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The Hay Union, in Herefordshire, was found to contain 2,440 children, of whom 612 only could read and write; 490 could merely read; 1,338 could neither read nor write; 785 attend school; and no fewer than 1,038 do not attend school.

By a return of the state of Education among paupers above sixteen years of age, in the counties of Suffolk and Norfolk, we find that, of 2,725 persons, only 88 could read in a superior manner, and 1,402 could neither read nor write.

A similar document, supplied in the first number of the Journal of the Statistical Society of London,' sets forth that, out of 1,050 paupers in the workhouses of the twelve East Kent Unions, on the 12th day of June 1837, there were only 25 who could read in a superior manner; only 4 who could write in a superior manner; and 474 who could neither read nor write.

An important publication has just appeared, entitled "The State of Education contrasted with the State of Crime in England and Wales. The compiler, whose name is Joseph Bentley, appears to have given great attention in collecting and arranging his materials, and the results of his inquiries are of a still more painful nature than our previous statements. Of the Sunday-schools in Manchester and Salford he made a personal inspection, and found not more than two-fifths of the children of the two boroughs present at them. He remarks, “If we allow the state of Sunday-school Education in Manchester to be the basis by which to ascertain that of any county in England, we should only have two-fifths of the children there every Sabbath, receiving one hour and fifty minutes' instruction per week;" and he adds, “ the Sunday-schools of these two boroughs are not excelled by those of any other towns in the Kingdom. How then can the great mass of the people get knowledge ?” In regard to day-schools, his conclusion is, that in Lancashire (and the case is not materially different, on the average, of England and Wales) more than six-sevenths of the children are, on any given day, away from them. “When," he observes, “we know these facts, we shall not be surprised to hear that, out of 2,000 children, between the age of thirteen and fourteen, examined by Leonard Horner, Esq., only 47 out

write even imperfectly.”

Now, in relation to these statements, it must be observed, that the ability to read is no evidence in itself of such a culture of mind as the duties of life require; and with the utmost latitude, we can only allow that an individual's education is of much value, when ease of writing is added to fluency in reading. And even with the union of the two, there may remain-there often does remain-palpable and most injurious ignorance. The ability to read and write is but the evidence of a certain mechanical skill, without which even the means of education are wanting, but the possession of which does not of necessity imply the possession of knowledge, or even the desire for intellectual acquirements. That desire is at the foundation of nearly all that is of value in mental and moral culture, and how little it can be diffused, and of what small value is the instruction that is imparted to the industrious classes, may be learnt by adverting to the condition of the schools for the youthful poor in this country.

We concur in the statement made by the “ Manchester Statistical Society," in their report on the state of education in the city of York, that “ however imperfect the education received at Sunday-schools may be, when compared with a reasonable or a foreign standard, it affords, nevertheless, the most valuable training within the reach of the great mass of the population of England.” Perhaps a severer condemnation of other schools could scarcely be pronounced, for the education given in Sunday-schools is for the most part restricted to four or five hours in each week. Nor must we take as our model what is seen of education in our large towns, or among a small class of religionists whose principles allow them to give instructions on Sunday, in writing and other useful acquirements; for in small towns, in agricultural districts, and among the great mass of religionists, nor least where the influence of the clergy is chiefly felt, the instruction and the training scarcely deserve the name.

Teaching to read, and that in a most imperfect manner-in a manner so imperfect, that frequently the ability is quickly lostis the amount of all that is professedly done in the great mass of Sunday-schools, exclusive of that instruction which is of a moral and religious character. Yet there are 750,000 children in England and Wales who have no other opportunity of education. And how insufficient the religious instruction is, may be learnt, not merely from the fact of the smallness of the time, and deficiency of the instrumentality employed, but also from actual knowledge of the results produced. We will give one or two instances. In a Sunday-school in Baldwin's-gardens, London, out of 120 children, the mistress stated that 80 were unable to read. A verse of a hymn, or a passage of Scripture, is read to the scholars until they are able to repeat it by heart; the meaning of a chapter in the New Testament is explained, and the teachers address the children on the subject of religion, and endeavour to impress their minds with a sense of its importance. The elder children who have learnt

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An array of schools and scholars in large towns, on holiday occasions, have turned the eye away from their dark streets, lanes, and courts, where ignorance broods almost undisturbed; and few have been the persons who could from any centre survey the whole circle of the country, so as to comprise its dark tracts as well as its sunny spots.

A few estimable individuals in the town of Manchester enjoy the distinction of having been the first to supply trustworthy information on the condition of popular Education. Among other efforts they have surveyed the four towns of Manchester, Liverpool, Salford, and Bury, and have published reports, from which we learn that one-third of the children of those places are destitute of any kind of education whatever. Of the 75,000 children who are under instruction, no fewer than 36,000 attend Sunday-schools only; that is, one-half of those who are instructed, are instructed only a few hours one day in the week; while out of about 120,000 children requiring education, not more than 39,000 are undergoing a daily training. But our estimate is too favourable if taken as a criterion of the state of popular Education; for, in these four boroughs, there are many large schools for the middle and upper classes, containing children not only of residents but of strangers. Now, among these classes, the proportion of educated to uneducated children is much larger than among the poor; and therefore the proportion of the uneducated to the educated among the poor will be larger than the statement we have given. And this remark is confirmed by the fact, that in an investigation, conducted by a friend of our own, and published in the Journal of the Statistical Society, No. 1, in a district inhabited chiefly by weavers, namely, Miles Platting, in the parish of Manchester, it was recently found that, out of 505 children, only 288, little more than one-half, are at school, while of these, 208 attend Sundayschools only. The report on this district adds—" There are very few of the heads of families included within this inquiry who have formed the habit of reading, or are capable of understanding or enjoying a book. Many are either too illiterate, or too deeply sunk in indifference, or in animal gratifications, to be easily convinced of the importance of mental culture or religion.”

In Marylebone a district was lately visited; and, of the parents, 45 out of every 100 could neither read nor write; out of 450 children, 262 could neither read nor write; only 114, or about one-fourth of the whole, went to school; and, as if to show how even the strictly religious education of the people

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has been neglected, while 357 of the children could repeat the Lord's Prayer, 93 were unable to give even that slender evidence of having been instructed.

In another district of the Metropolis it was found that, among 797 adults, 366 could neither read nor write; 136 could read only; thus showing that no more than 295, or about onethird of the adult population, possessed the most ordinary acquirements. Of 825 children, 530 could not read, 609 were not frequenting school, 656 could not write, and 473 were unable to repeat the Lord's Prayer.

The Statistical Society of London has reported on a district which it has had visited, comprising nearly 50,000 souls, and it appears that, out of 14,145 children, there are not more than 4,654, not one-third, under Education.

In the city of York, the seat of an archbishop—the gathering place of churches and clergymen—where there are not fewer than sixteen charity-schools, where the population subsists mainly neither by mercantile nor manufacturing pursuits, and where the working classes bear a less proportion than is common to the middle and higher ranks of the community,

nearly, at least, equal to the demand. But in this place, in which the influence of the clergy has had resources, time, and scope, to give it full effect, 2,300 children were found who received no instruction in schools; while, out of 150 schools, the total number in the city, 24 are merely Sunday-schools, 9 of which are supported by Dissenters, and 92 are day and evening schools, supported wholly by the parents of the scholars.*

While such is the mournful condition of the state of Education in our cities, we need not be surprised that the enlightened Superintendent Registrar of the Manchester District, Dr. Johns, has found that one-half of the persons who came before him for the purposes of the Registration Act are unable to write their names; and we have little doubt that similar praiseworthy attention on the part of other Registration functionaries would disclose equal if not greater inability.

If we turn to agricultural districts, we shall find there also lamentable deficiencies. In the Tendring Union, in the county of Essex, out of 706 children, but 88 can read and write; 198 can neither read nor write; 252 only attend school, of whom no more than 109 frequent a day-school. Thus, merely one-seventh of those who require education are in possession of suitable opportunities.

* Report of a Committee of the Manchester Statistical Society on the state of Education in the city of York.

The Hay Union, in Herefordshire, was found to contain 2,440 children, of whom 612 only could read and write ; 490 could merely read; 1,338 could neither read nor write; 785 attend school; and no fewer than 1,038 do not attend school.

By a return of the state of Education among paupers above sixteen years of age, in the counties of Suffolk and Norfolk, we find that, of 2,725 persons, only 88 could read in a superior manner, and 1,402 could neither read nor write.

A similar document, supplied in the first number of the Journal of the Statistical Society of London,' sets forth that, out of 1,050 paupers in the workhouses of the twelve East Kent Unions, on the 12th day of June 1837, there were only 25 who could read in a superior manner; only 4 who could write in a superior manner; and 474 who could neither read nor write.

An important publication has just appeared, entitled “The State of Education contrasted with the State of Crime in England and Wales. The compiler, whose name is Joseph Bentley, appears to have given great attention in collecting and arranging his materials, and the results of his inquiries are of a still more painful nature than our previous statements. Of the Sunday-schools in Manchester and Salford he made a personal inspection, and found not more than two-fifths of the children of the two boroughs present at them. He remarks, “If we allow the state of Sunday-school Education in Manchester to be the basis by which to ascertain that of any county in England, we should only have two-fifths of the children there every Sabbath, receiving one hour and fifty minutes' instruction per week;" and he adds, “ the Sunday-schools of these two boroughs are not excelled by those of any other towns in the Kingdom. How then can the great mass of the people get knowledge ?" In regard to day-schools, his conclusion is, that in Lancashire (and the case is not materially different, on the average, of England and Wales) more than six-sevenths of the children are, on any given day, away from them. “When," he observes, “we know these facts, we shall not be surprised to hear that, out of 2,000 children, between the age of thirteen and fourteen, examined by Leonard Horner, Esq., only 47 out of every 100 could read; and only 22 out of every 100 could write even imperfectly.”

Now, in relation to these statements, it must be observed, that the ability to read is no evidence in itself of such a culture of mind as the duties of life require; and with the utmost latitude, we can only allow that an individual's education is of much value, when ease of writing is added to fluency in reading. And even with the union of the two, there may remain-there

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