NASA's Scientist-Astronauts

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, Sep 19, 2007 - Science - 543 pages

Mounting pressure in the early 1960s from the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to study ways of expanding the role of astronauts to conduct science on future space missions led to NASA’s conclusion that flying scientifically trained crewmembers would generate greater returns from each mission. NASA and industry studies continued investigating possibilities that could lead to the eventual creation of the first space stations using surplus Apollo hardware, through the Apollo Applications Programme (AAP). There was also a growing interest within the military to create their own manned space station programme, conducting on-orbit experiments and research with strategic advantages for national security. In October 1964 the Soviets launched Voskhod 1 whose 3-man crew were identified as the first ‘scientific passengers’ in space. A few days later NASA and the NAS had completed joint studies into the possibility of using scientists in the manned space programme, and invited scientists to apply for astronaut training. In selecting the first group of scientist-astronauts, NASA had one firm requirement; any person accepted into the programme would have to qualify as a military jet pilot. While the second group of scientists were completing their academic, survival and flight training programme, the remaining members of the first scientist-astronaut group were involved in supporting the developing Apollo Applications programme and the Apollo lunar programme.

 

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Contents

The Wrong Stu
1
A manned satellite project
2
Orbital piloted spaceship of the Soviet Union
3
WHO SHOULD OR COULD FLY?
7
Requirements for astronaut selection the NASA approach
8
The first cosmonauts
12
Pilotastronauts not scientistastronauts
13
NASAs longterm planning 195964
14
Laboratories in the Sky
243
A dissatisfied customer
244
Turning to Apollo Applications
245
Looking back
247
SKYLAB A SPACE STATION FOR AMERICA
248
MercuryGeminiApollothe Moon
249
Applying skills to AAP
250
SCIENCE PILOTS FOR SKYLAB
253

In a packed programme
17
SCIENCE AND MANNED ORBITAL SPACE FLIGHT 196176
19
Salyut Skylab and Spacelab orbital research labs for scientists?
22
REFERENCES
23
Scientists as Astronauts
25
AN ESSENTIAL PART OF FUTURE EXPLORATION
26
Under careful study
27
Taking immediate steps
29
Reasonably strong case for immediate selection
30
Selecting the selection board
32
A CHANGE IN SELECTION CRITERIA
34
A new breed of astronaut
35
Going through the process
36
NASAs astronaut selection process
37
SCIENTISTS AS COSMONAUTS
39
Voskhod the first opportunities
40
Academy of Sciences Cosmonaut Group
42
Lack of assignments
43
Waiting for the call
44
Physician cosmonauts
45
Other selections
46
Changes in selection
48
The Scientific Six
50
A propaganda machine
52
Garriotts diary
54
THE CHOSEN FEW
57
In the footsteps of pioneers
58
An interesting proposition
61
EDWARD G GIBSON
62
An inauspicious start
63
Changing careers
65
JOSEPH P KERWIN
66
Just like Copernicus
67
Flight surgeon school
70
F CURTIS MICHEL
71
A career in science
72
Rice University
73
HARRISON H SCHMITT
76
Looking at the Moon
79
DUANE E GRAVELINE
80
Flight surgeon
81
A time of devastation
84
Other roads to travel
86
THE ALMOST SCIENTISTASTRONAUTS 1965
88
REFERENCES
91
School for Scientists
93
Screaming Purvis
97
Technical assignments and the AAP Office
99
Work begins in earnest
100
GENERAL TRAINING
102
Science and technology summary courses
103
Operational briefings
105
Spacecraft systems training
106
Wilderness and survival training
109
Control task training
111
Launch vehicle abort training
114
Aircraft flight programme
115
REFERENCES
116
The Excess Eleven
117
The screening process
118
THE GROUP SIX SELECTION
121
JOSEPH P ALLEN IV
122
Deciding on a future
124
PHILIP K CHAPMAN
126
International Geophysical Year
128
ANTHONY W ENGLAND
130
A family on the move
131
A real turning point
133
KARL G HENIZE
135
The skies and a thesis
137
DONALD L HOLMQUEST
139
Applying to NASA
142
A naturalborn engineer
143
Research for Apollo
145
JOHN A LLEWELLYN
146
Early influences
148
Working in Ottawa
149
F STORY MUSGRAVE
150
Settling into the Marine Corps
152
BRIAN T OLEARY
154
Overcoming the obstacles
157
Astronomy beckons
159
Reasons against selection
160
WILLIAM E THORNTON
161
A fascination with anything aeronautical
162
Introducing electronics into medicine
164
THE OTHER ALMOST SCIENTISTASTRONAUTS 1967
165
REFERENCES
168
Flying Is Just Not My Cup of Tea
171
KNUCKLING DOWN TO THE TASK
173
Back to school
174
FLIGHT TRAINING
177
Strapping on the jets
181
Eleven becomes ten then nine
183
LOOKING TO THE FUTURE
189
Losing the Moon
194
Putting things in perspective
196
REFERENCES
197
A Geologist on the Moon
198
VACUUM TESTING APOLLO
201
Chamber testing the Block I CSM
202
Qualifying the Lunar Receiving Laboratory
204
AN EXPERIMENT PACKAGE FOR THE MOON
205
AFTER APOLLO?
206
Supporting the landings
207
Mission scientist for the Moon
210
A stroll or a ride?
212
An uncertain future
213
Juggling the rockets
214
A difficult decision is made
215
A place called TaurusLittrow
216
A crew is formed
217
SETTING OFF FOR THE FINAL TIME
219
The Moon looms larger
221
A go for landing
223
A GEOLOGIST WALKS ON THE MOON
224
The proudest moment
225
Finding orange soil
226
LAST STEPS ON THE LUNAR SURFACE
230
Deepspace EVA
233
Journeys end
235
WHAT THE FUTURE MAY HOLD
238
THE END OF THE BEGINNING
240
REFERENCES
241
Skylab assignments
256
SUPPORTING SKYLAB
258
Dr Bill and SMEAT
261
SCIENCE PILOT TRAINING
264
Reviewing the Skylab training programme
265
SKYLAB HUMAN EXPERIENCE
266
The first manned mission Skylab 2 25 May22 Jun 1973
267
The second manned mission Skylab 3 28 Jul25 Sep 1973
270
The third manned mission Skylab 4 16 Nov 197318 Feb 1974
272
Skylab Rescue a fifth mission?
276
Skylab B
279
REFERENCES
281
Shuttling into Space
283
An entirely new type of space transportation system
284
Reorganising the scientistastronaut office
286
SIMULATING SPACELAB
288
Ground and airborne simulations
291
AIRBORNE SCIENCESPACELAB EXPERIMENT SYSTEM SIMULATION ASSESS
294
ORIGINS OF ASSESS
295
Scientistastronauts role on Space Shuttle missions
296
ASSESSI
298
ASSESSII
299
ASSESSII crew assignments
303
Training for ASSESSII
305
ASSESSII in flight
307
SPACELAB MEDICAL SIMULATIONS
309
Spacelab Medical Development Test I
310
Spacelab Medical Development Test II
315
Spacelab Medical Development Test III
316
SMDIII an overview
321
THE VALUE OF PARTICIPATION
327
Mission specialists for the Shuttle
328
Other early Spacelab assignments
329
The Long Wait
332
Thirtyfive new guys
334
Americas greatest flying machine
336
WE DELIVER
340
The challenge and the responsibility
342
Upgrading the Columbia
344
A laidback approach to launch
345
Welcome to space
346
We deliver
348
No EVA this time
349
Flying for work not comfort
352
Experiments and hardware
353
THE CHALLENGE OF EVA
356
Musgraves STS6 training load
358
Storys story
361
Medicine takes precedence over Earth science
363
DR BILL FLIES
366
Dr Bills orbital clinic
368
First Shuttle night launch and night landing
370
Thorntons chamber of horrors
371
Reality of space flight
374
A long wait and a short wait
375
Occupying the Spacelab module
376
More doctors than pilots
377
A busy schedule
380
Problems and progress
387
Monkeying around with the media
391
A fire on landing
393
WE DELIVER AND PICK UP TWICE
396
Deployment and retrieval
397
Flightspecific EVA training
398
Satellites for sale the fourteenth Shuttle mission
400
Mighty Joe returns to space
401
A butter cookie for good luck
403
Flying free
404
Having your hands full
405
Fun in space
407
The second Spacelab mission
408
Thorntons return
409
Monkeys and men
410
Problem after problem
412
Running around the world
413
SPACELAB 2 AND THREE SCIENTISTASTRONAUTS
414
False starts but a fine mission
416
Spain or Earth orbit?
419
Karl flying high
421
Taking the last chance to fly
422
ANOTHER TRIP INTO SPACE?
427
REFERENCES
428
Ending of Eras
431
Joe Kerwin SkylabShuttleSpace Station
432
Astronaut Office circa spring 1984
433
Lenoir departs and comes back
434
Joe Allen and the ISF
435
CB points of contact for Flight Data File November 1985
438
AFTER CHALLENGER
439
Karl Henize new mountains to climb
440
Owen Garriott EOM and SPEDO
442
RETURNTOFLIGHT AND A RETURN TO SPACE
444
AN ASTRONOMER FOR ASTRO
448
Temporary duty in Washington
449
Parkers role on Astro1
451
Back to Washington
453
SIX MISSIONS AND THIRTY YEARS
456
Military Musgrave
458
Servicing Hubble
462
Back in the pool
464
Improving Musgraves ratio
466
The last flight
468
You cant fly anymore
472
ALL GOOD THINGS COME TO AN END
474
REFERENCES
475
Science Officers on ISS
477
BUILDING A DREAM
478
From imagination to reality
479
Science on ISS
482
NASAs first ISS science officer
484
Saturday Morning Science ISS Science Officer Two
486
Is the science officer really a science officer?
487
Future roles?
489
Memories from orbit
494
REFERENCES
495
Chronology of the NASA ScientistAstronaut Programme
497
ScientistAstronaut Careers and Experience
505
Spaceflight Records and EVA Experience
507
Profiles of the Seventeen
511
Where Are They Now?
519
Bibliography
526
Index
533
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About the author (2007)

Francis French is the former director of events for Sally Ride Science, and the current director of education at the San Diego Air & Space Museum. Colin Burgess is a former flight service director with Qantas Airways and the author of many books on space flight, including "Fallen Astronauts: Heroes Who Died Reaching for the Moon" and "Teacher in Space: Christa McAuliffe and the Challenger Legacy," both available in Bison Books editions. A NASA public affairs officer from 1958 to 1969, Paul Haney was known widely as NASA's "voice of mission control.

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