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Dwight's denial of any imputation of Adam's sin or of inborn depravity, on the otherin which last denial agree many other New England theologians who reject the exercisescheme, as for example, Strong, Tyler, Smalley, Burton, Woods, and Park. Dr. N. W. Taylor added a more distinctly Arminian element, the power of contrary choice--and with this tenet of the New Haven theology, Charles G. Finney, of Oberlin, substantially agreed. Horace Bushnell held to a practically Sabellian view of the Trinity, and to a moral-influence theory of the atonement. Thus from certain principles admitted by Edwards, who held in the main to an Old School theology, the New School theology has been gradually developed.

Robert Hall called Edwards "the greatest of the sons of men." Dr. Chalmers regarded him as the “greatest of theologians.” Dr. Fairbairn says: "He is not only the greatest of all the thinkers that America has produced, but also the highest speculative genius of the eighteenth century. In a far higher degree than Spinoza, he was a "God-intoxicated man."" His fundamental notion that there is no causality except the divine was made the basis of a theory of necessity which played into the hands of the deists whom he opposed and was alien not only to Christianity but even to theism. Edwards could not have gotten his idealism from Berkeley ; it may have been suggested to him by the writings of Locke or Newton, Cudworth or Descartes, John Norris or Arthur Collier. See Prof. H. N. Gardiner, in Philos. Rev., Nov. 1900 :573596 : Prof. E. C. Smyth, in Am. Jour. Theol., Oct. 1897 : 956 ; Allen, Jonathan Edwards, 16, 308-310, and in Atlantic Monthly, Dec. 1891 : 767; Sanborn, in Jour. Spec. l'hilos., Oct. 1883: 401-420 ; G. P. Fisher, Edwards on the Trinity, 18, 19.

(6) The older Calvinism, represented by Charles Hodge the father (1797– 1878) and A. A. Hodge the son (1823-1886), together with Henry B. Smith (1815–1877), Robert J. Breckinridge (1800–1871), Samuel J. Baird, and William G. T. Shedd (1820-1894). All these, although with minor differences, hold to views of human depravity and divine grace more nearly conformed to the doctrine of Augustine and Calvin, and are for this reason distinguished from the New England theologians and their followers by the popular title of Old School.

Old School theology, in its view of predestination, exalts God; New School theology, by emphasizing the freedom of the will, exalts man. It is yet more important to notice tbat Old School theology has for its characteristic tenet the guilt of inborn depravity. But among those who hold this view, some are federalists and creatianists, and justify God's condemnation of all men upon the ground that Adam represented his posterity. Such are the Princeton theologians generally, including Charles Hodge, A. A. Hodge, and the brothers Alexander. Among those who hold to the Old School doctrine of the guilt of inborn depravity, however, there are others who are traducians, and who explain the imputation of Adam's sin to his posterity upon the ground of the natural union between him and them. Baird's ". Elohim Revealed " and Shedd's essay on “ Original Sin" (Sin a Nature and that Nature Guilt) represent this realistic conception of the relation of the race to its first father, R. J. Breckinridge, R. L. Dabney, and J. H. Thornwell assert the fact of inherent corruption and guilt, but refuse to assign any rationale for it, though they tend to realisın. H. B. Smith holds guardedly to the theory of mediate imputation.

On the history of Systematic Theology in general, see Hagenbach, History of Doctrine (from which many of the facts above given are taken), and Shedd, History of Doctrine; also, Ebrard, Dogmatik, 1:44-100; Kahnis, Dogmatik, 1:15–123; Hase, Hutterus Redivivus, 24-52. Gretillat, Théologie Systématique, 3:24-1:20, has given an excellent history of theology, brought down to the present time. On the history of New England theology, see Fisher, Discussions and Essays, 283-354.

IV. ORDER OF TREATMENT IN SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY. 1. Various methods of arranging the topics of a thcological system.

(a) The Analytical method of Calixtus begins with the assumed end of all things, blessedness, and thence passes to the means by which it is secured. (6) The Trinitarian method of Leydecker and Martensen regards Christian doctrine as a manifestation successively of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. (©) The Federal method of Cocceius, Witsius, and Boston treats theology under the two covenants. (d) The Anthropological method of Chalmers and Rothe; the former beginning with the Disease of Man and passing to the Remely; the latter dividing his Dogmatik into the Consciousness of Sin and the Consciousness of Redemption. (e) The Christological method of Hase, Thomasius and Andrew Fuller treats of God, man, and sin, as presuppositions of the person and work of Christ. Mention

may also be made of (j') The Historical method, followed by Ursinus, and adopted in Jonathan Edwards's History of Redemption; and (9) The Allegorical method of Dannhauer, in which man is described as a wanderer, life as a road, the Holy Spirit as a light, the church as a candlestick, God as the end, and heaven as the home; so Bunyan's Holy War, and Howe's Living Temple.

See Calixtus, Epitome Theologiie'; Leydecker, De (Economia trium Personarum in Negotio Salutis humanae; Martensen (1808-1884), Christian Dogmatics ; Cocceius, Summa Theologiae, and Summa Doctrina de Fædere et Testamento Dei, in Works, vol. vi; Witsius, The Economy of the Covenants; Boston, A Complete Body of Divinity (in Works, vol. 1 and 2), Questions in Divinity (vol. 6), Human Nature in its Fourfold State (vol. 8); Chalmers, Institutes of Theology; Rotho (1799–1867), Dogmatik, and Theologische Ethik; Hase ( 1800–1890), Evangelische Dogmatik; Thomasius ( 1802–1875 ), Christi Person und Werk; Fuller, Gospel Worthy of all Acceptation (in Works, 2:328-416), and Letters on Systematic Divinity (1:681-711); Ursinus ( 1534-1583), Loci Theologici ( in Works, 1: 4:26–909); Dannhauer (1603-1666) Hodosophia Christiana, seu Theologia Positiva in Methodum redacta. Jonathan Edwards's so-called History of Redemption was in reality a system of theology in historical form. It" was to begin and end with eternity, all great events and epochs in time being viewed 'sub specie eternitatis.' The three worlds-heaven, earth and hell-were to be the scenes of this grand drama. It was to include the topics of theology as living factors, each in its own place," and all forming a complete and harmonious whole; see Allen, Jonathan Edwards, 379, 380.

2. The Synthetic Method, which we adopt in this compendium, is both the most common and the most logical method of arranging the topics of theology. This method proceeds from causes to effects, or, in the language of Hagenbach (Hist. Doctrine, 2:152), “starts from the highest principle, God, and proceeds to man, Christ, redemption, and finally to the end of all things. In such a treatment of theology we may best arrange our topics in the following order:

1st. The existence of God. 20. The Scriptures a revelation from God. 3.1. The nature, decrees and works of God. 4th. Man, in his original likeness to God and subsequent apostasy. 5th. Redemption, through the work of Christ and of the Holy Spirit. 6th. The nature and laws of the Christian church. 7th. The end of the present system of things. V. Text-BOOKS IN TAEOLOGY, valuable for reference :1. Confessions : Schaff, Creeds of Christendom.

2. Compendiums : H. B. Smith, System of Christian Theology ; A. A. Hodge, Outlines of Theology ; E. H. Johnson, Outline of Systematic Theology ; Hovey, Manual of Theology and Ethics; W. N. Clarke, Outline

of Christian Theology ; Hase, Hutterus Redivivus; Luthardt, Compendium der Dogmatik; Kurtz, Religionslehre.

3. Extended Treatises : Dorner, System of Christian Doctrine; Shedd, Dogmatic Theology ; Calvin, Institutes ; Charles Hodge, Systematic Theology ; Van Oosterzee, Christian Dogmatics ; Baird, Elohim Revealed ; Luthardt, Fundamental, Saving, and Moral Truths ; Phillippi, Glaubenslehre ; Thomasius, Christi Person und Werk.

4. Collected Works : Jonathan Ellwarde; Andrew Fuller.

5. Histories of Doctrine: Harnack ; Hagenbach ; Shedd; Fisher; Sheldon ; Orr, Progress of Dogma.

6. Monographs : Julius Müller, Doctrine of Sin ; Shedd, Discourses and Essays; Liddon, Our Lord's Divinity ; Dorner, History of the Doctrine of the Person of Christ; Dale, Atonement; Strong, Christ in Creation ; Upton, Hibbert Lectures.

7. Theism : Martineau, Study of Religion ; Harris, Philosophical Basis of Theism; Strong, Philosophy and Religion ; Brace, Apologetics ; Drummond, Ascent of Man ; Griffith-Jones, Ascent through Christ.

8. Christian Evidences: Butler, Analogy of Natural and Revealed Religion; Fisher, Grounds of Theistic and Christian Belief; Row, Bampton Lectures for 1877; Peabody, Evidences of Christianity ; Mair, Christian Evidences; Fairbairn, Philosophy of the Christian Religion ; Matheson, Spiritual Development of St. Paul.

9. Intellectual Philosophy : Stout, Handbook of Psychology ; Bowne, Metaphysics; Porter, Human Intellect; Hill, Elements of Psychology ; Dewey, Psychology.

10. Moral Philosophy: Robinson, Principles and Practice of Morality; Smyth, Christian Ethics ; Porter, Elements of Moral Science; Calderwood, Moral Philosophy; Alexander, Moral Science ; Robins, Ethics of the Christian Life.

11. General Science: Todd, Astronomy; Wentworth and Hill, Physics ; Remsen, Chemistry; Brigliam, Geology ; Parker, Biology; Martin, Physiology ; Ward, Fairbanks, or West, Sociology; Walker, Political Economy.

12. Theological Encyclopædias : Schaff-Herzog (English); McClintock and Strong ; Herzog (Second German Edition ).

13. Bible Dictionarics : Hastings ; Davis ; Cheyne ; Smith (edited by Hackett ).

14. Commentaries : Meyer, on the New Testament; Philippi, Lange, Shedd, Sanday, on the Epistle to the Romans; Godet, on John's Gospel ; Lightfoot, on Philippians and Colossians; Expositor's Bible, on the Old Testament books.

15. Bibles : American Revision (standard edition ); Revised GreekEnglish New Testament (published by Harper & Brothers ) ; Annotated Paragraph Bible (published by the London Religious Tract Society) Stier and Theile, Polyglotten-Bibel.

Au attempt has been made, in the list of text-books given above, to put first in each class the book best worth purchasing by the average theological student, and to arrange the books that follow this first one in the order of their value. German books, however when they are not yet accessible in an English translation, are put last, simply because they are less likely to be used as books of reference by the average student.





God is the infinite and perfect Spirit in whom all things have their source, support, and end.

On the definition of the term God, see Hodge, Syst. Theol., 1: 366. Other definitions are those of Calovius: Essentia spiritualis infinita"; Ebrard: "The eternal source of all that is temporal”; Kahnis: “The infinite Spirit"; John Howe: “An eternal, uncaused, independent, necessary Being, that hath active power, life, wisdom, goodness, and whatsoever other supposable excellency, in the highest perfection, in and of itself”; Westminster Catechism: “A Spirit infinite, eternal and unchangeable in his being, wisdom, power, holiness, justice, goodness and truth”; Andrew Fuller: "The first cause and last end of all things."

The existence of God is a first truth ; in other words, the knowledge of God's existence is a rational intuition. Logically, it precedes and conditions all observation and reasoning. Chronologically, only reflection upon the phenomena of nature and of mind occasions its rise in consciousness.

The term intuition means simply direct knowledge. Lowndes ( Philos. of Primary Beliefs, 78 ) and Mansel ( Metaphysics, 52 ) would use the term only of our direct knowledge of substances, as self and body; Porter appli s it by preference to our cognition of first truths, such as have been already mentioned. Harris ( Philos. Basis of Theism, 41-151, but esp. 45, 46 ) makes it include both. He divides intuitions into two classes: 1. Presentative intuitions, as self-consciousness ( in virtue of which I perceive the existence of spirit and already come in contact with the supernatural), and sense-perception (in virtue of which I perceive the existence of matter, at least in my own organism, and come in contact with nature); 2. Rational intuitions, as space, time, substance, cause, final cause, right, absolute being. We may accept this nomenclature, using the terms “first truths" and "rational intuitions" as equivalent to each other, and classifying rational intuitions under the heads of (1) intuitions of relations, as space and time; (2) intuitions of principles, as substance, cause, final cause, right; and (3) intuition of absolute Being, Power, Reason, Perfection, Personality, as God. We hold that, as upon occasion of the senses cognizing (a) extended matter, (h) succession, (c) qualities, (d)change, (e)order, (f) action, respectively, the mind cognizes (a) space, (b) time, (c ) substance, ( d) cause, (e) design, (f) obligation, so upon occasion of our cognizing our finiteness, dependence and responsibility, the mind directly cognizes the existence of an Infinite and Absolute Authority, Perfection, Personality, upon whom we are dependent and to whom we are responsible.

Bowne, Theory of Thought and knowledge, 60 - " As we walk in entire ignorance of our muscles, so we often think in entire ignorance of the principles which underlie and determine thinking. But as anatomy reveals that the apparently simple act of walking involves a highly complex muscular activity, so analysis reveals that the apparently simple act of thinking involves a system of mental principles." Dewey, Psychology, 238, 21 — “Perception, memory, imagination, conception — each of these is an act of intuition. Every concrete act of knowledge involves an intuition of God." Martineau, Types, 1 : 459 — The attempt to divest experience of either percepts or intuitions is "like the attempt to peel a bubble in search for its colors and contents: in tenuem ex oculis evanuit auram"; Study, 1: 199 — " Try with all your might to do something difficult, c.0, to shut a door against a furious wind, and you recognize Self and Nature - causal wili, over against external causality"; 201 — " Hence our fellow-feeling with Nature"; 65 — "As Perception gives us Will in the shape of Causality over against us in the non-ego, so Conscience gives us Will in the shape of Authority over against us in the non-ego”; Types, 2: 5—“In perception it is self and nature, in morals it is self and God, that stand face to face in the subjective and objective antithesis "'; Study, 2: 2,3 – “In volitional experience we meet with objective causality; in moral experience we meet with objective authority, - both being objects of immediate knowledge, on the same footing of certainty with the apprehension of the external material world. I know of no logical advantage which the belief in finite objects around us can boast over the belief in the infinite and righteous Cause of all”; 51 — "In recognition of God as Cause, we raise the University; in recognition of God as Authority, we raise the Church."

Kant declares that the idea of freedom is the source of our idea of personality,-personality consists in the freedom of the whole soul from the mechanism of nature. Lotze, Metaphysics, 2 244-"So far as, and so long as, the soul knows itself as the identical subject of inward experience, it is, and is named simply for that reason, substance." Ilingworth, Personality, Human and Divine, 3. – “Our conception of substance is derived, not from the physical, but from the mental world. Substance is first of all that which underlies our mental affections and manifestations." James, Will to Believe, 80 – “Substance, as Kant says, means das Beharrliche,' the abiding, that which will be as it has been, because its being is essential and eternal." In this sense we have an intuitive belief in an abiding substance which underlies our own thoughts and volitions, and this we call the soul. But we also have an intuitive belief in an abiding substance which underlies all natural phenomena and all the events of history, and this we call God. Among those who hold to this general view of an intuitive knowledge of God may be mentioned the following : – Calvin, Institutes, book I, chap. 3 ; Nitzsch, System of Christian Doctrine, 15-20, 1:33-140; Julius Müller, Doctrine of Sin, 1 : 78-84; Ulrici, Leib und Seele, 688-725; Porter, Human Intellect, 497 ; Hickok, Rational Cosmology, AS-89; Farrar, Science in Theology, 27-29; Bib. Sac., July, 1872: 533, and January, 1873 : 204; Miller, Fetich in Theology, 110–122 ; Fisher, Essays, 565–57:2; Tulloch, Theism, 314-338; Hodge, Systematic Theology, 1: 191-203; Christlieb, Mod. Doubt and Christian Belief, 75, 70; Raymond, Syst. Theology, 1: 217–262; Bascom, Science of Mind, 246, 247; Knight, Studies in Philos. and Lit., 155-224; A. H. Strong, Philosophy and Religion, 76-89.


1. Their nature.

A. Negatively.—A first truth is not (a) Truth written prior to consciousness upon the substance of the soul — for such passive knowledge implies a materialistic view of the soul; (6) Actual knowledge of which the soul finds itself in possession at birth — for it cannot be proved that the soul has such knowledge; (c) An idea, undeveloped at birth, but which has the power of self-clevelopment apart from observation and experience - for this is contrary to all we know of the laws of mental growth.

Cicero, De Natura Deorum, 1:17 — " Intelligi necesse est esse deos, quoniam insitas eorum vel potius innatas cogitationes habeinus.” Origen, Adv. Celsum, 1:4—“Men would not be guilty, if they did not carry in their minds common notions of morality, innate and written in divine letters." Calvin, Institutes, 1:3:3—“Those who rightly judge will always agree that there is an indelible sense of divinity engraven upon men's minds." Fleming, Vocab. of Philosophy, art. : “Innate Ideas' -"Descartes

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