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of Egypt. At sight of the trophies erected in honour of C. Marius, all those bloody scenes acted by the fury of party and demon of revenge, during the most calamitous period of the republic, rush upon the memory, and you regret that time, who has spared the monuments of this fierce soldier, has destroyed the numerous trophies raised to the Fabii, the Scipios, and other heroes, distinguished for the virtues of humanity, as well as the talents of generals. You are struck with the collossal statues of Case tor and Pollux, and, in the heat of enthusiasm, confounding the fictions of poetry with historical truth, your heart applauds their fraternal affection, and thanks them for the timely assistance they afforded the Romans in a battle with the Volsci You rejoice at their good fortune, which, on earth, has procured them a place in the Capitol, and, in heaven, a seat by Hercules. Horace informs us, that Augustus drinks his nectar, reclined between them and that demigod
Quos inter Augustus recumbens
Purpureo bibit ore nectar. From them you move forward, and your admiration is fixed by the animated equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, which naturally brings to your memory that happy period, when the Roman empire was governed by a prince, who, during a long reign, made the good of his subjects the chief object of his government. You proceed to the upper end of the area; your eye is caught by a majestic female figure, in a sitting attitude; you are told it is a Roma Triumphans; you view her with all the warmth of fond enthusiasm, but you recollect that she is no longer Triumphans; you cast an indignant eye on St. Peter's church, to which she also seems to look with indignation, Is there such another instance of the vicissitude of human things; the proud Mistress of the World under the dominion of a priest? Horace was probably accused of vanity when he wrote these lines.
Usque ego postera
Yet the poet's works have already outlived this period fourteen hundred years; and Virgil has transmitted the memory of the friendship and fame of Nisus and EuryaJus, the same space of time beyond the period which he himself, in the ardour of poetic hope, had fixed for its limits.
Fortunati ambo si quid mea carmina possunt,
Accolet, imperiumque Pater Romanus habebit. In the two wings of the modern palace, called the Campidoglio, the conservators of the city have apartments; their office is analogous to that of the ancient ædiles. In the main body an Italian nobleman, appointed by the pope, has bis residence, with the title of Senator of Rome; the miserable representation of that senate which gave laws to the world. The most defaced ruin, the most shapeless heap of antique rubbish in all Rome, cannot convey a feebler image of the building to which they belonged, than this deputy of the pope does of that august assembly. The beautiful approach to this palace, and all the ornaments which decorate the area before it, cannot detain you long from the back view to which the ancient Capitol fronted. Here you behold the Forum Romanum, now exhibiting a melancholy but interesting view of the devastation wrought by the united force of time, avarice, and bigotry. The first objects which meet your eye, on looking from this side of the hill, are three fine pillars, two-thirds of them buried in the ruins of the old Capitol. They are said to be the remains of the temple of Jupiter Tonans, built by Augustus, in gratitude for having narrowly escaped death from a stroke of lightning. Near these are the remains of Jupiter Stator, consisting of three very elegant small Corinthian pillars, with their entabla. ture; the temple of Concord, where Cicero assembled the senate, on the discovery of Catiline's conspiracy; the temple of Romulus and Remus, and that of Antoninus and Faustina, just by it, both converted into modern churches ; the ruins of the magnificent temple of Peace, built immediately after the taking of Jerusalem, the Roman empire being then in profound peace. This is said to have been the finest temple in old Rome; part of the materials of Nero's golden house, which Vespasian pulled down, were used in erecting this grand edifice. The only entire pillar remaining of this temple, was placed by Paul V before the church of Santa Maria Maggiore. It is a most beautiful fluted Corinthian column, and gives á very high idea of the temple to which it originally belonged. His holiness has crowned it with an image of the Virgin Mary; and, in the inscription on the pedestal, he gives his reason for choosing a column belonging to the temple of Peace, as an ornament to a church dedicatto the Virgin.
Ex cujus visceribus Princeps veræ Pacis genitus est. Of many triumphal arches which stood formerly in, Rome, there are only three now remaining, all of them near the Capitol, and forming entries to the Forum; those of Titus, Septimius Severus, and Constantine. The last is by much the finest of the three ; but its chief beauties are not genuine, nor, properly speaking, its own; they consist of some admirable basso relievos, stolen from the forum of Trajan, and representing that emperor's victories over the Dacians. This theft night, perhaps, not have been so notorious to posterity, if the artists of Con. stantine's time had not added some figures, which make the fraud apparent, and, by their great inferiority, evince the degeneracy of the arts in the interval between the reigns of these two emperors.
The relievos of the arch of Titus represent the table of shew-bread, the trumpets, the golden candlesticks with seven branches, and other utensils, brought from the temple of Jerusalem. The quarter which is allotted for the Jews is not at a great distance from this arch. There are about nine thousand of that unfortunate nation at present in Rome; the lineal descendants of those brought captive, by Titus, from Jerusalem. I have been assured
that they always cautiously avoid passing through this arch, though it lies directly in their way to the Campo Vaccino, choosing rather to make a circuit, and enter the Forum at another place. I was affected at hearing this instance of sensibility in a people who, whatever other faults they may have, are certainly not deficient in patriotism, and attachment to the religion and customs of their forefathers. The same delicacy of sentiment is disa played by a poet of their own country, in the 137th psalm, as it is finely translated by Buchanan.
Dum procul a Patria moesti Babylonis in oris,
Fluminis ad liquidas forte sedemus aquas;
Et numquam Patrii tecta videnda soli.
O Solymæ, 0 adyta, et sacri penetralia templi
Ullane vos animo deleat hora meo ? &c. You may read the whole ; you will perhaps find some poetical beauties which escaped your observation when you heard it sung in churches; but the poet's ardour seems to glow too violently towards the end of the psalm.
Romeo There are many other interesting ruins in and about the Campo Vaccino, besides those I have mentioned; but of some structures which we know formerly stood here, no vestige is now to be seen. This is the case with the arch which was erected in honour of the Fabian family. There is the strongest reason to believe, that the ancient Forum was entirely surrounded with temples, basilicæ, and public buildings of various kinds, and adorned with porticoes and colonades. In the time of the republic, assemblies of the people were held there, laws were proposed, and justice administered. In it was the rostrum, from whence the orators harangued the people. All who aspired at dignities came hither to canvass suffrages. The bankers had their offices near the Forum, as well as those who rereceived the revenues of the commonwealth; and all kind of business was transacted in this plaee. In my visits to the Campo Vaccino, I arrange the ancient Forum in the best manter I can, and fix on the particular spot where each edifice stood. In this I am sometimes a little cramped in room ; for the space between the Palatine hill and the Capitol is so small, and I am so circumscribed by arches and temples, whose ruins still remain, that I find it impossible to make the Forum Romanum larger than Covent Garden. I looked about for the Via Sacra, where Horace met with his troublesome companion. Some people imagine, this was no other than the Forum itself; but I am clearly of opinion, that the Via Sacra was street leading to the Forum, and lost in it, as a street in London terminates at a square. I have, at last, fixed on the exact point where it joins the Forum, which is very near the Meta Sudans. If we should ever meet here, I shall convince you by local arguments, that I am in the right; but I fear it would be very tedious, and not at all convincing, to transmit them to you in writing.
As Rome increased in size and number of inhabitants, one Forum was found too small, and many others were erected in process of time; but when we speak of the Forum, without any distinguishing epithet, the ancient one is understood.
The Tarpeian rock is a continuation of that on which the Capitol was built ; I went to that part from which criminals condemned to death were thrown. Mr. Byres has measured the height; it is exactly fifty-eight feet perpendicular; and he thinks the ground at the bottom, from evident marks, is twenty feet higher than it was originally; so that, before this accumulation of rubbish, the precipice must have been about eighty feet perpendicular. In reading the history of the Romans, the vast idea we form of that people, naturally extends to the city of Rome, the hills on which it was built, and every thing belonging to it. We image to ourselves the Tarpeian rock as a tremendous precipice; and, if afterwards we ever have