The Rumen and Its Microbes
The Rumen and Its Microbes is a contribution to the ecology of this important microbial habitat. Relatively few microbial habitats have been subjected to a thorough quantitative ecological analysis. The rumen fermentation is peculiarly suitable because of its relatively constant and continuous nature and because of the very rapid rates of conversion of organic matter. Although analysis of the ruminant-microbe symbiosis is still far from complete, knowledge is sufficient for formulation of principles and for identification and measurement of important parameters.
The first eight chapters of the book include a description of the rumen and its microbes, their activities, and the extent of these activities. This basic biology provides a framework in which applications to agriculture can be evaluated. These applications are discussed in the last four chapters: host metabolism, variation in the rumen, possible practical applications, and abnormalities in rumen function.
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CHAPTER III The Rumen Protozoa
CHAPTER IV Ruminant Functions Related to Rumen Microbial Activity
CHAPTER V The Rumen as a Continuous Fermentation System
CHAPTER VI Quantities of Carbohydrate Fermentation Products
CHAPTER VII Conversions of Nitrogenous Materials
CHAPTER VIII Vitamins and Minerals
abomasum acetate agar alfalfa alfalfa hay amino acids ammonia amount anaerobic Annison assimilated Bacteroides Bacteroides succinogenes Balch Blaxter bloat blood bovis Bryant butyrate Butyrivibrio carbohydrate carbon dioxide casein cattle cells cellulolytic cellulose cellulose digestion concentration containing cows Diplodinium Dogiel dorsal dry matter Entodinium enzymes experiments factors fatty acids feed fermentation fermentation products fiber forage formed glucose grain growth hemicellulose holotrichs host Hungate hydrogen increased incubation ingested ketosis lactate legumes lignin Magnification material medium metabolism methane microbial microorganisms milliliter nitrogen numbers Nutr nutrients nutritional obtained occur omasal omasum Ophryoscolex oxygen particles Phillipson propionate protein protozoa pure cultures quantity ration reticulum rumen bacteria rumen contents rumen fermentation rumen fluid rumen microorganisms rumen wall ruminant Ruminococcus saliva sample sheep soluble species starch strains Streptococcus bovis substrate succinate sugar synthesis Table tion tube turnover rate umoles urea utilization VFA's vitamins vitro