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Alban Hall

Page 89 All Saints Church

6 All Souls College

38 Arundel Marbles

9 Aftronomical Observatory

23 Balliol College

59 Blenheim Castle, the Seat of his Grace the Duke of Marlborough, near Woodstock

99 Bodleian Library

7 Botanic or Physick Garden

24 Brasen-Nose. College

59 Chancellors, Vice-chancellors, &c. Lift of

94 Chrift-Church, Cathedral and College


Library, and Collection of Pictures 84 Clarendon Printing-House Corpus Christi College

74 Ditchley, the Seat of the Right Honourable the Earl of Litchfield

110 Edmund Hall Exeter College

65 General Description of Oxford, and it's Environs Governors of Colleges and Halls, List of :? gi Hertford College Heythrop the Seat of the Right Honourable the Earl of Shrewsbury

115 Jesus College

67 Lincoln College Lifts of Chancellors, Vice-Chancellors, Heads of Colleges, Professors, &e

94 Magdalen College Magdalen Hall Market

5 Merton


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XFORD, as we read in our Chronicles, was,

the British Age, consecrated to the Mules. It was called by the Romans Bellofitum. When the place was first fortified does not appear ; but the walls, of which fome parts are still remaining, were raised upon former foundations, about the time of the Conquest, by Robert D'Oilie, who erected the Castle at the command of the Conqueror in 1071; a work of great strength, and considerable extent, of which the Tower is the only part at present remaining: the old building being much decayed, on its fcite, and at the expense of the County, a large and commodious Gaol has lately been erected, which, for strength and convenience, will hardly be surpassed by any in the Kingdom. King Henry 1, built a Royal. Palace on a spot called Beaumont, on the west side



of the City, remains of which are still feen. King Richard I. called Cour de Lion, was born in this Palace.

The University of Oxford has many fabulous accounts relating to the time of its origin. It most probably was instituted foon after the propagation of Christianity in this kingdom. Alfred is supposed by some to have been its founder ; but Alfred rather appears to have restored it, in an age of confusion and ignorance, and to have been the father of that esta. blishment and security, whịch, notwithstanding some temporary shocks and interruptions, it has maintained ever since. Alfred erected certain Schools or Halls, and affigned pensions to the students. The first College of the Univerfity, incorporated-by royal charter, was that of Walter de Merton, A. D. 1274; about which time, 15,000 scholars are reported to have been resident here: but in the reign of Henry III. the University is said to have consisted of double that number.

In the City and its environs were several Monal teries, the principal of which were St. Fridefwide's, and Ofeney Abbey. The Bishopric, which was heretofore part of Lincoln Diocese, was erected by King Henry V HII. in 1542.

The situation is on an eminence; rising gradually, from its extremities to the centre. It is encompaffed by meadows and corn fields. The meadows, which are chiefly to the fouth and weft, are about a mile in extent; beyond which are hills of a moderate height, bounding the profpect.

The eastern profpect has likewise fome hills at a little distance, the valley growing confiderably narrower towards the fouth: but the north is open to corn fields, and enclosures for a confiderable extent, without any hill to intercept the air. It is washed by a namber of streams : on the caft, by the different


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branches of the Cherwell; on the south and west, by those of the Thames': all which meet and join a little below the City, forming one beautiful river. The foil is dry, being on a fine gravel, which renders it not less healthful than pleasant.

Before the Colleges were erected, the Students were instructed in the houses of citizens, or in inns or halls, supported by benefactions from rich persons, or their own patrimony.

The Town, including the Suburbs, is a mile in length from east to west, and almost as much in breadth from north to fouth, being three miles in circumference; but it is of an irregular figure; and several airy spaces are comprehended within these limits, besides the many courts and gardens belonging to the respective Colleges.

The City, properly so called, formerly surrounded by a wall, with bastions at about 150 feet distance from each other, is of an oblong form, and about two miles in circumference. Magdalen College, with the eastern as well as the northern suburbs, which contain the parishes of Holywell, Magdalen, and St. Giles, with Balliol, Trinity, St. John's, and Wadham Colleges, are without the old walls, of which fome part remains as a boundary to New College ; beginning near the cast end of the High-Street, and continuing almost to the Clarendon Printinghouse, where there was a Portal and a Chapel ; some remains of which are still visible,

The principal Street of the City runs from east to weft, the entire length of the Town, but under dif. ferent names ; the High-Street, beginning at Magdålen Bridge, includes at least two-thirds of that length; the remainder is to the end of Castle-Street. The High-Street is perhaps without a rival, being of a spacious width and length, adorned with the fronts

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