Anxiety and Cognition: A Unified Theory
It is argued in this book that there are three major approaches to anxiety. First, there is anxiety as an emotional state. Second, there is trait anxiety as a dimension of personality. Third, there is anxiety as a set of anxiety disorders. What is attempted is to produce a unified theory of anxiety which integrates all these major approaches. According to this unified theory, there are four sources of information which influence the level of experienced anxiety: (1) experimental stimulation; (2) internal physiological activity; (3) internal cognitions, (e.g., worries); and (4) one's own behaviour. The unified theory is essentially based on a cognitive approach. More specifically, it is assumed that individual differences in experienced anxiety between those high and low in trait anxiety depend largely on cognitive biases. It is also assumed that the various anxiety disorders depend on cognitive biases, and that the main anxiety disorders differ in terms of the source of information most affected by such biases (e.g., social phobics have biased interpretation of their own behaviour). In sum, this book presents a general theory of anxiety from the cognitive perspective. It is intended that this theory will influence theory and research on emotion, personality, and the anxiety disorders.
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According agoraphobia anxiety disorder patients anxious patients approach Arntz assumed attentional and interpretive Behaviour Research behavioural anxiety bodily sensations Chapter Clark clinical anxiety cognitive appraisal cognitive biases cognitive therapy correlated Derakshan and Eysenck effects emotional experience evidence experienced anxiety findings four-factor theory generalised anxiety disorder heart rate high in trait high trait-anxious high-anxious groups high-anxious subjects implicit memory bias important individual differences interpretive bias long-term memory MacLeod Mathews McNally measures Mogg negative memory bias neuroticism normal controls obsessive—compulsive disorder patients opposite cognitive biases panic attacks panic disorder patients panic patients perceived personality physiological activity physiological arousal post-traumatic stress disorder predicted predisposing factors processes Psychology relevant reported repressors Research and Therapy responsibility Salkovskis schemas scores selective attentional bias self-reported anxiety significantly situation social phobics sources of information specific phobia stress Stroop task studies subliminal supraliminal symptoms theoretical theory of clinical theory of trait threatening trait anxiety words
Page 177 - Gerlsma, C., Emmelkamp. PMG, & Arrindell, WA (1990). Anxiety, depression and perception of early parenting: A meta-analysis.