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years. He laid the foundation of All-Souls College in 1437; the Charter of Incorporation is dated May 20, 16 Henry VI. in which it is called Collegium Animarum omnium Fidelium defunctorum de Oxon. that is, The College of the Souls of all Faithful People deceased of Oxford.
By the statutes he gave this college, he appointed forty Fellows, whereof twenty-four were directed to study Divinity and Philosophy, and the other fixteen the Civil and Canon Law. He procured from King Henry VI. a grant of the lands and revenues of leveral diffolved priories to endow, his college, and in his life-time erected the chapel and all the rest of the original buildings, which cost hiin 4545l. and at his death gave to the Society the fums of 1341. 6s. 8d. and 100 marks.
The most considerable Benefactors have been, Co. lonel Christopher Codrington, Governor of the Leeward Islands, and Fellow of All-Souls, already mentioned; George Clarke, LLD; tbe late Duke of Wharton; Doddington Greville, Esq. Lieutenant General Stewart, and Sir Nathaniel Lloyd, who, at the time that he was Fellow of this college, was Head of a college in Cambridge. The Colonel bequeathed 6oool. for building the noble Library al. ready described, his own valuable study of books, and 4000l, more to purchase new ones; and Dr. Clarke gave his beautiful house for the use of the Wardens succeslively of the college. He also much augmented the Chaplainships.
In this college are a Warden, farty Fellows, two Chaplains, and fix Clerks and Choritters.
A very peculiar custom is the celebrating the Mal lard Night, every year on the 14th of January, in remenbrance of an excessive large Mallard or Drake, supposed to have long ranged in a drain or sewer,
where it was found at the digging for the foundation of the college. A very authentic account of this event hath been retrieved, and published to the learnod world, from a manuscript of Thomas Walfingham, the historian and monk of St. Alban's. It is the cause of much mirth; for on the day, and in remembrance of the Mallard, is always sung a merry old song set to ancient music.
Visitor. The Archbishop of Canterbury.
ORMS the west side of the Radcliffe Square.
It was founded in the year 1509, by the joint Benefaction of William Smith, Bishop of Lincoln, and Sir Richard Sutton, Knight, of Presbury in Cheshire. Over the gate are the Arms of the latter.
The most probable account of the uncommon name of this College seens to be as follows. The Founders purchased from University College, for the scite of their intended building, two ancient feats of learning, Brazen-nose and Little University Halls; the former of which, as well as one of the same name at Stamford, received its title from the circumstance of having a nose of brass affixed to the gate. It was with a view to this, that the Founders ordered their new Seminary to be called the King's Hall and College of Brazen-nose : and a similar Appendage is still conspicuous over the portal.
Over the door of the Refectory are two very ancient Bufts: the one of Alfred the Great, the first Founder (deemed one of the best representations of that great monarch); the other of John Eregina, a Scotsman, the first Lecturer in University Hall.– They have been more than once engraved,
are said to have been found in digging for the foundation of the college.
The Refectory is handsome and spacious, and adorned with some good portraits and paintings on glass of the two Founders. It stands on the south side of the first Quadrangle; in the centre of which is a ftatue of Cain and Abel.
Through a passage on the left-hand of the gate of the first Quadrangle we enter the second, of which 'a cloyster, with the Library over it, forms the east
fide; the Chapel the south : these are more modern -ftructures, and are supposed to have been built in 1667, conformably with a plan given by Sir Christopher Wren.
The Library (a light pleasant' room, ornamented with a moft elegant ceiling) contains a respectable collection of books, very commodiously arranged. The chapel is distinguished by a neatness and fimplicity becoming the House of God. If these may be considered as the Parents of Beauty, this Edifice has very strong pretensions to it. The roof, which, being a frame of wood, is an admirable imitation of Gothic ftone-work, and the altar, with its decorations, demand our attention. The east window is enriched by painted glass, finely executed by Pearson, from a painting of the late celebrated Mr. Mortimer.
In the Ante-chapel is an elegant monument to the memory of a late Principal, Dr. Shippen, whose uniform attention to the interests of his college are thereon deservedly commemorated. The bust is supposed to give a striking resemblance of his coun• tenance. An elegant house, connected with the college, and fronting the High-street, has been lately fitted up at a considerable expense, for the accommodation of the Principal. The foundation of this college is for a Principal,
twenty Fellows, thirty-two Scholars, and ten Exhibitioners.
The number of independent members at present on the books is about 100.
Vifitor. The Bishop of Lincoln.
S situated opposite to the gate of the Public twenty years ago was begun to be rebuilt. The college is intended to be erected in the form of a Quadrangle, to consist of four angles, and four intermediate buildings; each angle to confift. of three staircases and fifteen single apartments; every apartment to contain an outward "room, a bed-place, and a ftudy. Of these the south-east angle, and the chapel in the south, the Principal's lodgings in the east, the hall in the north, and the gateway (with the Library over it) in the west, are already finished, agreeable to the plan of the Oxford Almanack for the year 1747
Hertford or Hart-Hall, an ancient House of Learning, was an Appendant to Exeter College. But having received an Endowment in part, was (at the Fequest of Dr. Richard Newton, then Principal, who endowed the Senior Fellowships) incorporated Sept.
And, though it is now styled Hertford College, it may be called by the name of any other person who will complete the endowment of it, or become the principal Benefactor to it.
This College consists of a Principal, two senior
TEW College is situated east of the Schools and
the Theatre, and is separated from Queen's College only by a narrow lane. It is dedicated to St. Mary Winton, and has been called New College from its first foundation, being at that time highly regarded for its extent and grandeur.
We enter this college by a portal, leading into the first court, which is a quadrangle of about 168 feet long, and 129 broa', with a statue of Minerva in the middle of it. This court, as built at the foundation of the College, was low, with narrow arched transom windows, in the fashion of the times. But soon after the Restoration of King Charles II. another story was added over the old building, and the windows altered to their present form. The magnificent Gothic building on the north side is the Chapel and the Hall; on the east the Library ; on the south the Fellows Apartments, and on the west the War
den's Lodgings, which are large and commodious, furnished with some valuable Portraits.
In the north-west corner of the court is the entrance into the Chapel ; by much the grandest in the University. The form of it is like that of Magda· len College, but larger. The Ante-chapel is supported by two beautiful staff-moulded pillars. This part is upwards of 80 feet long, and 36 broad.
As the PAINTED WINDOWS of this Chapel make one of its chief Ornaments, it will not be improper to bestow on them a more particular Description.
Of those there are four diftinct forts.
I. All the windows of the Ante-chapel (the great one excepted) are nearly, if not quite, as old as the Chapel itself, and contain the Portraits of Patriarchs,