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have been known to Shakespeare: it was reserved for Racine to transfer its spirit into his “Phedre"—the most beautiful production of the modern classic drama.
"- bide no DENAY"-i. e. Denial. "Denay” is often used as a verb, but there is no other instance in which it is converted into a substantive.
For our Lorde wolde boren be
That was blessid Marye mayde dene. The force of the word will be best understood by the following examples of its use, from the same poem:
Wherfor God sais in the Gospelle,
Withoute doute ye sal haue.
When he praied to God with hert fre. “ Its occurrence in Spenser, and our old “Metrical Romances,' is so frequent, coupled with fair, that I am surprised it had not struck some of the commentators that beauty and chastity were the highest gifts with which the sex could be endowed; but Drayton uses it in his fourth • Eclogue:'
A daughter cleped Dowsabel, a maiden fair and free. And Ben Jonson makes part of the praise he lavishes on Lucy, Countess of Bedford
I meant to make her fair, and free, (i. e. chaste,) and wise,
SINGER. “ – the OLD AGE”—The “old age" is the ages past, the times of simplicity.
"- sad cypress"-" There is a doubt whether a coffin of cypress-wood, or a shroud of cypress, be here meant. The sad cypress-tree' was anciently associated, as it is still, with funereal gloom, and was probably used for coffins. The stuff called .cypress,' (our crape,) which derives its name either from the island of Cyprus, or from the French créspe, was also connected with mournful images. In a subsequent scene of this play, Olivia says
a cyprus, not a bosom, Hides my heart. In the Winter's Tale, Autolycus reckons among his
Lawn as white as driven snow,
Cypress black as e'er was crow. In Ben Jonson's Epigrams,' we have · solemn cypress' as opposed to cobweb-lawn.' It is difficult, and perhaps unnecessary, to decide the question; for the sentiment is the same, whichever meaning we receive.”KxIGHT.
“ – thy mind is a very opal"-An“opal” is a stone of various colours, according to the light in which it is seen. The Clown wishes the duke to have his dress made to correspond with his mind.
* A blank, my lord. She never told her love"-Cole. ridge says, “ After the first line the actress ought to make a pause, and then start afresh, from the activity of thought, born of suppressed feelings, and which thought had accumulated during the brief interval, as vital heat under the skin during a dip in cold water.”
“ – like patience on a monument"—Every reader who is willing to take the obvious sense would take this to mean, that the lady sat smiling at her grief, as Patience is represented in monumental sculpture. But some of the critics have imagined that the comparison is with a figure of Patience smiling at another of Grief, on the same monument. There seems no foundation for this refinement, but if the passage were at all ambignous it would be cleared up by the use of this figure elsewhere. Thus, in PERICLES, we have
Thou dost look
Extremity out of art.
Like one that's forced to smile upon a grief. There is a passage in the beginning of the “ Hippolytus" of Euripides, describing Phedra brooding over her secret love, which singularly like this in thought, and in plaintive sweetness of melody and language. It is of course merely one of the coincidences of genius, for there is no reason to think that the “ Hippolytus" could
SCENE V. my METAL of India"-So the original foliomettle. The second folio has netlle, which is followed in many editions.
· My metal of India" is, obviously, my heart of gold, my precious girl. My nettle of India is said to be a “zoophyte, called the Urtica Marina, abounding in the Indian seas. We cannot but ask, with Knight, "Was Sir Toby likely to use a common figure, or one so far-fetched ? If Shakespeare had wished to call Maria a slinging-nettle, he would have been satisfied with naming the indigenous plant—as he has been in RICHARD II. and HENRY IV.,-without going to the Indian seas."
" — how he sets”—To "jet” is to strut, or swagger; one of the commonest words in writers of the time.
“ – the lady of the STRACHY"_“There is, doubtless, an allusion here to some popular story not now known;
Strachy' (printed, or misprinted, in Italic in the original edition) being the name of some noble family, of which one of the female branches had condescended to marry a menial. Possibly that family was the Strozzi of Florence; and the copyist of Shakespeare's MS., not being able to read the word, wrote • Strachy' for Strozzi, or Strozzy. On the other hand, Knight suggested that • Strachy' was the strategus, or governor, of some province, whose widow had married below her rank. Warburton's conjecture of Trachy, from Thrace, and Stevens's notion about the starchy, connected with the laundry, are equally untenable. The meaning of Malvolio merely is, that a great lady had married a servant; and whether ‘Strachy' be a corruption, or the real name given in the old story to which Shakespeare referred, is a matter of little consequence."-COLLIER.
“ – a STONE-BOW"-A bow used for the purpose of discharging stones.
" - a DaY-BED'-“Day-beds," or couches, were a luxury among the rich in Shakespeare's time; and, according to a line of Spenser
Some for untimely ease, some for delight. " — wind up my watch"-Pocket-watches were first brought from Germany about the year 1580, so that in Shakespeare's time they were very uncommon.
" — play with my-some rich jewel"-So the old copy, but omitting the dash. Stevens understands “my some rich jewel" to mean, “some rich jewel of my own;" but it is more natural to suppose that Malvolio, having mentioned his watch, then a rarity, wishes to enumerate some other valuable in his possession, and pauses after “ or play with my," following it up with the words
some rich jewel;" not being able on the sudden to name any one in particular.
her great P's.”—“In the direction of the letter, which Malvolio reads, (says Stevens,) there is neither a C nor a P to be found." To this Ritson ingeniously answers, “ From the usual custom of Shakespeare's age, we may easily suppose the whole direction to have run thus: - To the Unknown belov'd, this, and my good wishes,' with Care Present."
“ — war.-Soft"-- Malone contends that the word “Soft" applies to the wax, and is not an exclamation ; Stevens shows that the wax used for letters, at this period, was not commonly “soft." There can be no doubt that "soft!" here is to be taken exactly in the same sense as "softly!” and “soft!" used by Malvolio afterwards.
“Brownists” arose in the middle of the reign of Eliza. NOTES ON TWELFTH-NIGHT: OR, WHAT YOU WILL. " — the NUMBER's altered”-i. e. The “number" of after. The meaning is—Daylight and open country do the metrical feet is altered.
not discover more. Champaign" (spelled champeis BROCK”-i. e. Badger.
in the old editions) was a common word for a wide ex
panse of country. “ — the staNNYEL”—“Stannyel” signifies a species of hawk.
POINT-DEVICE”-i. e. Exactly, with the utmost
nicety. “The phrase (says Douce) has been supplied any FORMAL capacity"-i. e. Any one in his senses—not deranged. So, “a formal man,” in the language, denotes a stitch ; devisé, any thing invented,
from the labours of the needle. Poinct, in the French COMEDY OF ERRORS.
disposed, or arranged. Point-derisé was, therefore, a “Sowter will cry” “Sowter" is used for the name particular sort of patterned lace, worked with the needle ; of a dog, which, having found the scent, gives tongue. and the term point-lace is still familiar to every female." Fabian afterwards carries on the allusion : "the cur is It is incorrect to write point-de-vice, as is usually done. excellent at faults."
" — at TRAY-TRIP"_" Tray-trip," or treytrip, seems, "— Daylight and CHAMPAIGN”—The modern reader is by various quotations, to have been a game at which apt to suppose this to be an allusion to the popular French | dice were employed. By “play my freedom," sir wine ; but that was not known in England till a century || Toby means, stake his freedom.
Act. II. Scene 5.-TRAY-TRIP.
bound to Olivia, who is the limit (or list) of her expedi
tion. - LIES by a beggar"—i. e. Sojourns, dwells. " – a Cheveril glove"—i. e. A kid glove, an easy
“Taste your legs"_“ Taste" was used by the Eliza
bethan poets for try. fitting glove. So, in ROMEO AND JULIET—"a wit of
The use of the word was not cheveril."
limited to taste by the palate. In Chapman's “Odys
sey" we have“ Would not a pair of these have bred"- Meaning a
He now began couple of pieces of money, instead of one only, which
To taste the bow. Viola had given him.
This sense of the word, as in many other instances, has “Cressida was a beggar"-In the “ Testament of in its old age dropped ont of good society, and become Cresseyde," a continuation of Chaucer's “ Troilus and
a slang phrase. It is odd enough that it appears, from a Cresside,” by Rob. Henryson, Cressida is represented, passage in Aristophanes, to have been also slang or rulaccording to the romantic narrative of these lovers, as punished with disease and beggary for her perfidy :great penurye
“ — we are PREVENTED"—i. e. Anticipated, gore beThou suffer shalt, and as a beggar dye.
fore—a use of the word now only retained in the
Common Prayer." “ — CONSTER"—With Knight, I have retained in the text the old mode of spelling this word as it was pro - your most PREGNANT and vouchsafed ear"–j. e. nounced, instead of construe. All the old poets so Ready, or prepared ear; as, in MEASURE FOR MEASURE, spelled the word, when used in this sense ; and it lasted we have pregnant and unpregnant, for ready and unthus till Pope's time, in whose letters it may be found. ready. In colloquial use, this sound is still retained by schoolboys and their teachers.
“ – a cyprus, not a bosom" —Meaning, that her
heart may be as easily seen as if it were covered only “— like the HAGGARD"-A “haggard" is a wild or with a "cyprus," or crape veil, and not with flesh and untrained hawk, which flies at all birds, without distinc blood. tion.
“— a Grise”-i. e. A step-from the French grez. “ — wise men's folly fall'n quite taints their wit"
The word occurs, also, in Timon Of ATHENSThis is the old reading, which Heath thus explains :
for every grise of fortune. * But wise men's folly, when once it is fallen into extravagance, overpowers their discretion." Malone, with
SCENE II. others, reads
"— I had as lief be a BROWNIST”—The sect of the But wise men, folly-fallen, quite taint their wit. Toby's figure of a trading-voyage, and says that she is He died in 1630. The sect was ridiculed during a long
period, and to laugh at a Brownist did not go out of “- the belief that he's mad”—The excess of vanity fashion until after the Restoration.
is among the most ordinary moral phenomena of insani" — if thou thou'st him”—“Shakespeare is thought
ty, so much so that it would not be difficult to make a to have had Lord Coke in his mind, whose virulent
plausible argument in favour of Olivia's judgment, and abuse of Sir Walter Raleigh, on his trial, was conveyed
to maintain that Malvolio was really out of his senses. in a series of thous. His resentment against the flagrant
It would form an amusing sequel to the Hamlet controconduct of the attorney-general, on this occasion, was
versy, and might, if it did nothing more, be made fruit
ful in moral instruction. probably heightened by the contemptuous manner in which he spoke of players, in his charge at Norwich, “- a FINDER of MadMEN”-““ Finders of madmen' and the severity he was always willing to exert against must have been those who acted under the writ De Lu. them.”—THEOBALD and STEVENS.
natico Inquirendo; in virtue whereof they found the I have preserved the substance of the disquisitions of man mad."'-Ritsoy. the older critics on this point, as a curious specimen of
'-a BUM-BAILIE"-This was the old jocose pronuningenious error. We now know that this comedy was writen before Sir Walter's trial; but, besides, it is not
ciation, as it is printed in the old copies, and is so still.
There is no reason for altering it to bum-bailiff, as has at all likely that here should be any allusion to a law
been done by Malone and others. yer's invective: it merely refers to the usages of the duello, and of the men of punctilio who challenged by " — too unchary on't"-i. e. On the heart of stone: rule.
“bestowed my honour too incautiously on a heart of * — his opposite"-i. e. His adversary, or antago
stone." nist. The use of “opposite," in this sense, is very usual “ — Dismount thy TUCK; be YARE"-"Tuck" is in Shakespeare, and other dramatists.
rapier, and "yare” nimble. " — the new map, with the augmentation of the In
UNHatch'd rapier, and on CARPET consideradies"_** A clear allusion (says Stevens) to a 'map' en tion”-According to most commentators, an “unhatched graved for Linschoten's Voyages,' an English translation rapier” is an unhacked rapier, (from the French hacher.) of which was published in 1598. This map is multi But Mr. Dyce has proved that to hatch meant the decolineal in the extreme, and is the first in which the East-rating of weapons by inlaying them with gold or silver, ern Islands are included.”
and cannot have the sense given to it by most of the
editors. He would, therefore, read “unhacked rapier." SCENE III.
The words “carpet consideration” refer to the dubbing * — thanks, and ever THANKS”—The folio has, “ And of what were called carpet-knights, as distinguished thanks: ever oft good turns”—which Collier and Knight from knights who had the honour conferred upon them both retain ; the former with the colon tramsposed thus, on the field of battle. Such knights, of whom King “And thanks, and ever:" the latter without alteration. James made hundreds, were the constant subjects of The probability of an accidental omission of the third ridicule by authors of the time. ** thanks" is so great, and the sense gained by inserting
"— Hob, nob"_“Hob nob” is a corruption of hap or it so satisfactory, that I have not hesitated to adopt Malone's reading.
ne hap-i. e. * let it happen or not happen;" and is
equivalent to come what may." * — my WORTH”—“Worth" is used for wealth, in the same sense that we still say, colloquially, a man is
“ — sir priest, than sir knight”—This expression worth so much.
was probably proverbial, and arose out of the habit in
olden times of calling a priest “sir,” as well as a knight. SCENE IV.
Thus, we have in this play “ Sir Topas," and elsewhere * — bestow of him”—This was the language of the
“Sir Hugh." time, though Stevens calls it a “vulgar corruption" - on him.” It was the form of expression among
“ – such a FIRAGO"-"No doubt, (as Johnson obfor
serves) Sir Toby means to indicate by 'firago,' that the highest classes.
though Viola looked like a woman, she possessed manly " — SAD, and civil”-i. e. Grave, and decorous. prowess. Virago is often used for a female warrior, " - not Black in my mind'— There was an old bal.
but it is spelled · firago' in the old editions, perhaps with lad-tune called “ Black and Yellow," and to this Malvolio
allusion to the word devil, in the preceding part of the
sentence." Thus Collier, and others; but may not the seems to allude.
word be one of Shakespeare's coinage, to express what “ – kiss thy hand so oft”—This fantastical custom we now call a fire-eater? is taken notice of by Barnaby Rice, in “ Faults, and Nothing but Faults.” (1606:)—" And these · Flowers
" – an UNDERTAKER”—“ Undertakers' were persons of Courtesie,' as they are full of affectation, so are they employed by the king's purveyors to take up provisions no less formal in their speeches, full of fustian phrases, for the royal household, and were, no doubt, exceedingly many times delivering such sentences as do betray and odious. But still, I think, the speaker intends a quibble; lay open their masters' ignorance; and they are so fre the simple meaning of the word being, one who under. quent with the kisse on the hand,' that word shall not takes, or takes up the quarrel or business of another."'. passe their mouths till they have clapt their fingers over
Ritson. iheir lippes.”
- lying, vainness, babbling, drunkenness"-Col" - FELLOW"-“Fellow," at this period, was used
lier holds that “lying” and “babbling" are not to be for companion, as well as in its derogatory sense.
taken as substantives, but as participial adjectives; and actors constantly called each other « fellows.” In the
that the line should be read thus:Winter's Tale, Antigonus speaks of the lords present
Than lying vainness, babbling drunkenness. as his " noble fellows."
" — empty TRUNKS"-" Trunks,” which are now fur"— play at CHERRY-PIT”—The game of "cherry-pit" niture for the bed, dressing, or lumber-chamber, were, was played by pitching cherry-stones into a hole. in Shakespeare's time, appertainments to parlours, and "- in a dark room, and bound''-Chains and dark
other company-rooms; were mounted upon feet, and ness were the universal prescription for lunatics, in the
richly ornamented on the top, at the ends, and along time of Shakespeare. There was a third remedy, to
the sides, with scroll-work, and emblematical devices which Rosalind alludes in As You Like IT:-“Love is
of all kinds. a madness, and deserves as well a dark house and a “ — so do not l”-i. e. I do not believe myself, beuchip as madmen do."
cause I dare not hope that my brother is still living.
ACT IV.-SCENE I.
here, but in the Two GestLEMEN OF VERONA—" Myself "— this great lubber, the world, will prove a cock.
in counsel his competitor;" and in Love's Labour's
Lost—“And he and his competitors in oath." ney”—The Clown is struck by the affected word vent; and, hearing it from Sebastian, expresses his fear lest
“— BAY-WINDOWS"—A “bay-window" is the same the whole world, “ this great lubber, the world," should
as what is commonly called a bow-windor—a window “prove a cockney;" i. e. use such ridiculous terms as in a recess, or bay. were employed by cockneys—or, in Johnson's phrase, " — the CLEAR-STORIES”—The folio has cleere stores. " that affectation and foppery will overspread the world." which is cleere-stories. A clere
story, or clear-story. This seems clear enough, though some annotators have is that part of the nave, or choir, of a church, which rises not found it so, and propose to read, “this lubber the roord above the aisles, in which an upper tier of windows is (meaning the word vent) will turn out cockney dialect." usually introduced.
“– foolish GREEK"-A merry “Greek,” or a “fool “- a woodcOCK”—The Clown mentions a "woodish Greek,” were ancient proverbial expressions applied cock," because it was proverbial as a foolish bird, and to boon companions, good fellows, as they were called, therefore a proper ancestor for a man out of his wits. who spent their time in riotous mirth.
“— I am for all waters"-A proverbial phrase not " – a good REPORT after fourteen years' purchase"
yet satisfactorily explained. The meaning, however, The meaning obviously is—after the rate of fourteen years' purchase. Twelve years' purchase (as we learn
appears to be—“I can turn my hand to any thing, or from Sir Th. Childs, the father of the English political Montaigne, speaking of Aristotle, says— He hath an
assume any character.” Florio, in his translation of economists) was the current rate in England at that time,
oar in every water, and meddleth with all things." In 80 this was a high rate ; and any money given to fools his “Second Frutes," there is an expression more re. for a good report” was buying the commodity of repu- sembling the import of that in the text=“I
am a knight tation at a high rate—bringing in a poor return.
for all saddles." "Nash, in his " Lenten Stuffe,” (1599)
has almost the language of the Clown:-“ He is first SCENE II.
broken to the sea in the Herring-man's skiffe or cock.
boate, where having learned to brooke all waters, and “ — DISSEMBLE myself”-i. e. Disguise, divest of drink as he can out of a tarrie can,” etc. likeness-a Latinism.
" — PROPERTIED me”-i. e. Taken possession of me. “— That, that is, is'”—In this speech of the Clown as of a man unable to look to himself. The Dauphin, in is probably intended a "fling" at the jargon of the
King John, has the same use of the word :schools, once so prevalent, in such phrases as “ Whatso
I am too high born to be properties, ever is, is," and " It is impossible for the same thing to
To be a secondary at control. be, and not to be," etc. The old hermit of Prague was, “— I am shent"-i. e. Rebuked, reproved. The doubtless, a very admirable logician in his time, and word is common in old writers. We meet with it in family-physician to King Gorboduc.
Hamlet, and in Troilus and CRESSIDA. " — COMPETITORS enter"-Shakespeare uses the word "– goodman devil"-This is unquestionably a pare “competitor" synonymously with confederate, not only | of some well-known old comic song, alluding to the
business of the Vice, in old interludes, to beat the air formed out of the former. Thus, in Middleton's devil with his wooden dagger.
• More Dissemblers beside Women'
I can dance nothing but ill favour'dly,
A strain or two of passe measures galliard.
By which it appears that the passy-measure pavan, and “ – there I found this CREDIT"-It has been controverted whether we ought to read “credit," with the
the passy-measure galliard, were only two different
measures of one dance. Sir Toby therefore means, by old anthorities, or credent, upon that of Theobald. The
this quaint expression, that the surgeon is a rogue, and a meaning of Sebastian is, that he had not been able to
grave solemn coxcomb. In the first act of the play, he find Antonio at the Elephant, where, however, he had
has shown himself well acquainted with the various heen, and where Sebastian found this “credit,” or be
kinds of dance. Shakespeare's characters are always lief, that Antonio had gone to seek him.
consistent, and even in drunkenness preserve the traits " — DECEIVABLE”-i.e. Deceitful, or deceptive-able of character which distinguished them when sober.” to deceive.
It looks somewhat as if the character of Sir Toby was * While you are willing”-i. e. Until.
drawn from some individual, who stood for the whole word is still so used in the northern counties of England.
class of roystering wags, so graphically embodied in the It is, I think, used in this sense in the preface to the
Knight. It is a touch of personal capricious peculiarity. * Accidence.'"-Johnson.
"— it skills not much”-i. e. It signifies not much" — haring sworn TRUTH”-i. e. Troth, or fidelity.
a common old idiomatic expression. It should be remarked that this was not an actual mar - you must allow vox”—The Clown begins to read riage, but a betrothing, affiancing, or solemn promise of the letter as a madman; and for this violence of voice future marriage; anciently distinguished by the name Olivia reproves him, and thus he justifies himself. of espousals. This has been established by Mr. Douce,
“ — notorious GECK"-To "geck" is to deride; and in his - Illustrations of Shakespeare," where the reader will find much curious matter on the subject.
hence a geck is one made a subject of ridicule-a butt. This is more consistent with Shakespeare's use than Col
lier's derivation from the Saxon geuc, a cuckoo, and ACT V.-Scene I.
thence a fool. " — four negatives make your two affirmatives"Coleridge thns explains this passage :-" The humour Dr. Johnson, after according to this comedy the merit lies in the whispered No!' and the inviting Don't! of being " in the graver parts elegant and easy, and in with which the maiden's kisses are accompanied, and some lighter scenes exquisitely humorous," and conthence compared to negatives, which by repetition con ceding both the comic and the moral effect of Malvolio's stitute an affirmative.”
character, and the truth of that of Ague-cheek, yet pro
tests against the latter, as being “one of natural fatuity," * — the TRIPLEX"-i. e. Triple time in music—a
therefore not the proper prey of the satirist, concludes measure in which each bar divides into three equal parts,
with the decision that the marriage of Olivia, and the and is counted one, two, three.
succeeding perplexity, though well enough contrived to " – at this THROW”-i. e. At this time—a word in divert on the stage, wants credibility, and fails to prouse with our poets from Chaucer downwards.
duce the proper instruction required in the drama, as it
exhibits no just picture of life.” "— SCATHFUL grapple”-i. e. Harmful, destructive.
Mr. Hallam, too, speaks of this comedy in one of those "- 80 bloody, and so DEAR"-"Dear" is here used colder and fastidious moods of judgment, or of feeling, as in HAMLET, (act ii. scene 2)—“my dearest foe.” which occasionally mix with the deep and philosophical (See note.)— It is, in its Old-English use, that which ex admiration he elsewhere expresses for the great dramacites the strongest feeling of earnestuess, whether it be tist:a feeling of love or hate. It comes from the same “ Twelfth Night, notwithstanding some very beauroot with dearth, or scarceness. The etymological tiful passages, and the humorous absurdity of Malvolio, learning of the subject has been discnssed by Horne has not the corruscations of wit and spirit of character Tooke, in “ Diversions of Purley," with much scorn of that distinguish the excellent comedy (Much Ado the Shakespearian editors of the last age.
ABOUT NOTHING) it seems to have immediately followed,
nor is the plot nearly so well constructed. Viola would " — the Egyptian thief at point of death"-An allusion to an affecting incident in the popular old Greek
be more interesting if she had not deliberately, as well
as unfairly towards Olivia, determined to win the Duke's romance, the “ Ethiopics" of Heliodorus, which an English version, by Thomas Underdowne, had made fa
heart before she had seen him. The part of Sebastian miliar to the English public, long before this play; the
has all that improbability which belongs to mistaken second edition (the date of the first not being known)
identity, without the comic effect, for the sake of which
that is forgiven in the COMEDY OF ERROR3.”—“History appearing in 1587. Thyamis, a native of Memphis, and captain of a band of robbers, being deeply enamoured
of Literature." of Chariclea, who had fallen into his hands, and being imagination or of humour, much must be allowed for
In all judgments of the relative merits of works of surprised by a company of banditti, caught her by her tresses with his left hand, and with his right plunged
the peculiar associations of the individual. The delicate his sword into her heart, to prevent her becoming their
fancy, the subdued yet fine feeling of the poetic pas
sages, do not fall within the range of Johnson's percepvictim after his inevitable death.
tion, or his tastes. Of character and humour he is a " - interchangement of your rings"—"'In our an true and acute judge, and it is, therefore, surprising that cient marriage ceremony, the man received, as well as he overlooked the true answer, and one lying deep in gave a ring."-STEVENS.
moral truth, to his objections to Sir Andrew Ague-cheek's
character. Sir Andrew Ague-cheek is not ridiculous "— on thy case"-i. e. On thy exterior. The skin
from mere fatuity, for such weakness of intellect, though of a fox, or of a rabbit, is called its “ case."
true picture of it might not be out of place in any rep" -a PASSY-MEASURES PAVIN"-The commentators resentation of life, yet would, if connected with innohave been very prolific in their accounts of those ancient cence and humility, create no feelings but those of kinddances, etc., of which Singer has thus given the sub ness or pity. But when such weakness is associated, as
it is here, with vanity and the ambition or affectation of “The ‘pavin' was a grave Spanish dance. Sir John fashionable vice, it becomes a most proper subject for Hawkins derives it from pavo, (a peacock,) and says
the moral satirist, besides being rich in laughable sugthat every ‘pavin' had its galliard-a lighter kind of gestions.