Universals begins with a taxonomy of extreme nominalist, moderate nominalist, and realist positions on properties, outlining the way each handles the phenomena of predication, resemblance, and abstract reference. The debate about properties and philosophical naturalism is also examined. Different forms of extreme nominalism and minimalist realism are critiqued. Later chapters defend a traditional realist view of universals and examine the objections to realism from various infinite regresses, the difficulties in stating identity conditions for properties, and problems with realist accounts of knowledge of abstract objects. The debate between Platonists and Aristotelians is examined in the context of the relationship between properties and an adequate theory of existence. The book's final chapter explores the problem of individuating particulars. Universals makes a difficult topic accessible while maintaining the sophistication of argument required by a more advanced readership, providing an authoritative treatment of the subject for both students and scholars.
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Extreme nominalism and properties
Moderate nominalism and properties
properties are abstract objects
issues and objections
The individuation of particulars
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abstract abstract objects abstract particulars accept According affairs analysis appears argued argument Armstrong assay assertion bare particulars basic called Campbell Campbell's causal Chapter claim clear clearly colour complex concrete particulars consider constituent dependent distinction entities essence exact similarity exactly example exemplified exist expressed extreme fact fails further given green grounded hold Husserl identical important individuation instances internal relations intuition involves issues kind knowledge latter least means metaphysical moderate nominalism moderate nominalist moments Moreover naturalist nature necessarily notion objects offered ontology philosophers Plato position possible world predication present primitive problem properties pure realist red things reference regarding regress reject relation relevant require resemblance response Secondly seems sense simple Socrates sort space spatial spatiotemporal specific stand substance theory things tion traditional tropes true unity universals Wolterstorff