate, our dinner is provided at home. ness of the sucket that it savoured on."
Kate. But not for me, for here I mean to dine:
I'll have my will in this as well as you ; 1° SCENE II.-" I must away to-day,” &c. Though you in madding mood would leave your friends, We subjoin the parallel scene in the earlier Despite of you I 'll tarry with them still.
Fer. Ay, Kate, so thou shalt, but at some other time: play :
When as thy sisters here shall be espoused, | Fo. Father, farewell, my Kate and I must home. Then thou and I will keep our wedding-day Sirrah, go make ready my horse presently.
In better sort than now we can provide; | AJ. Your horse! what, son, I hope you do but jest; For here I promise thee before them all, I am sure you will not go so suddenly.
We will ere long return to them again. Kate. Let him go or tarry, I am resolved to stay, Come, Kate, stand not on terms, we will away; 1 And not to travel on my wedding-day.
This is my day, to-morrow thou shalt rule, Fa. Tut, Kate, I tell thee we must needs go home. And I will do whatever thou command'st. Villain, hast thou saddled my horse?
Gentlemen, farewell, we'll take our leaves, San. Which horse—your curtall ?
It will be late, before that we come home. Fo. Zounds! you slave, stand you prating here !
[Ereunt FERANDO and Kate. Saddle the bay gelding for your mistress.
ACT IV. SCENE I.—“Curt. Who is that calls so coldly? as it would have been shaped, by the composer Gru. A piece of ice?"
himself, in the present day, merely changing the AT Venice, şurrounded by the sea, the tempera- tenor clef into the treble, and adding, as the corture is rarely below 6° Reaumur-18° Fahren- rection of what most likely is a clerical error, heit; but the cold is much greater on the main. a sharp to the c in the third staff. land, even at its nearest points; and at Padua, from which Petrucio's country-house was obvi. 1
2 ously not very distant, it is frequently so extreme as to justify all Grumio's lamentations. During a considerable period of the winter of
Jacke, boy, 1838, nearly 200 men were daily employed in breaking up the ice on the Brenta for the pas- 2
3 sage of boats to Venice ; and piles of ice, of great height, might be seen till spring.--(M.)
* SCENE I.—“ Jack, boy ! ho, boy !”
-4 The first words of a Round for four voices,
Let us ring now for her knell, printed, in 1609, in a musical work, now become exceedingly rare, entitled • Pammelia, Musickes
1 Miscellanie ; or Mixed Varietie of pleasant Roundelayes and delightful Catches,' &c.
dong, ding, dong, Malone gives a rather inaccurate copy of this, and in the enigmatic form which it takes in
21 SCENE I.-" Where be these knaves," dc. Pammelia, without seeming to be aware that it This scene is one of the most spirited and is printed in that work, for he cites Sir John characteristic in the play; and we see a joyous Hawkins as his authority, in whose · History of revelling spirit shining through Petrucio's Music, however, it not only does not appear, affected vioience. The Ferando of the old but is not even alluded to. We here insert it ; Taming of a Shrew' is a coarse bully, without as remarkable as the resemblances. found in Shakspere, begins thus :" It was a friar of orders gray
the fine animal spirits and the real self-com- San. You say true, indeed. Why, look you, mistress, mand of our Petrucio. The following is the
what say you to a piece of beef and mustard now?
Kate. Why, I say 't is excellent meat; canst thou help parallel scene in that play; and it is remarkable
me to some ? how closely Shakspere copies the incidents :- San. Ay, I could help you to some, but that I doubt the
mustard is too choleric for you. But what say you to a Enter FERANDO and Kate.
sheep's head and garlic? Fer. Now welcome, Kate. Where's these villains
Kate. Why, anything, I care not what it be. Here? What, not supper yet upon the board,
San. Ay, but the garlic I doubt will make your breath Nor table spread, nor nothing done at all ?
stink, and then my master will curse me for letting you Where's that villain that I sent before ?
eat it. But what say you to a fat capon? San. Now, adsum, sir.
Kate. That's meat for a king, sweet Sander, help me to Fer. Come hither, you villain, I 'll cut your nose. some of it. You rogue, help me off with my boots; will 't please San. Nay by'rlady! then 't is too dear for us; we must You to lay the cloth ? Zounds! the villain
not meddle with the king's meat. Hurts my foot: pull easily, I say, yet again!
Kate. Out, villain ! dost thou mock me? [He beats them all. Take that for thy sauciness.
[She beats kim. [They cover the board, and fetch in the meat. Zounds, burnt and scorch'd! Who dress'd this meat? Grey has been hastily betrayed into a remark Wil. Forsooth, John Cook.
upon this scene in Shakspere, which is singularly (He throws down the table, and meat, and all,
opposed to his usual accuracy :-“This seems to and beats them all. Fer. Go, you villains, bring me such meat!
be borrowed from Cervantes' account of Sancho Out of my sight, I say, and bear it hence:
Panza's treatment by his physician when sham Come, Kate, we 'll have other meat provided.
governor of the island of Barataria." The first Is there a fire in my chamber, sir? Sun. Ay, forsooth. (Exeunt FERANDO and Kate. part of 'Don Quixote' was not published till
[Manent Serving-men, and eat up all the meat. 1605; and our poet unquestionably took the ' Tom. Zounds ! I think of my conscience my master 's
scene from the old "Taming of a Shrew,' which mad since he was married. Wil. I laughed, what a box he gave Sander for pulling
was published in 1594. off his boots. Enter FERANDO again.
24 SCENE III.—"Come, tailor, let us see these San. I hurt his foot for the nonce, man.
ornaments," &c. Fer. Did you so, you damned villain ? (He beats them all out again.
The resemblance of this scene to the scene This humour must I hold me to awhile,
in the old play, in which the Shrew is tried to To bridle and hold back my headstrong wife,
the utmost by her husband's interference with With curbs of hunger, ease, and want of sleep; Nor sleep, nor meat shall she enjoy to-night.
her dress, is closer than in almost any other I 'll mew her up as men do mew their hawks,
part. The "face not me,” and “brave not me," And make her gently come unto the lure:
of Grumio, are literal transcripts of the elder Were she as stubborn, or as full of strength, As was the Thracian horse Alcides tamed,
jokes. In the speech of Petrucio, after the That king Egeus fed with flesh of men,
tailor is driven out, we have three lines, which Yet would I pull her down, and make her come,
are the same, with the slightest alteration, from As hungry hawks do fly unto their lure.
the following : 22 SCENE I.
“Come, Kate, we now will go see thy father's house, “It was the friar of orders gray,” dc.
Even in these honest mean habiliments;
Our purses shall be rich, our garments plain." Percy's poem,
* The Friar of Orders Gray,' | And yet, in spirit and taste, the differences are which is partly made up of fragments of ballads
Enter FERANDO and Kate, and SANDER. Walk'd forth to tell his beads."
San. Master, the haberdasher has brought my mistress
home her cap here. 23 SCENE III.—“No, no; forsooth, I dare not
Fer. Come hither, sirrah: what have you there? for my life.”
Haberdasher. A velvet cap, sir, an it please you. We subjoin the parallel scene from the other
Fer. Who spoke for it? didst thou, Kate?
Kate. What if I did? Come hither, sirrah, give me the play :
cap: I 'll see if it will fit me. [She sets it on her head. Enter SANDER and his Mistress.
Fer. O monstrous ! why, it becomes thee not: San. Come, mistress.
Let me see it, Kate. Here, sirrah, take it hence, Kate. Sander, I prithee help me to some meat,
This cap is out of fashion quite. I am so faint that I can scarcely stand.
Kate. The fashion is good enough: belike you mean to San. Ay, marry, mistress, but you know my master has make a fool of me. given me a charge that you must eat nothing, but that Fer. Why, true, he means to make a fool of thee, which he himself giveth you.
To have thee put on such a curtal'd cap. Kate. Why, man, thy master needs never know it. Sirrah, begone with it.
Enter the Tailor with a Gown.
Tailor. I made it as the note bade me. San. Here is the tailor, too, with my mistress' gown. San. I say the note lies in his throat, and thou too an Fer. Let me see it, tailor: what, with cuts and jags?
thou sayest it. Zounds, thou villain, thou hast spoiled the gown!
Tailor. Nay, nay, ne'er be so hot, sirrah, for I fear you Tailor. Why, sir, I made it as your man gave me direc- not. tion. You may read the note here.
San. Dost thou hear, Tailor, thou hast braved many Fer. Come hither, sirrah. Tailor, read the note.
men: brave not me. Thou hast faced many menTailor. Item, a fair round compassed cape.
Tailor. Well, sir? San. Ay, that's true.
San. Face not me: I'll neither be faced nor braved at Tailor. And a large trunk sleeve.
thy hands, I can tell thee. San. That 's a lie, master, I said two trunk sleeves.
Kate. Come, come, I like the fashion of it well enough ; Fer. Well, sir, go forward.
Here's more ado than needs; I 'll have it, ay, Tailor. Item, a loose-bodied gown.
And if you do not like it, hide your eyes; San. Master, if ever I said loose-bodied gown, sew me in a I think I shall have nothing by your will. seam, and beat me to death with a bottom of brown thread.
ACT V. * SCENE I.—“A sail-maker in Bergamo." may be its form, it is “ill-seeming—bereft of It seems rather odd to select sail-making as the beauty.”—(M.) occupation of a resident in a town so far from
27 SCENE II.—“Exeunt." the sea as Bergamo. It is possible, however, that the sails required for the navigation of the Shakspere's play terminates without disposing Lakes Lecco and Garda might have been made of Christopher Sly. The actors probably dealt in the intermediate town of Bergamo. I looked with him as they pleased after his most characthrongh the place for a sail-maker; but the teristic speech at the end of the second scene of nearest approach I could find to one was a Act I. The old "Taming of a Shrew' concludes maker of awnings, &c.—(M.)
Then enter two bearing of SLIE in his oron apparel again, * SCENE II.-"A woman moved is like a
and leave him where they found him, and then go out; fountain troubled.”
then enters the TAPSTER. The fountain is the favourite of the many
Tap. Now that the darksome night is overpast,
And dawning day appears in crystal sky, ornaments of the court of an Italian palazzo. Now must I haste abroad : but soft, who's this? It is important for its utility during the heats What Slie? O wondrous ! hath he lain here all night?
I'll wake him; I think he's starv'd by this, of summer; and such arts are lavished upon
But that his belly was so stuff d with ale. this species of erection as make it commonly a
What, now, Slie, awake, for shame. very beautiful object. It is worth the trouble Slie. Sim, give's some more wine: what, all the players of ascending a campanile in an Italian city in gone? Am not I a lord ?
Tap. A lord with a murrain : come, art thou drunken summer, merely to look down into the shady still ? courts of the surrounding houses, where, if such Slie. Who's this? Tapster! O Lord, sirrrah, I have houses be of the better sort, the fountains in
had the bravest dream to-night that ever thou heardst in
all thy life. the centre of the courts may be seen brimming
Tap. Yea, marry, but you had best get you home, and spouting, so as to refresh the gazer through For your wife will curse you for dreaming here to-night. the imagination. The birds that come to the
Slie. Will she? I know now how to tame a shrew;
I dreamt upon it all this night till now, basin to drink, and the servants of the house to
And thou hast waked me out of the best dream draw water, form pictures which are a perpetual That ever I had in my life: but I 'll to my wife presently, gratification to the eye. The clearness of the And tame her too if she anger me.
Tap. Nay, tarry, Slie, for I 'll go home with thee, pool is the first requisite to the enjoyment of
And hear the rest that thou hast dreamt to night. the fountain, without which, however elegant
COSTUME. The Italy of Shakspere's own time is intended some interesting local illustrations, fwhich to be presented in this play. So thoroughly are greatly strengthen the conjecture that our poet the manners Italian, that a belief, and not an had founded his accurate allusions in this play unreasonable one, has grown up, that Shakspere / to Italian scenes and customs upon personal visited Italy before its composition. To a observation. These illustrations are distinhighly-valued friend, we are much indebted for guished by the initial (M).
The scene of the comedy lies in Padua and its in bridal array very prevalent throughout Euneighbourhood ; in illustration of the costume of rope during the middle ages. The Induction which famous city we give the figure of a lady enables us to introduce an English nobleman of from the pages of J. Wiegel, and that of a Pa- Shakspere's day in his hunting garb, with his duan bride, from Vecellio's work. The principal attendants, from The Noble Art of Venerie,' characteristic of the latter is the hair hanging printed in 1611. down the back in natural profusion ; a fashion