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respect for their sovereign and nobles; Whig, as free to have opinions of his own; Radical, as hand in hand with the people he professes to serve.

High abilities and rectitude of principles, in a politician, cast a wavering feeling upon our minds, we would fain that all feuds were over; that by no name, save the people's friend, should the politician ever be distinguished. But this can never be; men of equal abilities have different opinions,— Falkland and Fairfax are examples of this kind. Were Royalty and the House of Lords abolished, there would be Lords of the government council, not Lords by names, not Tories by surname perhaps, but man over man has been the law of Nature, ever since the first murderer wished to get rid of his brother.

Peter the Great very wisely remarked on his human weakness, “I can reform my people, but how shall I reform myself.”

Some men would thus reform the condition of the people, but cannot quell that ambition which causes them to embody themselves under that distinctive appellation Radicals. Perhaps no class has been so gradually extinguished as High Toryism. When we really take the meaning of Tory and Whig as originally invented, we must almost believe that Whig, in our days, is much the same as Tory in the reign of Anne, and Radical may be supposed to be the Whig of that period.

Whig in Anne's time was a name signifying an adherence to monarchy, but perfect tolerance of liberty— Tory was for absolute monarchy.

Although we are for monarchy, yet absolute monarchy may bear many delineations. Our Sovereign is the head of the nation, but our glorious Parliament is her right hand, the people her left; in fact, High Toryism is as ridiculous as Democratical Chartism.

There is something so exciting, so full of a certain, or rather an uncertain, degree of popularity, in Radicalism, that it is particularly dangerous for young politicians to consider the point unless they distinguish most widely between moderate Radicals and Democrats. Let a king be dethroned for oppressing the people, and the heads of the populace will most likely be Radicals in the first onset of revolt, but when the love of power takes possession of the leaders they become Democrats under various names.

The Parliament men in England, and the Girondins in France, were the moderate Radicals, in the sense in which we understand the latter, Cromwell and Robespierre became

the Democrats.

And thus, alas ! with all or most things of terrestrial import, moderation is so borne down by excitement, ambition so soon


takes the place of philanthropy. Through the whole of our varied globe, revolutions which have at first, at least, the shadow of justice, lose at length all aim, save that thirst for opposition which throws a Babel-like confusion on the original intention.

It is in vain that man sets forth on his political pilgrimage with the intention of keeping from all party, he could not then be a politician, but moderation is the best guide and the surest road to honour. The Church, the Law, the Army, all convince us of this truth; and although Parliament might be compared to a vast mirror reflecting only one object—the people, the mirror will be obscured by specks which no hand can eradicate without ranging himself on some side or another, to enter into necessary arrangements for removing the obstacle. Philanthropy, apart from all party-feeling,

must eventually degenerate into a party, for Radicals do, in fact, profess philanthropy in its widest branch; but how selfishly perverted even the love of kindred and country may be, is too well known a fact to require discussing.

However, let us for argument sake, take the strongest point on record.

Napoleon was in the first onset a philanthropist. Regal authority had been set at nought in the person of Louis the Sixteenth

—when lo ! amongst the heated spirit around arose one seemingly free mind, ready to leave his Corsican home and take the French sufferers by the hand—amidst the conventional fury, that clear, discerning voice cried out “ Peace.But not long satisfied with the office 'of Mediator, the Corporal became Consul, King, and lastly Emperor-Emperor of those realms his courage had made his

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