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him, (i. e. against my lover's peace,) by leaving him for be less confident, and more easily moved by admoni. another, as Bertram had left his wife for Diana."

tion."-Johnson. I see, that men make Hopes in such a war" " — dialogue between the fool and the soldier-Col. Here is again some evident misprint, and Singer's con

lier infers, from the customs of the old stage, that some jecture is so probable, that I have adopted it in the text. popular production of the kind probably then existed. “ The old copy reads, make ropes in such a scarre.' It is a species of performance of which John Heywood Rowe changed it to make hopes in such affairs;' and

seems to have been the inventor, in the reign of Henry Malone to "hopes in such a scene.' But affairs and

VIII. scene have no literal resemblance to the old word

this counterfeit MODEL"—It is spelled module in scarre. Warre is always so written in the old copy; the change is, therefore, less violent, more probable,

same word differently spelled—“ model,”, from the and makes better sense."

French modelle, and “ module," from the Latin modulus. Knight thus defends and labours to elicit sense from the folio reading :

"- his heels have deserved it, in usurping his spurs “ The reading of the original is startling and difficult. so long"-" The punishment of a recreant or coward The common reading (that of Rowe) is :

was to have his spurs hacked off." I see that men make hopes, in such affairs.

" - con him no thanks"-i. e. I am not at all obliged Malone reads:

to him for it. To con thanks answers precisely, both in I see that men make hopes, in such a scene.

the literal and the idiomatic sense, to the French savoir Tieck justly observes that to make hopes' is a very

gré. To “con” is to know. The expression occurs in weak expression, and in such affairs' equally trivial. Chaucer, and later writers, down to Shakespeare's time. • In such a scene' is little better. Looking at the ten. dency of Shakespeare to the use of strong metaphorical

- if I were to live this present hour"-Perhaps

we should read, “if I were but to live this present expressions, the original reading, however obscure,

hour;" unless the blunder is meant to show the fright ought not to be lightly rejected; for unquestionably such

of Parolles. a word as scarre was not likely to be substituted by the printer for a more common word, such as scene, or "-a dumb INNOCENT"-i. e. An idiot, or natural affairs. A scarre is a rock-a precipitous cliff—and fool, (distinguished from the jocose, domestic fool, in thus, figuratively, a difficulty to be surmounted. Men many writers, by the term “innocent,") assigned to the (says Diana) pretend to show how we can overpass the care and custody of the sheriff. obstacle. Such terms as ó love is holy,'— my love shall

I could endure any thing before but a cat"-Ber. perséver,'—are the ropes by the aid of which the steep

tram was one of those described by Shylock, who could rock is to be climbed. The ropes that we'll forsake, not endure “ a harmless, necessary cat." ourselves,' are the supports of which we ourselves lose our hold, after we have unwisely trusted to them. If

" — he has led the drum before the English trage• hopes' is substituted for ropes, and scarre retained, the

dians”—The actors of Shakespeare's day, and a little sense then may be, that men hope, in such a position earlier, usually went about the country, preceded by a of difficulty, that we'll forsake ourselves-cease to rely drum, to give notice of their arrival in any town where mpon ourselves.”—Knight.

they wished to perform. Decker, in his “ Belman of Finally, Mr. Collier, who also keeps the old text, sug London,” (quarto, 1608,) mentions the practice when gests that staire may be read for scarre; and that the players "travelled upon the hard hoof from village to allusion is to a ladder of ropes.

village." "— Since Frenchmen are so BRAID"_"The explana.

“ — at a place there called MILE-END"-"Mile-end" tion of this word given by Stevens seems the right one,

was the place where the citizens of London were often though it has been disputed : Braid signifies crafty,

mustered and trained. deceitful;' and he derives it from the Anglo-Saxon - for a QuART D'ECU”—A “quart d'ecu” is the bred, which is usually translated fraus. The ordinary foarth part of the smaller French crown; about eightsense is that which Palsgrave gives in his Dictionary, pence sterling. It is usually spelled cardecue, as (1530,) 'hastynesse of mynde.' At a braid,' or on a in the old copies. It occurs again in the fifth act of sudden, is a not unusual expression; the meaning of Diana might, therefore, possibly be, that Frenchmen

" — he will sell the fee-simple of his salvation"are so hasty and sudden; but this is hardly consistent with what she has previously said of them."-COLLIER.

The author, as he frequently does, alludes to the

old law of real property, the terms of which he uses Richardson, in his Dictionary, adopts the last sense, and Mr. Dyce, agreeing in this derivation, explains it

with technical familiarity, though not a little out of here, “violent in desire, lustful.” But there is so much

place in Parolles's mouth, even if we should suppose

him to be a Norman, to whom such terms of the comproof of braid, and to bride, signifying, in Old-English,

mon-law would not be unintelligible. deceit, and to beguile, that I do not doubt the sense first given.

Why does he ask him of me”—“This is nature.

Every man is, on such occasions, more willing to hear SCENE III.

his neighbour's character than his own."-Johnsos. " — Ever tuned his bounty''- All the authorities and editions have here "even tuned.” The sense so clearly

SCENE IV. indicates a literal error, of even for “ever," that I have

His grace is at MARSEILLES"_" Marseilles" seems got hesitated to correct it."

anciently to have been pronounced (as the verse shows Is it not MEAN,--damnable in us"-It is not im it must be here) as a trisyllable. It is here spelled probable that this should be printed “ meant damnable,"

Marcellæ in the old copies, and we have it Marcellus or else “ most damnable ;" but "damnable” for damna.

in the TAMING OF THE SHREw. In that form it occurs bly, as “swear horrible” for horribly, is common Old

again in the next verse. English. Is it not most wickedly meant, or mean?"

"When saucy trusting of the cozen'd thoughts"" - his comPANY"-i e. His companion; meaning • Saucy” for wanton, as in MEASURE FOR MEASUREParolles.

*saucy sweetness." " that he might take a measure of his oron judg. - your IMPOSITIONs”-i, e. Your commands. “An ments"_" This is a very just and moral reason. Ber imposition is a task imposed. The term is still current tram, by finding how erroneously he has judged, will : in universities.”—Stevens.

this play.


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6 - I PRAY you:

“ – a cheek of two pile and a half— Referring to But with the word,” etc.

the "pile" of the velvet patch. Blackstone proposed to read, “Yet I fray you but it is your CARBONADOED face"_“Carbonadoed" with the word;" meaning the word “suffer,” which is means "slashed over the face in a manner that fetcheth plausible. But the old copy is intelligible enough, if, the flesh with it." The term is derived from carbowith Warburton, we understand “but with the word" nado-a collop of meat. In King LEAR, Kent says to to be equivalent to in a very short time.

the steward, “I'll carbonado your shanks for you." "- the Fine's the crown"-From the Latin proverb, in familiar modern use, though of no classical authority

ACT V.-SCENE I. Finis coronat opus.“Fine" is used for end, in its primitive sense, which is now retained only in the comi

"Enter a gentle ASTRINGER"-This term signifies a pound phrase, in fine.

gentleman falconer. The word is derived from aster.

cus, or austurcus, (a goshawk.). Cowell, in his “ Law SCENE V.

Dictionary," says—“ We usually call a falconer, who

keeps that kind of hawk, an astringer." - villainous SAFFRON”—The phrase " unbaked and donghy" shows that here is an allusion to the proverbial lights much in this kind of reduplication, sometimes so

Our means will make us means”—“Shakespeare de use of saffron to colour pastry, according to the fancy of

as to obscure his meaning. Helena says, they will folthe age. (“Saffron to colour the warden-pies."-WIN

low with such speed as the means which they have TER's Tale.) But, as applied to and descriptive of

will give them ability to exert.”—Johnson. Parolles, it also alludes to another fantastical usage of the day, and the dress of the coxcomb, in which, of

SCENE II. course, yellow would predominate. The dramatists of the age of Elizabeth, and her successors, are full of al “ – muddied in fortune's MOOD"-Mud was, in lusions to "yellow starch," "yellow garters," "yellow Shakespeare's day, pronounced nearly like “ mood," bands," etc. The red and yellow of the “humble-bee" and hence the intended jingle, which Warburton Dos continues the sneer on the coxcomb's finery.

adverting to, changed "mood" to moat. “Fortune's

mood” is several times used by Shakespeare for the " — my BAUBLE"-" The fool usually carried in his hand an official sceptre or .bauble,' which was a short

caprices of fortune. stick, ornamented at the end with the figure of a fool's

You beg more than one WORD, then"-Parolles, or head, or sometimes with that of a doll, or puppet. To paroles, being French for words, a quibble was intended. this instrument there was frequently annexed an inflated skin or bladder, with which the fool belaboured those

you shall eat”—“Parolles has many of the lines who offended him, or with whom he was inclined to

ments of Falstaff

, and seems to be the character which make sport. This was often used by itself, in lieu, as

Shakespeare delighted to draw-a fellow that had more it should seem, of a bauble.”—Douce.

wit than virtue. Though justice required that he should be detected and exposed, yet his vices sit so fit in kis that he is not at last suffered to starve."-Johnsos.


SCENE III. Her estimation HOME"-i. e. Completely, in its full extent. So in MACBETH—“That thrusted home," etc.

done in the BLADE of youth"-i. e. As Johnson says, “the spring of early life, when the man is yet green." The next line passes to a new metaphor, or rather “blade" is used not as a formal figure, but in a secondary sense. Most of the editors have thought that the imagery was incongruous, and have adopted Theo bald's conjecture of "blaze of youth.” But the old copies all read “blade.”

“ — RICHEST eyes"—“Shakespeare means that her beauty had astonished those who, having seen the greatest number of fair women,

might be said to be the richest in ideas of beauty. So in As You Like IT- To

have seen much and to have nothing, is to have rick Fool's BAUBLE.

eyes and poor hands.'"-STEVENS. “ — Suggest thee from thy master"-i. e. Tempt shine and hail mark a day out of season.

a day of SEASON"-ie. A seasonable day. Santhee from thy master.

sion is still in use in various parts of the United States, “A shrewd knave, and an unhappy”-i. e. Mis- though obsolete in England. chievous. In the romance of “Howleglas," unhappi Contempt his scornful PERSPECTive did lend me"ness is used for mischievousness :-" In such manner Apparently used for a glass, or mirror, effecting some colde he cloke and hyde his unhappinesse and fals optical delusion, like the anamorphosis. Thus says an nesse.” The word “unhappy" is often used the old writer—"A picture of a Chancellor presented a sense of mischievous, by the old dramatists. It some multitude of little faces; but if one did look at it through times means only unlucky.

a perspective, there appeared only the single pour " — he has no PACE"-"A pace is a certain or pre

traiture.”Humane Industrie. scribed walk ; so we say of a man meanly obsequious, Our own love, waking"-I suspect, with Johnson, that he has learned his paces, and of a horse who moves that the author having corrected his first thought, both irregularly, that he has no paces.”—Johnson.

the original and the correction have been preserved, and Ulrici adopts this idea of the resemblance of Parolles, mixed up so as to make a very confused sense. Bat and calls him “the little appendix to the great Falstaff." this obscure line may mean that, “Our love, awaking to The two characters seem to me to resemble each other the worth of the lost object, too late laments; our shameonly in their vices, but to have no point in common in- ful hate or dislike having slept out the period when our tellectually.

fault was remediable."

The espres


The last that, ere I took her leave at court" -The cient orthography of it, being universal in the old chronieditors have found difficulty and proposed alteration in cles, etc., and not quite out of use in Elizabeth's reign. this line, but the sense seems to be clearly, “the last H. Tooke (“ Diversions of Purley') is very contemptime that ever I took leave of her at court."

tuous on Malone for not knowing this. But here the

context indicates that “his" was reant. The countess " In Florence was it from a casement throun me"“ Bertram still continues to have too little virtue to de

of course means that the ring is Bertram's. serve Helena.He did not know indeed that it was

"- QUOTED for a most perfidious knave"_"Quoted" Helena's ring, but he knew that he had it not from a has the same sense as noted, or observed. So in Ham. window."-JOHNSON. I stood Engag’D"-i. e. The noble lady thought that

I am sorry that with better heed and judgment

I had not quoted him. Bertram “stood engag’d" to her. Malone understands it unengaged, as meaning in Old-English un-gaged thou art too FINE"-i. e. Too full of finesse, and gaged being the old word for engaged.

art; being the French trop fin. Plutus himself,

If it appear not plain, and prove untrue"-In That knows the Tinct and MULTIPLYING medicine," etc. Painter, and in his original, Boccaccio, Helen comes be

“ Plutus, the grand alchemist, who knows the tinc fore Count Bertram at Rousillon, with twins in her arms: ture which confers the properties of gold upon base

Io ti richieggio per Dio, che le conditioni poste mi metals, and the matter by which gold is multiplied, by per li due cavalieri, che io ti mandai, tu le mi osservi : which a small quantity of gold is made to communicate ed ecco nelle mie braccia non un solo figliuolo di le ma its qualities to a large mass of base metal. In the reign due; ed ecco qui il tuo anello ;' which Painter thus of Henry IV. a law was made to forbid all men thence renders :-“ Therefore I now beseche thee, for the forth to multiply gold, or use any craft of multiplication.

honour of God, that thou wilt observe the conditions of this law, Mr. Boyle, when he was warm with the which the twoo Knightes that I sent unto thee did comhope of transmutation, procured a repeal.”—Johnson.

mannde me to doe; for beholde here, in my armes, not

onely one sonne begotten by thee, but twayne, and if you know

likewyse thy ryng."-(Palace of Pleasure.) In the That you are well acquainted with yourself,” etc.

original story the King is not present at the reconcileThe true meaning of this expression is, If you know ment of Bertram and Helena. that your faculties are so sound as that you have the proper consciousness of your own actions, and are able to recollect and relate what you have done, tell me,” “This play has many delightful scenes, though not etc.-Johnson.

sufficiently probable, and some happy characters, though for four or five REMOVES"—i. e. Stages, or jour.

not new, nor produced by any deep knowledge of huneys. The petitioner had lost the opportunity of pre

man nature. Parolles is a boaster and a coward, such senting the paper herself, either at Marseilles, or on the as has always been the sport of the stage, but perhaps road from thence to Rousillon, in consequence of having

never raised more laughter or contempt than in the been four or five "removes" behind the court.

hands of Shakespeare. I will buy me a son-in-law in a fair, and toll for noble without generosity, and young without truth;

"I cannot reconcile my heart to Bertram: a man THIS”—There has been much contest between this,

who marries Helena as a coward, and leaves her as a which is the reading of the first folio, and that of the

profligate—when she is dead by his unkindness, sneaks second; either of which may have been the true one,

home to a second marriage, is accused by a woman and both are intelligible. I have, with Knight and

whom he has wronged, defends himself by falsehood, Singer, preferred the former.

and is dismissed to happiness. The second folio reads, “I will buy me a son-in-law

The story of Bertram and Diana had been told be. in a fair, and toll for him : for this, I'll none of him."

fore of Mariana and Angelo, and, to confess the truth, " The allusion is to the custom of paying toll for the lib

scarcely merited to be heard a second time.”—Johnson. erty of selling in a fair, and means, “I will buy me a son-in-law in a fair, and sell this one: pay toll for the

“The story of All's Well That Ends Well, and liberty of selling him.' So in ‘Hudibras: -

of several others of Shakespeare's plays, is taken from a roan gelding, Where, when, by whom, and what were ye sold for,

Boccaccio. The Poet has dramatized the original novel And in the public market lolld for.

with great skill and comic spirit, and has preserved all There were two statutes to regulate the tolling of horses

the beauty of character and sentiment, without improvin fairs."-SINGER.

ing upon it, which was impossible. There are, indeed, Collier retains and thus defends the other reading :

in Boccaccio's serious pieces, a truth, a pathos, and an The meaning is plain, although much comment has

exquisite refinement of sentiment, which are hardly to been wasted upon the passage. Lafeu says, “I will buy

be met with in any other prose-writer whatever. Jusme a son-in-law in a fair, and pay toll for him on the

tice has not been done him by the world. He has in purchase: as for this son-in-law, I'll have nothing to do

general passed for a mere narrator of lascivious tales or with him.'

idle jests. This character probably originated in his

obnoxious attacks on the monks, and has been kept up " — FOR wives are monsters to you"- The first folio by the grossness of mankind, who revenged their own repeats sir instead of " for," which Collier, following want of refinement on Boccaccio, and only saw in his an old MS. correction, reads "for." Sir, with a long s, writings what suited the coarseness of their own tastes. would be easily misprinted “for.” Other editors read But the truth is, that he has carried sentiment of every since ; but “for" is used in the sense of because. The kind to its very highest purity and perfection. By sensecond folio gives the line thus:

timent, we would here understand the habitual work. I wonder, sir, wives are such monsters to you

ings of some one powerful feeling, where the heart rewhich Stevens adopts The choice is of little moment. poses almost entirely upon itself, without the violent ex"— and rich VALIDITY"-Here, as elsewhere, Shake.

citement of opposing duties or untoward circumstances. speare uses validity” for value ; but it is found in no

“ The invention implied in his different tales is imother writer, and seems peculiar to him.

mense; but we are not to infer that it is all his own.

He probably availed himself of all the common tradiHe blushes, and 'tis his"— The old folios have hit, tions which were floating in his time, and which he was instead of “his." Malone reads, He blushes, and 'tis the first to appropriate. Homer appears the most origi. it,” which may be right, but not, as Malone supposed, nal of all authors, probably for no other reason than that because it was a misprint; but because hit is the an we can trace the plagiarism no further.”—Hazlitt.

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“The comic parts of the plot of All's WELL THAT ever before her -to despair would be a crime, and Ends Well, and the characters of the Countess, Lafeu, would be to cast herself away, and die. The faith di etc., are of the Poet's own creation; and, in the con her affection, combining with the natural energy of bez duct of the fable, he has found it expedient to depart character, believing all things possible, makes them se. from his original more than it is his usual custom to do. It could say to the mountain of pride which stands be

" Johnson has expressed his dislike of the character tween her and her hopes, ‘Be thou removed! and it i of Bertram, and most fair readers have manifested their removed. This is the solution of her behaviour in the abhorrence of him, and have thought with Johnson that marriage-scene, where Bertram, with obvious reluctano he ought not to have gone unpunished, for the sake not and disdain, accepts her hand, which the King, his fesonly of poetical, but of moral justice. Schlegel has re dal lord and guardian, forces on him. marked, that Shakespeare never attempts to mitigate “Her maidenly shame is at first shocked, and she the impression of his unfeeling pride and giddy dissipa- shrinks back:tion. He intended merely to give us a military portrait ;

That you are well restored, my lord, I'm glad: and paints the true way of the world, according to which

Let the rest go. the injustice of men towards women is not considered in a very serious light, if they only maintain what is

But shall she weakly relinquish the golden opportunits

, called the honour of the family'. The fact is, that the

and dash the cup from her lips at the moment it is per

sented ? Shall she cast away the treasure for which ebe construction of his plot prevented him. Helena was to

has ventured life, honour, all-when it is just with be rewarded for her heroic and persevering affection; and any more serious punishment than the temporary delicacy by the public disclosure of her preference, be

her grasp ? Shall she, after compromising her feminine shame and remorse that awaits Bertram, would have

thrust back into shame, “to blush out the poor remain been inconsistent with comedy. It should also be remembered that he was constrained to marry Helena

der of her life,' and die a poor, lost, scorned thing! against his will. Shakespeare was a good-natured mor.

This would be very pretty, and interesting, and chara alist; and, like his own creation, old Lafeu, though he

teristic, in Viola or Ophelia; but not at all consistent was delighted to strip off the mask of pretension, he

with that high determined spirit, that moral energy, thought that punishment might be carried too far.”—

with which Helena is portrayed. Pride is the only ob

stacle opposed to her. She is not despised and rejected SINGER.

as a woman, but as a poor physician's daughter; an

this, to an understanding so clear, so strong, so just s “Helena is the union of strength of passion with Helena's, is not felt as an unpardonable insult. The strength of character. “To be tremblingly alive to mere pride of rank and birth is a prejudice of which gentle impressions, and yet able to preserve, when the she cannot comprehend the force, because her mine prosecution of a design requires it, an immovable heart, towers so immeasurably above it; and, compared with amidst even the most imperious causes of subduing emo the infinite love that swells in her own bosom, it sib tion, is, perhaps, not an impossible constitution of mind ; into nothing. She cannot conceive that he to whom se but it is the utmost and rarest endowment of humanity. has devoted her heart and truth, her soul, her life, ber

-(Foster's Essays.) Such a character, almost as dif- service, must not one day love her in return; and, once ficult to delineate in fiction as to find in real life, has her own beyond the reach of fate, that her cares, her Shakespeare given us in Helena, touched with the most caresses, her unwearied, patient tenderness, will not.& soul-subduing pathos, and developed with the most | last, ' win her lord to look upon her.' consummate skill.

It is this fond faith which, hoping all things, enables “Although Helena tells herself that she loves in vain, her to endure all things—which hallows and dignife a conviction stronger than reason tells her that she does the surrender of her woman's pride, making it a saco not. Her love is like a religion, pure, holy, and deep: fice on which virtue and love throw a mingled essence." the blessedness to which she has lifted her thoughts is | -MRs. Jameson.




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