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manner of use to them ; nor serve at all either to instruct or convince them. But granting that those St. Paul writ to, knew it as well as Mr. Lewenhoek; yet your lordship thereby proves not the raising of the same body : your lordship says, it is as much the same (I crave leave to add body) as a man grown up is the same' (same what, I beseech your lordship?) with the embryo in the womb.'. For that the body of the embryo in the womb, and body of the man grown up, is the same body, I think no one will say ; unless he can persuade himself, that a body that is not the hundredth part of another, is the same with that other; which I think no one will do, till having renounced this dangerous way by ideas of thinking and reasoning, he has learnt to say, that a part and the whole are the same.
Your lordship goes on : *' And although many arguments may be used to prove, that a man is not the same, because life, which depends upon the course of the blood, and the manner of respiration and nutrition, is so different in both states; yet that man would be thought ridiculous, that should seriously affirm, that it was not the same man. lordship says, I grant that the variation of great parcels of matter in plants, 'alters not the identity : and that the organization of the parts in one coherent body, partaking of one common life, makes the identity of a plant.' Answer. My lord, I think the question is not about the same man, but the same body. For though I do say, + (somewhat differently from what your lordship sets down as my words here) · That that which
has such an organization, as is fit to receive and distribute nourishment, 6 so as to continue and frame the wood, bark, and leaves, &c. of a plant,
in which consists the vegetable life, continues to be the same plant, as * long as it partakes of the same life, though that life be communicated 'to new particles of matter, vitally united to the living plant:' yet I do not remember, that I any where say, that a plant, which was once no bigger than an oaten straw, and afterwards grows to be above a fathom about, is the same body, though it he still the same plant,
The well-known tree in Epping forest, called the King's Oak, which from not weighing an ounce at first, grew to have many tons of timber in it, was all along the same oak, the very same plant; but nobody, I think, will say that it was the same body when it weighed a ton, as it was .when it weighed but an ounce, unless he has a mind to signalize himself by saying, that that is the same body, which has a thousand particles of different matter in it, for one particle that is the same ; which is no better than to say, that a thousand different particles are but one and the same particle, and one and the same particle is a thousand diffe. rent particles; a thousand times a greater absurdity, than to say half is whole, or the whole is the same with the half; which will be im. proved ten thousand times yet farther, if a man shall say (as your lordship seems to me to argue here) that that great ouk is the very same body with the acorn it sprang from, because there was in that acorn an oak in little, which was afterwards (as your lordship expresses it so much enlarged, as to make that mighty tree. For this embryo, if I may so call it, or oak in little, being not the hundredih, or perhaps the chou. sandth part of the acorn, and the acorn being not the thousandth part of the grown oak, it will be very extraordinary to prove the acorn and the grown oak to be the same body, by a way wherein it cannot be * 2d Answ. + Essay, b. 2. c. 27. 5. 4.
pretended, that above one particle of an hundred thousand, or a millioni, is the same in the one lody, that it was in the other. From which way of reasoning, it will follow, that a nurse and her sucking child have the same body, and be past doubt, that a mother and he: infant have ebe same body. But this is a way of certainty found out to establish the articles of faith, and to overturn the new method of certainty that your lordship says I have started, which is apt to leave men’s minds more doubtful than before.'
And now I desire your lordship to consider of what use it is to you in the present case, to quote out of my Essay these words, • That par, • taking of one common life, makes the identity of a plant;' since the question is not about the identity of a plant, but about the identity of a body: it being a very different thing to be the sanie plant, and to be the same body. For that which makes the same plant, does not make the same body; the one being the partaking in the same continued vegetable life, the other the consisting of the same numerical par, ticles of matter. And therefore your lordship’s inference from my words above quoted, in these which you subjoin *, seems to me a very strange onë, viz.' So that in thing capable of any sort of life, the identiiy is con. sistent with a continued succession of parts; and so the wheat grown up, is the same body with the grain that was sown.' For I believe, if my words, from which you infer, ' And so the wheat grown up is the same body with the grain that was sown,' were put into a syllogism, this would hardly be brought to be the conclusion.
But yo'ır lordship goes on with consequence upon consequence, though I have not eyes acute enough every where to see the connexion, till you bring it to the resurrection of the same body. The connexion of your lordship's words + is as followeth ; " And thus the alteration of the parts of the body at the resurrection, is consistent with its identity, if its orga. nization and life be the same; and this is a real identity of the body, which depends not upon consciousness. From whence it follows, that ia make the same body, no more is required, but restoring life to the orga. nized parts of it.' 'If the question were about raising the same plant, I do not say but there might be some appearance for making such an infe. rence from my words as inis, "Whence it follows, that to make the same plant, no more is required, but to restore life to the organized parts of it.' But this deduction, wherein, from those words of mine that speak only of the identity of a plant, your lordship infers, there is no more required to make the same bôdy, than to make the same plant, being too subtle for me, I leave to my reader to find out.
Your lordship goes on and says, that I grant likewise, 'That the • identity of the same man consists in a participation of the same coll, Itinued life, by constantly fleeting particles of matter in succession, • vitally united to the same organized body.' Answer. I speak in these words of the identity of the saine man, and your lordship thence roundly concludes ; " so that there is no difficulty of the sameness of the body.' But your lordship knows, that I do not take these two sounds, man and body, to stand for the same thing, nor the identity of the man to be the same with the identity of the body.
But let us read out your lordship's words. !' So that there is no dif. ficulty as to the sameness of the body, if life were continued; and if, by * 2d Ans. + Ibid, * Ibid, Ibid.
divine power, life be restored to that material substance which was be. fore united, by a reunion of the soul to it, there is no reason to deny the identity of the body, not from the consciousness of the soul, but from that life which is the result of the union of the soul and body.'
If I understand your lordship right, you in these words, from the pase. sages above quoted out of my book, argue, that from those words of mine it will follow, that it is or may be the same body, that is raised at the resurrection. If so, my lord, your lordship has then proved, that my book is not inconsistent with, but conformable to this article of the resuru rection of the same body, which your lordship contends for, and will have to be an article of faith ; for though I do by no means deny that the same bodies shall be raised at the last day, yet I see nothing your lordship has said to prove it to be an article of faith.
But your lordship goes on with your proofs, and says, * " But St. Paul still supposes, that it must be that material substance to which the soul was before united. For, saith he, “it is sow'n in corruption, it is raised in incorruption; it is sowr. in dishonour, it is raised in glory ; it is sown in weakness, it is raised in power ; it is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body.” Can such a material substance, which was never united to the body, be said to be sown in corruption, and weakness, and dishonour? Either, therefore, he must speak of the same body, or his meaning cannot be comprehended. I answer, 'Can such a material substance, which was never laid in the grave, be said to be sown,' &c.? For your lordship.says, + You do not say the saine individual particles, which were united at the point of death, shall be raised at the last day ;' and no other particles are laid in the grave; but such as are united at the point of death; either there. fore your lordship must speak of another body, different from that which was sown, which shall be raised, or else your meaning, I think, cannot be comprehended.
But whatever be your meaning, your lordship proves it to be St. Paul's meaning, that the same body shall be raised, which was sown, in these following words, For what does all this relate to a conscious principle?! Answ. The scripture being express, that the same person should be raised and appear before the judgment-seat of Christ, that every one may receive according to what he had done in his body ; it was very well suited to common apprehensions (which refined not about particles that had been vitally united to the soul') to speak of the body which each one was to have after the resurrection, as he would be apt to speak of it himself. For it being his body both before and after the resurrection, every one ordi. narily speaks of his body as the same, though in a strict and philosophical sense, as your lordship speaks, it be not the very same. Thus it is no impropriety of speech to say, 'this body of mine, which was formerly strong and plump, is now weak and wasted,' though in such a sense as you are speaking here, it be not the same body. Revelation declares nothing any where concerning the same body, in your lordship's sense of the same body, which appears not to have been thought of. The apostle directly proposcs nothing for or against the same body, as necessary to be believed: that which he is plain and direct in, is his opposing and condemning such curious questions about the body, which could serve only to perplex, not to confirm what was material and necessary for them to believe, viz. a day of judgment and retribution to men in a future state ; and therefore it is * 2d Ans. + Ibid.
no wonder, that mentioning their bodies, he should use a way of speaking suited to vulgar notions, from which it would be hard positively to con. clude any thing for the determining of this question (especially against expressions in the same discourse that plainly incline to the other side) in a matter which, as it appears, the apostle thought not necessary to determine, and the spirit of God thought not fit to gratify any one's curio. sity in.
But your lordship says, ** The apostle speaks plainly of that body which was once quickened, and afterwards falls to corruption, and is to be re. stored with more noble qualities. I wish your lordship had quoted the words of St. Paul, wherein he speaks plainly of that numerical body that was once quickened; they would presently decide this question. But your lordship proves it by these following words of St. Paul : For this corruption must put on incorruption, and ihis mortal must put on immor. tality;' to which your lordship adds, that you do not see how he could more expressly affirm the identity of this corruptible body, with that after the resurrection.' How expressly it is afirmed by the apostle, shall be considered by and by. In the mean time, it is past doubt, that your lordship best knows what you do or do not see. ' But this I would be bold to say, that if St. Paul had any where in this chapter (where there are so many occasions for it, if it had been necessary to have been be. lieved) but said in express words that the same bodies should be raised, every one else, who thinks of it, will see he had more expressly affirmed the identity of the bodies which men now have, with those they shall have after the resurrection.
The remainder of your lordship’s period † is ; ' And that without any respect to the principle of self-consciousness.' Ans. These words, I doubt not, have some meaning, but I must own I know not what ; either towards the proof of the resurrection of the same body, or to show, that any thing I have said concerning self-consciousness, is inconsistent : for I do not remember that I have any where said, that the identity of body consisted in self.consciousness.
From your preceding words, your lordship concludes thus : And so if the scripture be the sole foundation of our faith, this is an article of it." My lord, to make the conclusion unquestionable, I humbly conceive the words must run thus: “And so if the scripture, and your lordship’s interpretation of it be the sole foundation of our faith, the resurrection of the same body is an article of it.' For, with submission, your lordship has neither produced express words of scripture for it, nor so proved that to be the meaning of any of those words of scripture which you have pro. duced for it, that a man who reads and sincerely endeavours to under. stand the scripture, cannot but find himself obliged to believe, as ex. pressly, that the same bodies of the dead,' in your lordship's sense, shall be raised, as that the dead shall be raised.' And I crave leave to give your lordship this one reason for it. He who reads with attention this discourse of St. Paul ý where he discourses of the resurrection, will see, that he plainly distinguishes between the dead that shall be raised, and the bodies of the dead. For it is repoi, waves, oî are the nominative cases to Η εγείρονλαι, ζωοποιηθήσονlαι, εγερθήσομαι, all along, and not σωμαία, bodies; which one may with reason think would somewhere or other have been * 2d Ans. + Ibid,
1 Cor. xv. | V, 15, 22, 23, 29, 32, 35, 52,
expressed, if all this had been said to propose it as an article of faith, that the very same bodies should be raised. The same manner of speaking the spirit of God observes all through the New Testament, where it is said, *' raise the dead, quicken or make alive the dead, the resurrection of the dead.' Nay, these very words of our Saviour, + urged by your lordship for the resurrection of the same body, run thus, Tavles oi tv Tois pernperíois ακέσουλαι της φωνής αυλέ κ εκπορεύσολαι, οι τα αγαθά ποιήσαίες εις ανάσασιν ζωής, οι δε τα φαύλα αράξαντες εις ανάςασιν κρίσεως. Would not a wellmeaning searcher of the scriptures be apt to think, that if the thing here intended by our Saviour were to teach, and propose it as an article of faith, necessary to be believed by every one, that the very same bodies of the dead should be raised; would not, I say, any one be apt to think, that if our Saviour meant so, the words should rather have been, cúvloe Tà chuala à év toisuinpeiors, i. e. "all the bodies that are in the graves,' rather than all who are in the graves ;' which must denote persons, and not precisely bodies ?
Another evidence, that St. Paul makes a distinction between the dead and the bodies of the dead, so that the dead cannot be taken in this, 1 Cor. xv. to stand precisely for the bodies of the dead, are these words. of the apostle, I. But some man will say, how are the dead raised ? And with what bodies do they come ?: Which words, dead' and 'they,' if supposed to stand precisely for the bodies of the dead, the question will run thus : How are the dead bodies raised? And with what bodies do the dead bodies come? Which seems to have no very agreeable sense.
This therefore being so, that the Spirit of God keeps so expressly to this phrase, or form of speaking in the New Testament, 'of raising, quickening, rising, resurrection, &c. of the dead,' where the resurrection of she last day is spoken of; and that the body is not mentioned, but in answer to this question, with what bodies shall those dead, who are raised, come ?' so that by the dead cannot precisely be meant the dead bodies: I do not see but a good christian, who reads the scripture with an intention to believe all that is there revealed to him concerning the resurrection, may acquit himself of his duty therein, without entering into the inquiry, whether the dead shall have the very same bodies or no? Which sort of inquiry the apostle, by the appellation he bestows here on him that makes it, seems not much to encourage. Nor, if he shall think himself bound to determine concerning the identity of the bodies of the dead raised at the last day, will he, by the remainder of St. Paul's answer, find the determination of the Apostle to be much in favour of the very same body ; unless the being told, that the body sown, is not that body that shall be; that the body raised is as different from that which was laid down, as the flesh of man is from the Aesh of beasts, fishes, and birds ; or as the sun, moon, and stars are different one from another; or as different as a corruptible, weak, natural, mortal body, is from an incor. ruprible, powerful, spiritual, immortal body; and lastly, as different as a body that is fiesh and blood, is from a body that is not flesh and blood; • for fesh and blood cannot, says St. Paul, in this very place, || inherit the kingdom of God :' unless, I say, all this, which is contained in St. Paul's words, can be supposed to be the way to deliver this as an article of
* Matt. xxii. 31. Mark xii. 26. John v. 21, Acts xvi. 7. Rom. iv. !7. 2 Cor. i. 9. 1 Thess. iv. 14, 16. + John v, 28, 29,
| V. 5o.