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Where

you

have never come, or sent it us
Upon her great disaster.
Ber.

She never saw it.
King. Thou speak'st it falsely, as I love mine

honour,
And mak'st conjectural fears to come into me,
Which I would fain shut out. If it should prove
That thou art so inhuman,-'twill not prove so :--
And yet I know not :—thou didst hate her deadly,
And she is dead; which nothing, but to close
Her eyes myself, could win me to believe,
More than to see this ring.–Take him away.--

(Guards seize BERTRAM. My fore-past proofs, howe'er the matter fall, Shall tax my fears of little vanity, Having vainly fear'd too little.—Away with him! We'll sift this matter further. Ber.

If you shall prove
This ring was ever hers, you shall as easy
Prove that I husbanded her bed in Florence,
Where yet she never was.

[Erit BERTRAM, guarded.
Enter a Gentleman, (the Astringer.)
King. I am wrapp'd in dismal thinkings.
Gent.

Gracious sovereign,
Whether I have been to blame, or no, I know not;
Here's a petition from a Florentine,
Who hath, for four or five removes, come short
To tender it herself. I undertook it,
Vanquish'd thereto by the fair grace and speech
Of the poor suppliant, who by this, I know,
Is here attending: her business looks in her
With an importing visage ; and she told me,
In a sweet verbal brief, it did concern
Your highness with herself.

King. [Reads.] “Upon his many protestations to marry me, when his wife was dead, I blush to say it, he won me. Now is the count Rousillon a widower: his vows are forfeited to me, and my honour's paid to him. He stole from Florence, taking no leave, and I follow him to his country for justice. Grant it me, O king! in you it best lies; otherwise a seducer flourishes, and a poor maid is undone.

“Diana Capiler." Laf. I will buy me a son-in-law in a fair, and toll for this : I'll none of him. King. The heavens have thought well on thee,

Lafeu, To bring forth this discovery.–Seek these suit

ors:

Go speedily, and bring again the count.

(Exeunt Gentleman, and some Attendants. I am afeard, the life of Helen, lady, Was foully snatch'd. Count.

Now, justice on the doers ! Re-enter BERTRAM, guarded. King. I wonder, sir, for wives are monsters to you, And that you fly them as you swear them lordship, Yet you desire to marry.—What woman's that ?

Re-enter Gentleman, with Widow, and Diana.

Dia. I am, my lord, a wretched Florentine, Derived from the ancient Capilet: My suit, as I do understand, you know, And therefore know how far I may be pitied. Wid. I am her mother, sir, whose age and

honour Both suffer under this complaint we bring, And both shall cease, without your remedy.

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King. Come hither, count. Do you know these May justly diet me. I pray you yet, women ?

(Since you lack virtue, I will lose a husband,) Ber. My lord, I neither can, nor will deny Send for your ring; I will return it home, But that I know them. Do they charge me fur And give me mine again. ther?

Ber.

I have it not. Dia. Why do you look so strange upon your

King. What ring was yours, I pray you! wife?

Dia.

Sir, much it Ber. She's none of mine, my lord.

The same upon your finger. Dia.

If you shall marry, King. Know you this ring? this ring was his of You give away this hand, and that is mine;

late. You give away heaven's vows, and those are mine; Dia. And this was it I gave him, being a-bed. You give away myself, which is known mine; King. The story then goes false, you threw i For I by vow am so embodied yours,

him That she which marries you must marry me;

Out of a casement. Either both, or none.

Dia.

I have spoke the truth. Laf: [To BERTRAM.) Your reputation comes too

Enter PAROLLES. short for my daughter: you are no husband for her. Ber. My lord, this is a fond and desperate Ber. My lord, I do confess, the ring was hers. creature,

King. You boggle shrewdly, every feather starts Whom sometime I have laugh'd with. Let your

you.highness

Is this the man you speak of? Lay a more noble thought upon mine honour,

Dia.

Ay, my lord. Than for to think that I would sink it here.

King. Tell me, sirrah, but tell me true, I charge King: Sir, for my thoughts, you have them ill to

you, friend,

Not fearing the displeasure of your master, Till your deeds gain them: fairer prove your (Which, on your just proceeding, I'll keep off,) honour,

By him, and by this woman here, wbat know you! Than in my thought it lies.

Par. So please your majesty, my master bath Dia. Good my lord,

been an honourable gentleman : tricks he hath ba? Ask him upon his oath, if he does think

in him, which gentlemen have. He had not my virginity.

King. Come, come; to the purpose. Did be King. What say'st thou to her ?

love this woman? Ber.

She's impudent, my lord; Par. Faith, sir, he did love her ; but how ! And was a common gamester to the camp.

King. How, I pray you ? Dia. He does me wrong, my lord: if I were so, Par. He did love her, sir, as a gentleman loves He might have bought me at a common price: Do not believe him. O! behold this ring,

King. How is that? Whose high respect, and rich validity,

Par. He hved her, sir, and loved her not. Did lack a parallel; yet, for all that,

King. As shou art a knave, and no knaye.He gave it a commoner o' the camp,

What an equivocal companion is this! If I be one.

Par. I am a poor man, and at your majesty's Count. He blushes, and 'tis his :

command. Of six preceding ancestors, that gem

Laf. He's a good drum, my lord, but a naughty Conferr'd by testament to the sequent issue,

orator. Hath it been ow'd and worn. This is his wife : Dia. Do you know, he promised me marriage ? That ring's a thousand proofs.

Par. 'Faith, I know more than I'll speak. King.

Methought, you said, King. But wilt thou not speak all thou know'st! You saw one here in court could witness it.

Par. Yes, so please your majesty. I did go Dia. I did, my lord, but loth am to produce between them, as I said; but more than that, he So bad an instrument: his name's Parolles.

loved her,—for, indeed, he was mad for her, and Laf. I saw the man to-day, if man he be. talked of Satan, and of limbo, and of furies, and I King. Find him, and bring him hither.

know not what: yet I was in that credit with them Ber.

What of him? at that time, that I knew of their going to bed, and He's quoted for a most perfidious slave,

of other motions, as promising her marriage, and With all the spots o' the world tax'd and debauch'd, things that would derive me ill will to speak of: Whose nature sickens but to speak a truth. therefore, I will not speak what I know. Am I or that, or this, for what he'll utter,

King. Thou hast spoken all already, unless thou That will speak any thing?

canst King.

She hath that ring of yours. Say they are married. But thou art too fine Ber. I think, she has : certain it is, I lik'd her, In thy evidence: therefore stand aside.And boarded her i' the wanton way of youth. This ring, you say, was yours? She knew her distance, and did angle for me,

Dia. Madding my eagerness with her restraint,

King. Where did you buy it? or who As all impediments in fancy's course

you? Are motives of more fancy; and, in fine,

Dia. It was not given me, nor I did not buy it. Her insuit coming with her modern grace,

King. Who lent it you? Subdued me to her rate: she got the ring,

Dia.

It was not lent me neither. And I had that, which any inferior might

King. Where did you find it then? At market-price have bought.

Dia. Dia.

I must be patient: King. If it were yours by none of all these ways. You, that have turn'd off a first so noble wife, How could you give it him?

a woman.

Ay, my good lord.

gave

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I found it not.

Dia.

I never gave it him. Beguiles the truer office of mine eyes ? Laf. This woman's an easy glove, my lord : Is't real, that I see? she goes off and on at pleasure.

Hel.

No, my good lord : King. This ring was mine: I gave it his first 'Tis but the shadow of a wife you see; wife.

The name, and not the thing. Dia. It might be yours, or hers, for aught I Ber.

Both, both! O, pardon! know.

Hel. O! my good lord, when I was like this maid, King. Take her away: I do not like her now. I found you wondrous kind. There is your ring; To prison with her; and away with him. And, look you, here's your letter: this it says: Unless thou tellist me where thou had'st this “When from my finger you can get this ring, ring,

And are by me with child,” &c.—This is done : Thou diest within this hour.

Will you be mine, now you are doubly won ? Dia.

I'll never tell you. Ber. If she, my liege, can make me know this King. Take her away.

clearly, Dia.

I'll put in bail, my liege. I'll love her dearly, ever, ever dearly. King. I think thee now some common customer. Hel. If it appear not plain, and prove untrue, Dia. By Jove, if ever I knew man, 'twas you. Deadly divorce step between me and you !King. Wherefore hast thou accus'd him all this O! my dear mother, do I see you living ? while ?

Laf. Mine eyes smell onions, I shall weep anon. Dia. Because he's guilty, and he is not guilty. -Good Tom Drum,-[TO PAROLLES.)—lend me He knows I am no maid, and he'll swear to't: a handkerchief: so, I thank thee. Wait on me I'll swear I am a maid, and he knows not.

home, I'll make sport with thee: let thy courtesies Great king, I am no strumpet, by my life!

alone, they are scurvy ones. I am either maid, or else this old man's wife.

King Let us from point to point this story know,

[Pointing to LaFeU. To make the even truth in pleasure flow.King. She does abuse our ears. To prison with [To Diana.] If thou be’st yet a fresh uncropped her!

flower, Dia. Good mother, fetch my bail. — [Erit Choose thou thy husband, and I'll pay thy dower; Widow.]—Stay, royal sir :

For I can guess, that by thy honest aid The jeweller that owes the ring is sent for, Thou kept'st a wife herself, thyself a maid.And he shall surety me. But for this lord,

Of that, and all the progress, more and less, Who hath abus'd me, as he knows himself, Resolvedly more leisure shall express : Though yet he never harm'd me, here I 'quit All yet seems well; and if it end so meet, him.

The bitter past, more welcome is the sweet. He knows himself my bed he hath defild,

(Flourish. And at that time he got his wife with child :

The king's a beggar, now the play is done. Dead though she be, she feels her young one kick: All is well ended, if this suit be won, So there's my riddle, one that's dead is quick; That you express content; which we will pay, And now behold the meaning.

With strife to please you, day exceeding day: Re-enter Widow, with HELENA.

Ours be your patience then, and yours our parts ;

Your gentle hands lend us, and take our hearts. King. Is there no exorcist

[Exeunt omnes.

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ACT I.-SCENE 1.

which, by reason " -- co rohom I am now in WARD"_" It is now almost which did put hi forgotten in England, (says Johnson,) that the heirs of

that there was no great fortunes were the king's wards. Whether the were proved) tha same practice prevailed in France it is of no use to in.

" – these GRE quire, for Shakespeare gives to all nations the manners " The 'great te: of England." Knight justly observes that, “ The par- | causes her to she ticular expression here used by Shakespeare does not father, grace his necessarily imply that the feudal rights of the sovereign she really shed f over tenants in chief, during their minority, were as- in itself, need a sumed to be exercised in the case of Bertram. Those

M. Mason,) had rights did not extend to all France, but were confined

great tears” as to Normandy. Our Poet followed, without regard to king, etc.,) for H the general question of wards, the story of Boccaccio, in which the Bertram of the novel is represented as being

* In his brigha left by his father under the guardianship of the king. I cannot be un But in Shakespeare's day the rights of wardship were sphere, but must exercised by the crown very oppressively, and an Eng diance that shoot lish audience would quite understand how a sovereign could claim the privilege of disposing of his tenant in for a picture: h

“ - our heart marriage.”

a picture was to " how sad a passage 'lis"_“. Passage' is any of my heart" in thing that passes. So we now say, 'a passage of an

in the next lin author;' and we said about a century ago, the passages

LEAR—“the tric of a reign.' When the Countess mentions Helena's loss rived, as Collier of a father, she recollects her own loss of a husband, and drawing, or pain stops to observe bow heavily the word had passes "—too CAPAB through her mind.”—Johnson. Thus, in the COMEDY OF ERRORS, (act iii. scene 1:)-the word used

phrase of “cap. Now in the stirring passage of the day.

sense, given in tl “ A FISTULA"-In the Poet's time, this term did not

comprehend; su convey so disagreeable and repulsive an idea as now. "And you, MO In Painter's novel the passage relating to the disorder sense-a royal of the king of France runs thus :-"She heard by report says, “And you, that the French king had a swelling upon his breast, to a fantastical c

44

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of Shakespeare. (See note to Love's Labour's Lost, below him, but of his equal. This is the complete act iv. scene 1.) A Monarcho seems to have been a image of a well-bred man, and somewhat like this Volblustering braggart, not unlike Parolles.

taire has exhibited his hero, Louis XIV."-Johnson. “ — some stain of soldier in you"-i. e. Some tinc. His TONGUE obey'd his hand”—The metaphor of ture, or colour of a soldier.

a clock is continued: his “tongue,” in speaking what There shall your master have a thousand loves"

exception bade him, obeyed the “hand" of honour's It is not clear to what the adverb “there” applies :

clock-his hand being put for its hand. whether to Helena's virginity, as Stevens maintains, or — in APPROOF lives not his epitaph-i. e. Approto the French court, whither Bertram had gone. The bation, as in MEASURE FOR MEASURE; meaning that the last is by far the more probable; but the whole speech approbation of Bertram's father is not recorded in his is abrupt and obscure, and possibly, as Hanmer con epitaph with so much effect as in the King's speech. tended, something has been lost-such as the words, • You’re for the court." Or, the preceding words in

- FATHERS of their garments"—Tyrwhitt would Parolles's speech, “Will you any thing with it?” may

read feathers for "fathers;" but the sense of the old

reading is obvious--the judgments of such persons are be a misprint for “Will you any thing with the court ?''

only employed in begetting new modes of dressing their ' pretty, fond, adoptious CHRISTENDOMS”—The persons.

pretty, fond, adoptious christendoms, That blinking Cupid gossips

In their poor praise he humbled"-Malone deems

the construction to be " In their poor praise he being of which we have here an example, are taken from the

humbled." fashionable love-phrases of the day, which were adopted from the Italian poets, so familiarly known in the court " — AFTER him, do AFTER him"-A play on the word of Elizabeth ; and Heath says that an “authority for

“after,” using it in the same breath in different senses, most, if not all of them, can be found in the love-poetry “I, after him, in time, act after his example,” etc. of those times." “ Christendoms" is used, as in other writers of the age, for Christian names,

of “

for which Cu.

SCENE III. pid acts as gossip,” (i. e. sponsor, being the old

"" – and Clown"-The “ Clown," in this comedy, is primitive sense of that word ;) God-sibs, i. e. sib, or

a domestic fool of the same kind as Touchstone. Such related in a religious relation.

fools were, in the Poet's time, maintained in all great “ a virtue of a GOOD WING”—This is a metaphor families, to keep up merriment in the house. Cartfrom Shakespeare's favourite source, falconry. A bird wright, in one of the copies of verses prefixed to the

good wing" was a bird of swift and strong flight. works of Beaumont and Fletcher, censures such dia“If your valour will suffer you to go backward for ad logues as this, and that between Olivia and the Clown, vantage, and your fear, for the same reason, will make in Twelfth Night:you run away, the composition is a virtue that will fly

Shakespeare to thee was dull, whose best jest lies, far and swiftly.” Mason thinks we should read~"is l'th' lady's questions and the fool's replies, like to wear well."

Old-fashion'd wit, which walk'd from town to town

In trunk-hose, which our fathers called the clown. The mighliest space in fortune nature brings"“ The meaning is this :-—* The attections given us by

“ – to even your CONTENT”-i. e. To come up to nature often unite persons between whom fortune or

your wishes. In this rather too quaint phrase, the accident has placed the greatest distance, or disparity;

Steward says he wishes that the pains he has taken and cause them to join like likes (instar parium) like

to fulfil the lady's hopes, might be learned from the persons in the same situation or rank of life.' Thus, in memory of the acts themselves; for the necessity of Timon:

self-commendation is painful, besides lessening the lustre Thou solderest close impossibilities,

of merit. And mak'st them kiss.

" – to

to the world''—This phrase signifies to be • The mightiest space in fortune,' for persons the most married: thus, in As You Like It, Audrey says, “It is widely separated by fortune, is certainly a licentious ex no dishonest desire, to desire to be a woman of the pression; but it is such a license as Shakespeare often world." takes. Thus, in CYMBELINE, the diminution of space is used for the diminution, of which space, or distance,

" — BARNES are blessings"_" Barnes" is the word

still used in Scotland for children, with a slight change is the cause.”—MALONE.

both of sound and orthography. It is on account of

this difference, however slight, as marking the history SCENE II.

of language, that I have retained the old spelling, instead Florentines and SENOYS" -The “ Senoys" are of conforming it, with most later editors, to the Scotch. the inhabitants of the republic of Sienna, so called by

— E'en great friends”—The old copy reads, “in Painter in his novel, after the French.

great friends;" which Johnson and Knight retain, and He had the wit, which I can well observe”-“ Honour understand as expressing that “she is not skilled in the is not dignity of birth or rank, but acquired reputation : matter of great friends.” But in for “e'en" is a mis. * Your father (says the King) had the same airy flights print which occurs often; and the sense supports the of satirical wit with the young lords of the present time, correction. but they do not what he did, hide their unnoted levity

" — HOW SOME’er their hearts are severed"-The in honour-cover petty faults with great merit.' This is an excellent observation. Jocose follies, and slight

modern editions invariably read horosoe'er, and the anoffences, are only allowed by mankind in him that over

cient copies howsomere, or howsome'er, which most

likely was meant for a vulgarism on the part of the powers them by great qualities.”—Johnson.

Clown. If there be any personal allusion in the names So like a courtier, contempt nor bitterness"_", Nor of Charbon and Poysam, (Collier says,) it has not been was used without reduplication. So, in MEASURE FOR discovered. MEASURE:More nor less to others paying,

" the next way"-i. e. The nearest, or most direct Than by self-offences weighing.

way. This is still used in Warwickshire. The old text needs to be explained. He was so like “ — Fond done"-i. e. Done foolishly. “ Fond," for a courtier, that there was in his dignity of manner no foolish, was common in Old-English, and indeed seems thing contemptuous, and in his keenness of wit nothing the primitive sense. It acquired the modern sense of bitter. If bitterness or contemptuousness ever appeared, tender, loving, from being first used habitually to exthey had been awakened by some injury, not of a man press excessive or doating affection.

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