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FAL. Well, I am your theme: you have the prison, by gar, a boy; it is not Anne Page: by start of me; I am dejected; I am not able
gar, I am cozened. to answer the Welsh flannel: ignorance itself Mrs. Page. Why, did you take her in green ?* is a plummet* o'er me: use me as you will.
Caius. Ay, be gar, and 'tis a boy: be gar, I'll FORD. Marry, sir, we'll bring you to Windsor, raise all Windsor.
[Erit Cairs. to one master Brook, that you have cozened of Ford. This is strange: who hath got the right money, to whom you should have been a pander: Aane? orer and above that you have suffered, I think, Page. My heart misgives me:
here comes to repay that money will be a biting affliction. master Fenton.
Page. Yet be cheerful, knight : thou shalt eat a posset(2) to-night at my house; where I will desire
Enter FENTON and ANNE. thee to laugh at my wife, that now laughs at thee: tell her, master Slender hath married her daughter.
IIow now, master Fenton ? Mrs. PAGE. Doctors doubt that: if Anne Page
ANNE. Pardon, good father! good my mother,
pardon! be my daughter, she is, by this, doctor Caius' wife.
Page. Now, mistress ! how chance you went not with master Slender ?
Mrs. Page. Why went you not with master Enter SLENDER.
doctor, maid ? Slen. Whoo, ho! ho ! father Page!
FENT. You do amazeher: hear the truth of it. Page. Son! how now ? how now, son ? have
You would have married her most shamefully, you: despatched ?
Where there was no proportion held in love. SLEx. Despatched !-I'll make the best in The truth is, she and I, long since contracted, Gloucestershire know on't ; would I were banged, Are now so sure, that nothing can dissolve us. la, else.
The offence is holy, that she hath committed : Page. Of what, son ?
And this deceit loses the name of craft, SLEN. I came yonder at Eton to marry mistress
Of disobedience, or unduteous title ; Anne Page, and she's a great lubberly boy: if it
Since therein she doth evitate and shun had not been i' th' church, I would have swinged A thousand irreligious cursed hours, him, or he should have swinged me. If I did not
Which forced marriage would have brought upon think it had been Anne Page, would I might never
her. stir, and 'tis a post-master's boy.
FORD. Stand not amaz’d: here is no remedy:Page. Upon my life then you took the wrong.
In love, the heavens themselves do guide the state; SLEN. What need you tell me that? I think so,
Money buys lands, and wives are sold by fate. when I took a boy for a girl: if I had been
FAL. I am glad, though you have ta'en a special married to him, for all he was in woman's apparel,
stand (3) to strike at me, that your arrow hath I would not have had him.
glanced. PAGE. Why, this is your own folly. Did not I
Page. Well, what remedy ?(4) Fenton, heaven tell you, how you should know my daughter by her
give thee joy! garments ?
What cannot be eschew'd, must be embrac'd. Slen. I went to her in white,* and cried, mum, FAL. When night-dogs run, all sorts of deer and she cried budget, as Anne and I had appointed;
are chas'd. and yet it was not Anne, but a post-master's boy.
Mrs. PAGE. Well, I will muse no further:Mrs. Page. Good George, be not angry:
master Fenton, knew of your purpose ; turned my daughter into
Heaven give you many, many merry days !green; † and, indeed, she is now with the doctor at Good husband, let us every one go home, the deanery, and there married.
And laugh this sport o'er by a country fire ;
FORD. Let it be so.—Sir John,
To master Brook you yet shall hold your word; Caius. Vere is mistress Page? By gar, For he, tv-night, shall lie with mistress Ford. cozened; I ha' married un garçon, a boy ; un
(*) Old text, while.
(*) Old text, green.
(+) Old text, white. a Ignorance itself is a plummet o'er me:) Farmer conjectured *hat plummet was a misprint for planet; but the following passage, in Shirley's “Love in a Maze," A V.Sc, 2, supports the old :cading :
** Yongrave, how is't, man? what! art melancholy?
What hath hung plummels on thy nimble soul,
What sleepy rod hath charm'd thy mounting spirit ?" b Amaze her :) Confound her by these questions.
c Unduteous title;) Mr. Collier's annotator reads, very speciously, “ unduicuus quile."
old foe, Sir Thomas Lucy, and it is conjecturable that the “ dozen white luces,” which were borne by one branch of the Lucy family, may have implied the salt- rater pike, and have been an older scutcheon than the * three lucies hauriant" of the Warwickshire branch.
(1) SCENE I.—Sir Hugh.) The title of Sir was probably at one time applied to priests and curates without distinction, but subsequently became appropriated only to the inferior clergy, such as are called Readers. It was no more than the translation of Dominus, the academical distinction of a Bachelor of Arts. Fuller, in his Church History, says, there were formerly more Sirs than Knights in England, and adds, “Such priests as have the addition of Sir before their Christian name, were men not graduated in the university, being in orders, but not in degrees, whilst others entituled Masters had commenced in the arts.
(4) SCENE I.-I heard say, he rras out-run on Cotsala.] The Cotswold hills in Gloucestershire, a large tract of fine turfod downs, were among the places famous in times of yore for rural games; but the sports here and elsewhere appear to have declined during the latter part of the sixteenth century, owing perhaps, to the rigorous puritanical crusa le carried on against all popular diversions. About the end of Elizabeth's reign, or, as some say, at the beginning of her successor's, they were revived, however, with increased spirit, through the exertions of Mr. Robert Dorer, an attorney of Barton-on-the-Heath in Warwickshire, who instituted an annual celebration of rustic amuse. ments, which he conducted in person; consisting of wrestling, leaping, pitching the bar, managing the pike, dancing and coursing the hare with greyhounds.
(5) SCENE I.-I have seen Sackerson loose, twenty times.) Sackerson, so named in all likelihood after his keeper, was a famous bear belonging to the Paris bear-baiting Garden on the Bankside ; and the allusions to him and Harry Hunks and George Stone, two contemporary beasts of prowess, by the old writers, sufficiently attest the popularity of this savage sport in former time :
(2) SCENE I.-I vill make a Star-chamber matter of it.] The Court of Star Chamber, as it was familiarly called from the sitting being held en la chambre des estoyers, was the King's Council, the nature and extent of whose jurisdiction, even so early as the reign of Henry VII. when it was remodelled, were sufficiently extraordinary. The preamble of the Act relating to this Court, which was passed in the third of his reign, sets forth, that “the King, remembering how by unlawful maintenances, giving of liveries, signs and tokens, and retaining by indentures, promises, oaths, writings or otherwise, embraceries of his subjects, untrue demeanings of Sheriffs, in making of pannels and other untrue returns, by taking of money by juries, by great riots and unla vful assemblies, the policy and good rule of this realm is almost subdued :" &c. &c. “whereby the laws of the land in execution may take little effect, to the increase of murders, robberies; perjuries and unsureties of all men living,” &c. For the reformation of which, it was now ordained that the chancellor, treasurer, and privy seal, or two of them, calling to them a bishop and a temporal lord, being of the Council, and the two Chief Justices, or in their absence, two other justices upon bill of information put to the Chancellor for the King, or any other, against any person for any misbehaviour above mentioned, have authority to call before them by writ or privy-seal, the offenders and others as it shall seem fit, by whom the truth may be known, and to examine and punish, after the form and effect of statutes thereof made, in like manner, a : tey ought to be punished, if they were convict after the due order of the law.
A tribunal, paramount as this, whose proceedings were summary, and whose punishments, though professedly in accordance with the laws, were administered with much more promptitude than those of the ordinary courts, soon acquired under the Tudors a formidable and dangerous authority,--an authority, as we know from history, which at length became tremendous, and ultimately led to its final abolition in the reign of Charles I.
The ridicule in the play is the making the vain and imbecile old Justice suppose his petty squabble with Falstaff of sufficient importance to be adjudicated by such a Court.
" Publius, a student of the common law,
To Paris-garden doth himself withdraw;-
Epigrams by Sir Joux Davies. “ Ile be sworne they tooke away a mastie dogge of mine by commission. Now I thinke on't, makes my teares stand in my eyes with grief. I had rather lost the dearest friend that ever I lay withal in my life. Be this light, never stir if hee fought not with great Sekerson foure hours to one, foremoste take up hindmoste, and tooke so many loaves from him, that hee sterv'd him presently. So, at last, the dogg cood doe no more then a beare cood, and the bear being heavie with hunger you know, fell uppon the dogge, broke his backe, and the dogge never stird more." Gyles Goosecappe Knight, a Comedie presented by the Chil. of the Chappell, 1606.
(6) SCENE IV.-A Cain-coloured beard.] In the old tapestries and pictures, Cain and Judas were represented with yellowisa-red beards. A conceit very frequently alluded to in early books :“And let their beards be of Judas his own colour."
The Spanish Tragedy. Again, in “The Insatiate Countess," by Marston :
“ I ever thought by his red beard he would prove a Judas.”
(3) SCENE I.--The luce is the fresh fish; the salt fish is an old coat.] Much has been written upon this perplexing passage to little purpose. It still remains, as Mr. Knight terms it, “an heraldic puzzle.” There is, unquestionably, an allusion to the arms of Shakespeare's
(4) SCENE II.-To your manor of Pickt-hutch, go.] This notorious haunt of profligacy, so called from the spiked half-door, or hatch, the usual denotement of houses of illfame formerly, was a collection of tenements situated near the end of Old Street and the garden of the Charterhouse in Goswell Street, The allusions to it and to similar colonies of depraved characters, in Whitefriars, Lambeth Marsh, and Turnmill Siret, are innumerable in our old out-spoken writers; but two or three examples will be sufficient, for the subject and the references are alike unsavoury :
ON LIEUTENANT SHIFT.
That haunt Pickt-hatch, Mersh-Lambeth and White-fryer's
Ben Jonson's Epigrains, No. XII “Sometimes shining in Lady-like resplendent brightnesse with admiration, and suddenly againe eclipsed with the pitchy and tenebrous clouds of contempt and deserved defamation. Sometimes at the Full at Pickt-hutch, and sometimes in the Wane at Bridewell.”—TAYLOR, the Water Poet, fol., 1630, p. 95.
(1) SCENE I. --The tute of Green sleeres.) “ Green Sleeces, or Which nobody can deny," we gather from Mr. Chappell's learned and entertaining account of our early National Music, “has been a favourite tune from the tiine of Elizabeth to the present day; and is still frequently to be heard in the streets of London to songs with the wellknown burden, Which nobody can deny.'” Mr. Chappell, indeed, carries its antiquity still higher, and thinks it was sung in the reign of Henry VIII. The earliest worls to the air known to us, however, do not date farther back than 1580; in which year “A new northen dittye of the Lady greene sleeots” was licensed to Richard Jones by the Stationers' Company. This song, which evidently attained an uncommon share of popular favour even in that are of universal ballatry, was reprinted, four years ter, by the same printer in the poetical miscellany entitlel,-“ A Handofull of Pleasant Delites : containing sundrie netc Sonets and delectable Histories in divers kindes of meeter. Venly devised to the newest tunes, that are now in are to be sung: everie sonet orderlie pointed to his proper
With new additions of certain songs, to verie late devised notes, not commonly knowen, nor used heretofore. By Clement Robinson : and divers others. At London, printed by Riclurd Thones : dwelling at the signe of the Rose and Crowne, near Holborne Bridge. 1584."
(2) SCENE I.— The humour of it, quoth 'a! here's a fillow frighis humour out of his wits.] Ben Jonson, the best delineator of that species of affectation, so fashionable in his time, called humours, has pointed out, with his usual force and discrimination, the difference between the real and pseudo-humourist. Between those who by a natural bias of mind were led into singularity of thought and action, and those who, with no pretensions to originality, endeavoured to establish a reputation for it by ridiculous eccentricities in manners or apparel :
“ As when some one peculiar quality
Doth so possess a nian, that it doth draw
* Every man out of his II umour." GIFFORD's Ben Jonson, v. II. p. 16.
(3) SCENE I. - The priest oth loun.] The following hexameters may be seen in black letter over an ancient doorway in Northgate-street, Gloucester:
• Eri ruinosa domus quondam quam tunc renovavit,
Monachus urbanus Osborne John rite vocatus."
(5) SCENE II.-One master Brook belor rould fain speak with you, and be acquainted with you ; and hath sent your worship a morning's draught of sack.] The custom of taking a “morning draught” of ale, beer, wine, or spirits, prevailed long before our author's time; and that of making acquaintance, in the manner indicated by the text, was nearly coeval. Speaking of the former habit, Dr. Venner, Via Recta ad l'itam Longam, 1637, says :“ The custome of drinking in the mornings fasting, a large draught of white wine, or of beere, hath almost with all men so farre prevailed, as that they judge it a principall means for the preservation of their health ; where as in very deed, it is, being without respect had of the state or constitution of the body, inconsiderably used, the occasion of much hurt and discommoding.” Of the latter practice there is a pleasant illustration in an anecdote told of Ben Jonson and Dr. Corbet :-“ Ben Jonson was at a tavern, and in comes Bishop Corbet (but not so then) into the next room. Ben Jonson calls for a quart of raw wine and gives it to the tapster. “Sirrah,' says he, 'carry this to the gentleman in the next chamber, and tell him, I sacrifice my service to him.' The fellow did, and in these words, Friend,' says Dr. Corbet, I thank him for his love : but pr'ythee tell him from me that he is mistaken; for sacrifices are always burnt.'”—Merry Passages and Jeasts, Harl. MSS. 6395.
“ THE PASSIONATE SHEPHEARD TO His Love.
Come live with me, and be my love,
Then live with me, and be my love.' (2) SCENE III.--The ship-tire, the tire-valiant, or any tire of Venetian admittance.) By the ship-tire was, perhaps, understood some fanciful head-dress, with ornaments of glass or jewellery fashioned to resemble a ship :“ The attyre of her head was in forme of two little ships, made of emeraulds, with all the shrourls and tackling of cleere sapphyres.”-“ Diana,” of Georgy of Montemeyor, 1598. Or it may have been an open kind of head-dress with ribbons streaming from it like the pennons of a ship. The tire-valiant was another of the innumerable “newfangled tires," as Burton calls them, which an weening love of dress had imported from abroad, and of which the form is lost, and not worth seeking.
Both were, no doubt, of “Venetian admittance," or fashion, as the coiffures of that nation were all the mode at the end of the sixteenth, and beginning of the serenteenth century :-"Let her have the Spanish gait, the Venetian tire, Italian complements and endowments.” — Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy, 1624.
(3) SCENE III.--Fortune thy foe.] It is not, perhaps, quite certain that the ballad, of which the first and second stanzas are subjoined, is the original Fortune my Foe that Falstaff had in mind, though there is strong reason, fronı the fact of the opening verse being quoted in Lilly's
. Maydes Metamorphosis," 1600, for believing it to be the authentic version. Of the tune, which will be found, with much interesting matter connected with it, in Yr. Chappell's “ Popular Music of the Olden Time," vol. i. p. 162, there can be no doubt. It had the good or evil fortune to be selected as an appropriate chaunt for the dismal effusions attributed to condemned criminals, and for the relation of murders, fires, juriyments, and calamities of all kinds; and hence, for more than two hun. dred years, it maintained a popularity alınost unexamplel. Fortune my Foe is alluded to again by Shakespeare, in “Henry V." Act III. Sc. 6, and is mentioned tiy Ladre, Chettle, Ben Jonson, Beaumont and Fletcher, Shirley, and a host of other writers. “ A sweet Sonnet, wherein the Lover erclaimeth against For.
(1) SCENE I.--I pray you, ask him some questions in his accidence. The particular work here referred to is the old English introduction to Latin Grammar calleil " Lily's Accidence." One of the efforts of Henry VIII. and Elward VI, for the advancement of learning, was an endeavour to establish an uniformity of books for teaching Latin. In 15th, in the proheme to “The Castel of Helthe,” Sir Thomas Elyot says that the king had “not himselfe disdainel to be the chiefe authour and setter forthe of an Introduction into Grammar, for the childerne of his loving subjectes.” This was the famous "Introduction of the Eyght Partes of Speche, and the Construction of the same,” usually known as “Lily's Accidence,” but really composed by Dean Colet for his school at St. Paul's, in the years 1510 and 1513. The whole collection of tracts forming this Gramınar,—written by Colet, Erasmus, Lily, Robertson, and Ritwise,-had appeared either in London or abroa'l, before they received the Royal sanction ; but in 1542 they were printed entire as having been “compiled and set forth by the commandement of our most gracious soverayne Torde the King." After the death of Henry VIII. his son continued the royal patronage to “Lily's Grammar,” which then became known as King Elward's Grammar;" “Edvardus” being inserted as the example of proper names in the English, as those of “ Henricus" and " Anglia” were in the Latin Institution. This was the book taught by authority at the public schools down even to the first half of the seventeenth century, the Accidence mentioned in the text, and the identical source whence Shakespeare himself acquired the elements of Latin. In Twelfth
tune for the loss of his Ladies Favour, almost past hope to get it again, &c. de. The Tune is Fortane, my Foé. The Lover's COMPLAINT FOR THE Loss OF HIS L.VE.
Fortune my Foe why dost thou froun on me?
Night,” Act II. Sc. 3, Sir Toby Belch refers familiarly, as having learned it in his own youth, to the example given in the First Concord, of the infinitive mood being the nominative case to a verb,—“ Diluculo sargere – thou know'st,-" The clown in the same comedy, Act V. Sc. 1, misquotes, or perverts, the nouns of number requiring a genitive case, * Primo, secundo, tertio, is a good play :" and Benedick, in “Much Ado about Nothing." Act IV. Sc. 1, takes an illustration from another part of the decidence, when he says, How now! interjections why, then, somo be of laughing, as, ha! ha! he!” In the examination of William Page, Sir Hugh inquires, “What is he, William, that does lend Articles ?" And to this the child replies in the very words of the Accidence, “ Articles are borrowed of the pronoun; and be thus de. clined." Even in the difference between the teacher and the pupil, the rules of the Introduction are to be tracel; for when young Page says, “O, vocativo 0," he repeats the sense of the definition, “the vocative case is known by calling or speaking to, as O magister;" whilst Sir Hugh follows the declension of the article, and rightly says,
"' vocativo caret." (2) SCENE II.-A muffler.] The muffler, a contrivance adopted by women to conceal a portion of their face, consisted usually of a linen bandage which covered the mouth and chin. Douce states that "it was enacted by a Scottish statute in 1547, that ' na woman cum to kirk, nor merat, with her face mussaled or covered that scho may not be kend.'”
(3) SCENE II.— The witch of Brentforal.] The “wise- ! the Queen, the Prince (Henry), the Duke of York (afterwoman of Brentford" was an actual personage, the fame wards Charles I.), the Princess (Madame Arabella Stuart), of whose vaticinations must have been traditionally and the young Prince of Brunswick, at that time also on well known to an audience of the time, although a visit to James. Several days were afterwards spent in the records we possess of her are scant enough. 'The receiving and paying visits, and on the 23rd the Feast of chief of them is a black letter tract, printed by Wil. St. George was kept with the usual ceremonies. On the liam Copland in the middle of the sixteenth century, 30th we have an entry of some interest to Shakspearean entitled, “ Jyl of Braintforl's Testament," from which it realers--S. E. alla au Globe, lieu orclinaire ou l'on joue appears she was hostess of a tavern at Brentford. She is les Commerlies; y fut representé l'histoire du More de mentioned also in “ Westward Hoe!"_" I doubt that oli Venise.' hag, Gillian of Brentford, has bewitched me."
We know from the evidence pro luced by Mr. Collier
that “Othello' appeared as early as 1602; and this entry (4) SCENE V. There is three conzin Germans, that has proves that it retained its popularity in 1610. On the cocennd all the hosts of Realings, of Heidenhvad, of ('ole- following day, 1st Hay, is another entry, of scientific inprook, of horses and money.) In the preliminary notice of terest: this play we mentioned an ingenious hypothesis of Mr. ‘S. E. alla au parc d'Elthon (Eltham) pour veoir la perKnight in his “ Pictorial Shakspere,” that the deception petuum mobile. L'inventeur s'appelle Cornelius Trebel, practised upon mine Host de Jarterre pointed to some inci- natif d'Alkmar, homme fort blond et beau, et d'une très derts connected with a visit made to Windsor, in 1592. by the douce façon. tout au contraire des espricts de la sorte. Nou Duke of Würtemberg. The Duke, it appears, was known y vismes aussy des Espinettes, qui jouent a'elle mesmes.' here as ** Count Mombeliard,” (query, "Humpe!gard") of I have not met with any mention of this philosopher in which title both Mr. Knight and Mr. Halliwell conceive other papers of the period ; but it is certain that in 1621 the expression cosen garmombles" in the quarto, to be he published a work in Latin, entitled • De quintessentia, a jocular corruption. “ This nobleman visited Windsor, et Epistola al Jacobum Regem de perpetui mobili inven. was shown the splendidly beautiful and royal Castle,' be tione.'
hunted a stay for a long time over a broad and pleasant The King had previously left London (on the 24th) to go plain, with a pack of remarkably good hounds;' and, to his hunting-box in Northamptonshire; and on the 4th after staying some days, departed for Hampton Court.'” of May the Duke followed him and slept at Ware, at the From these and other circumstances, not omitting that he inn called the Stag, where, says the author of the Diary, was provided with a passport from Lord Howarıl, contain- * Je fus couché dans ung liet de plume de ciyne, qui avoit ing instructions to the authorities of towns through which huiet pieds de largeur.' This is, perhaps, the earliest he passed to furnish him with post horses, &c.; and at the precise notice yet found of this famous bed, and it serves sea-side with shipping, for which he was to pay nothing, to illustrate the passage in Shakspeare's "Twelfth Night,' Mr. Knight infers this to have been “one of those local Act NI. Sc. 2, in which he alludes to the ‘Bed of Ware.' and temporary allusions which Shakespeare seized upon to This bed still exists, and is engraved in Shaw's “Ancient arrest the attention of his audience."
Furniture,' where it is stated to be 10 ft. 9 in. in length, Our objections to this theory, inasmuch as the visit in by 10 ft. 9 in. in width, and to have been made in the 1.92 is concerned, have already been mentioned in the reign of Elizabeth. Introuluction ; but it is far from improbable that an On leaving Ware the Duke proceeded to Royston, allusion was covertly intended to some other visit of the Cambridge, Newmarket, and Thetford, where he rejoined same nobleman. From the following interesting article the King on the 7th; and the next morning the Duke hy Sir Frederic Madden, we learn that the Duke of went to church with his Majesty, as it was the day que Würtemberg, Mümplegard was in England in 1610; and sa Majesté observe infalliblement pour estre celuy de sa it is not unrenconable to suppose he night bare visited dellivrance de l'assasinat des Contes de Gaury (Gowry).' us more than twice in the long interval of cightcen years. This is a remarkable passage, since other authorities give
the 5th of August as the anniversary of this conspiracy. Among the Additional Manuscripts in the British On the same day James took his guests with him to hunt Museum is a small thin quarto, containing the autograph the hare (his favourite amusement), and they saw a hauk diary, written in French, of Hans Jacob Wurmsser von seize some doterels, 'oiseau qui se laisse prendre par une Vendenheym, who accompanied Louis Frederic, Duke of estrange manière ;' and also the trained cormorants, which, Wurtemberg- umpelgard, in his diplomatic mission to at the word of command, plunged into the water and England in 1610, on the part of the united Protestant brought up eels and other fish, which they, on a sign given, German Princes. This diary extends from 16th March vomited up alive-chose bien merveilleuse à voir ! On to 24th July of that year, and affords brief but interesting the same day, also, arrived the news of the assassination notices of the places visited by the Duke, both in coming of Henry IV. of France, which took place on the 4th and returning. He embarked from Flushing (where an May. The news, however, did not prevent the King from English garrison was stationed) on Tuesday, 12th April, hunting the hare the next day; and after dinner the whole and arrived at Gravesend on the following day, where he party returned towards London, which they reached on was waited on by Sir Lewis Lewkenor, Master of the the 10th. On the 25th the Duke of Wurtenberg left ('eremonies, and the next day conveyed in the Royal London and travelled by Rochester and Canterbury to barges to London, “au logis de l'Aigle noir.' On the 16th Dover ; whence, on the 29th, he embarked with his suite, the Duke had his audience of the King, who received him and arrived safely at the port of Veer, in Zealand, on the sitting under a des' of cloth of gold, accompanied by following day."