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Works of Art in coral arc not easily described —not easy to he described in such words as will convey an adequate and correct idea of their merit and their beauty. They require to be seen in order to he understood, and consequently to be appreciated. The delicacy and beauty of their tints, the rich gracefulness of their texture, their faculty of forming infinitely varied com hi nations, the lelicity with which they may lw grouped with goldsmith's work in the precious metals, and the sharp, yet tender firmness of their carved and sculptured fronts—friese all are qualities to be estimated by the eye alone. In place, therefore, of any attempts at elaliorate description, we prefer to suggest visits to the collections themselves, which will be found to l>e as varied in their contents as in their capacity; as works of the goldsmith's art they are worthy of all praise. It will be understood that every conceivable variety of ornament has been produced in abundance by Mr. .Phillips in this beautiful substance; and also that on particular works in coral there has been lavished the concentration of the powers of the most skillful, laborious, and accomplished of artists and artist-workmen. We shall not specity any particular examples; but we advise a personal examination of all—from the simple unwrought fragment of pure coral, in its natural forms, and from tue strings of beads, to the most clalx>rately caned cameos and bunches of flowers and foliage, and the ligures that are sculptured so boldy, and finished with such masterly taste.
Whether this coral is in its nature identical with the coral of the great reefs of the Pacific— those wondrous ever-growing sea-walls that rise as if self-ieared from out of the deptus of ocean —is n matter that it is not our present purpose to discuss. This identity is generally accepted as a matter of course—the coral of the Bay of Naples and of the Sardinian waters of the Mediterranean, and the coral of the open ocean in the farthest West, is all " coral." But there is, nevertheless, more thau a slight structural difference between the coral which grows under Mr. Pnillipss teaching, into beads, and bracelets, and brooches, and tiaias, and even statuettes, and tne reef-growth that advances steadily in the face of the perpetual la»hing of ocean-breakers that know no rest. The reet-coral, certainly, is formed by myriads of coral-insects. Did not the Art-coral once sprout as a plant? Mr. Phillips cau show some curious and suggestive specimens, that have a strange sectional an well as a decided ramifying resemblance to small branches of trees or surahs.
The English collections of works of Art and coral, of wliich we have now beeu speaking, are second to none, either in Italy or cloewucrc, in extent, excelienee, or value. Some idea of the last-named quality of these works in coral may be formed, when we add that the intrinsic value of uie finest varieties of Neapolitan gem-coral is more tliau five times that of gold, i'lita general suuement may be illustrated by a particular example; we select, as such an example, a iucklaee tuat may now be seen at Cucxspur Street; it cousisls of thirty-two coral beads, graduated in size, perlect in torin, and of exquisite delicacy in their tint and tone of color, ami its valae is one thousand guineas. This enables us to understand how it was that one of the must powerful and
wealthy of the nobles of mediaeval England, in the curious and instructive inventory (Inventory of Humphrey de Buhun, Earl of Hereford, time of Edward II.) of his property which has conn down to us, should have grouped his rosiry of coral with the most precious of his personal passessions.—Art Journal.
The Origin of the Salt in the D?,id Sea.—On? of our most distinguished explorers of the Holy Land attributes the intensely saline character of the Dead Sea to the hill of Jehell (J< Itn. T.iis is a huge ridge of salt, about a mile wide, and running N. K. and S. \V. for a distance of three miles and a half, and then due N. and S. for four miles further. It is situated near the south ;rn extremity of the Dead Sea, and renters that portion of it much more salt than the northern portion. Further, Mr. Tristram thinks that it is the proximate c.iu-e of the sdtness of the Deal Sea, the drainage to which has been dissolving away portions of salt, and cartying it to the Dead Sea ever since the elevation of the ridge of Akabah separated the latter from the Red Sea, or sinee the desiccation of the ocean, which existed to the Eocene period, presuming (which seems most probable) that the fissures of the Glior were of submarine origin, and that the valley itself was, during the Tertiary period, the northernmost of a series of African lakes, of which the Ked Sea Was the next.—Vide GeologicalMagazine, June, 186.3.
Seat of the old S'xxon Kings.—To the historiau and the archaeologist the village of Bjsham, situated a few mile to the westward of the city of Chichester, is a place of considerable interest. It was a place of some importance in the earliest times of which we have record, and is more than once mentioned in the oil Saxon chronicles. The Saxon kings lived here, and the remains of an old forest still passes by the name of Utd Park. Canute's daughter was buried in Bosham Cuurch; and it is more probable that, if the story of Canute's lecturing his courtiers on the sett-shore be true, the incident took plaec here rather than at Southampton. This was the first place upon the Sussex coast in which Christianity was taught: for when Wilfrid landed at Selsey, about the year 680, he found a poor monastery already existing at Bosham. It was from this place that Harold started when he visited Normandy; and Bosham Church makes a conspicuous feature near the commencement of the U iveux tapestry. It had long been acknowledged that the tower of Bosham Church was a Saxon work, and that it was the highest tower built at that period iu the kingdom; recent discoveries show that there is a great deal of undoubted Saxon work in other parts of the building. There is a small crypt, several interesting monuments a Saxon font, a very old chest, some good carved woodwork, and other things of interest about this church. The works of restoration is going on under the management of the vicar, the Rev. II. Mitchell. F.S.A.
Origin and Migration of the Greenhnd Esquimaux.—In a paper receutly read before the
Royal Geographical Society, by Mr. Markham, the secretary, it was stated that until within the last nine centuries not a single individual tenanted the vast continent of Greenland, and far beyond this remote period trees and shrubs flourished and blossomed on the slope of Disco, and flowers Decked the waving pastures in the more genial climate of Blanksland and Melville Island; and in the now ice-bound waters of Barrow's Straits, corals, sou-palms, sponges, and gaily-tinted zoophytes lived and throve. At a later period the hardy old Norsemen held this land against the Esquimaux (the original possessors, and who appear to have migrated from the wilds of Siberia; i the Norsemen seem to have dwindled away until the few remaining occupied two small villages in remote parts of the country. Years rolled away, and when Greenland was again visited, all record that remained of the "sea-kings" were a few Kunic inscriptions, some crumbling ruins, and the fragments of the chinch bells that once tolled at Gaidar. Central Asia was, in all probability, the oilginal home of the Esquimaux, although, in all likelihood, other tribes preceded them. The route chosen by these poor wanderers is rendered clear by the discovery, by nearly all Arctic explorers, of evidences of human existence, in the shape of ruined huts, fragments of carved bone, traps, and fishing-spears on Bathurst, Melville, Baring, and other islands—means to enable them to sustain lite amidst the desolation surrounding them, as they ciept along by slow degrees from Baring Island to Cape Warrender, until at last on the Greenland coast they found a resting-place. It is supposed that part of these hordes went southwaul, dro\e out the .Norsemen, and peopled Greenhind. The remainder wandered siill farther north, and would most likely progress a- long as the conditions for existence were attainable. In all their tiaditions the Esquimaux maintain a firm belief in the existence of an iceless sea far away north. To discover the northern remnant of these stiange people would be one great feature in any new Polar cxpcdiiion.—Leisure Uour.
The Judge's White Gloves.—It is quite possible for a national custom to be so long existing as to have outlived nearly all knowledge of the verycause which gave rise to it. The claim of tlie judge to be presented with a pair of white gloves at a Maiden Assize is a ease of the kind. To give an instance: The late Lord Campbell, as reported in "The Lincolnshire Chronicle," March 14th, 1W5G, in his address to the Grand Jury, said, "He had received the joyful news that there was not a single prifoner in the gaol for trial—a circumstance, so tar as the city was concerned, most creditable to the inhabitants and to all who presided over them. He (Lord Campbell) began his official duties as judge in that city six yearn ago, and now, for the third time during that period, he had presided at a. Maiden Assize. On each occasion he had been presented wiih a pair of white gloves as a token ot the innocence of the city, and he should again gladly claim them." The city sheriff then rose and presented his lord
ship with an elegant pair of white gloves beautifully embroidered, ornamented with Brussels luce, and having the city arms embossed in frosted silver on the back of each glove. His lordship, on receiving the gloves, added "that the absence of crime was highly creditable to the magistrates, as i well as the inhabitants, and he hoped thi-y might, on many future occasions, have the gratification of making to other judges a similar present." The white color may indicate innocence, as Lord Cam|>l>ell suggests; but why a pair ot gloves should be given is not explained. The only statement we have seen is as follows: "It is one of the few relics of that symbolism so observable in the ; early laws of this, as of all other countries. Its origin is doubtless to be found in the fact of the hand being, in the early Germanic laws, a symbol of power. By the hand, property was dcliri ered over or re-claimed, hand joined in hand to strike a bargain, and to celebrate espousals. That this symbolism should sometimes lie transferred from the hand to the glove is hut natural, and it ! is in this transfer that we shall find the origin of ! the white gloves in question. At a Maiden Assize i no criminal has been called upon to plead, or, to use the words of Blackstone, 'called u|xm by name to hold up his hand ;' in short, no guilty hand has been held up, and therefore our judges have been accustomed to be presented with white gloves."
The Qceen.—This new and magnificent steam-ship of 3,500 tons Inn-den of the National htearu Navigation Company's Line, Capt. Fred. Grogau commander, arrived from Liverpool Sept. 5th, in twelve days, briugiug 1,400 passengers, and 1,500 tons of freight. She is 400 feet in length, 43 feet breadth, 30 feet deep, of beautiful model and immense proportions, strong as iron and wood can make her. \Ve make this notice as a good service to our many friends, especially clergymen, who may be going to Europe at some time, inspiring them with contideiiee in this line of ships, and in her ample accommodations and comforts as an ocean boat. The cabin fare i) $ 100. in greenbacks, instead of gold, a ,-aving of some $50. over other ships. A word to the wise. \V'e commend this line of ships to the attention i of our friends, at Pier 47, North Uiver. The I agents are Williams and Guyou, 71 Wall street, New York; W. B. Macahster Esq. General Manager, Liverpool.
Bukkeb Hill Monument.—We have received a copy, beautifully printed, of the Proceedings of
I the Bunker Hill Monument Association at the annual meeting, June 17th, 18(J5. The Hon. Washington Warren, President of the Association, de
! livered an eloquent address on the occasion, in which he paid a fitting tribute to the memory and character of the late Hon. Edward Everett, as did also the Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, in a paper prepared for the occasion. The death of President Lincoln was appropriately noticed, and the whole proceedings were of a high order and historic interest, worthy the n.mie and deeds which have been achieved ou Bunker Hill.
REMINISCENCES OF THE EMPEROR, PAUL I. OF RUSSIA.
UtoM THE PAPERS OF A DECEASED BUSSIAN GENERAL OFFICER.*
W Hall, 22nd February, 1840.
Reading this day in L'Eveque's History of Jtussia about the great difference of opinion still existing with regard to the false Demetrius, I was particularly struck by the great dearth of the evidence of contemporaries and eye-witnesses of the events of that remarkable period, and L'Eveque himself remarks that such evi
• The following pages are extracted frfam n
Memoir written by the late General S off,
and transmitted after his death, which took place in 1848 of cholera, by his directions, to the friend who now otters them to the public under the impression that truth of lociU color and detail often confer* a certain value on pictures, wholly independent of regularity of composition. My deceased friend's style of writing English is that of a for
Nbw Sbbim—VoL 11., No. 5.
dence is most important to history, a* eye-witnesses alone can confirm its truth. Having been myself an eye-witness of all the events that occurred during the ! reign of the Emperor Paul I. of Russia, and during the whole of that period attached to the court, where I had opportunities of knowing all that passed in or about it; having been, also, personallyacquainted with the Emperor himself, and every member of this Imperial family, as well as with all the leading men of the period, I have determined to put on paper all that I remember of the events of those interesting years, and thereby, perhaps, throw a new light on the character of Paul I., who was certainly no ordinary man.
eigner, as the reader will immediately perceive; it is, however, perfectly intelligible and not disagreeable, for which reason only a few trifling alterations have been made, and the author's own words are here reproduced as nearly as possible literally. It seemed, however, advisable to abridge some few diffused anecdotes, and omit altogether certain allusions to domestic afflictions, by General
S off, while employed in jotting down hit
reminiscences, as these possessed no interest for the general reader; but beyond this, no alteration has been made in the original manuscript.—Editor of Article.
The reader of the following pages must not think me presumptuous if he finds me speaking much of myself, of many of my friends, and of the regiment in which I served. I introduce most of these particulars as evidence of my hav- j ing been personally "in contact with' those times," and of the truth of the facts which I relate, on which the inter- j est of this narrative, if any, mainly depends. At the period of the accession of the Emperor Paul I. to the throne of Russia, I was in my twenty-first year, and a second-lieutenant in the regiment of Horse Guards, and had previously served two yeara as sous-officer, and four years as officer in the same regiment.* I had also traveled much abroad and been presented at most of the courts of both Germany and Italy, and had consequently mixed much in the highest society both at home and abroad. My father saw much company at his house, where the Ministers of State and Corps Diplomatique were in the habit of meeting familiarly; so that my mind, although young, was pretty well prepared to observe and pay attention to all passing events. To this I must add that being also acquainted with several foreign languages, I took a lively interest in political discussions, and was particularly fond of reading newspapers.
I shall now go back for a moment to the period immediately preceding the accession of the Emperor, as a knowledge of what then took place will serve to explain and throw light on many subsequent occurrences which would be otherwise difficult to understand.
As Grand Duke, Panl Petrovich had with his consort one very magnificent apartment in the Winter Palace at St. Petersburg, and another in that of Czarskoje Selo. In these they held their levees and drawing-rooms, and also gave dinners, soirees, and balls in very brilliant style, on which occasions they show
• When sous-officer I was orderly of Field)farchill Count Soltikoff, and on duty every alternate week, when I had to accompany him wherever he went, and thus frequently came in his suit into the ante-room of the Empress Catherine 1L'» cabinet.
ed the utmost affability to their guests. All the high officers of the court as well as the domestics belonged to the household of the Empress, and did weekly duty in the two establishments, and all the expenses were paid out of the same privy purse, called the Cabinet The Empress Catherine used herself to attend the public entertainments at her son's most graciously, and after the " first entree" mixed familiarly with the company, not permitting the usual etiquette of her own court to be enforced.
The Grand Duke Paul was in outward appearance always most respectful to his mother, although it was very well known that he did not join the Russian nation in their love, gratitude, and admiration towards her. The Grand Duchess, hi« wife, however, loved Catherine like a tender daughter, and this affection was most thoroughly reciprocated. Paul's children, the young Grand Dukes and Duchesses, were brought up under the care of their grandmother, the Empress, who on all occasions consulted their mother, t
Besides the above-mentioned apartments in the two imperial palaces, the Grand Duke Paul had a very comfortable palace called Kammenoy Ostroff, on one of the islands in the Neva; and at this villa the Grand Duke and Duchess gave very gay and select parties, at which jeux d'esprit, theatricals, in fact, everything that wit and gallantry had invented "aux auciennes cours de France," were represented. The Grand Duchess was herself a most beautiful woman, very modest in her manner, even to the appearance of prudery, and as sedate, some said dull, as virtue and decorum could make her. Paul, on the contrary, was full of wit, humor, and animal spirits, and never failed to distinguish by his peculiar attentions those who shone in the same way.
The most brilliant star of the court circle was a young person who had been made Demoiselle d'Honneur on account of the superior talents she had shown during her education at the Convent des Demoiselles—her name was Catherine Nelidoff. In person she was the very reverse of the Grand Duchess, who was tall, fair, inclined to embonpoint, and very short-sighted; while Mademoiselle de Nelidoff was petite brunette, with dark hair,! sparkling black eyes, and a face full of ex- [ pression.* She was a most elegant and sprightly dancer, and astonishingly quick and clever in her conversation, which \ was, however, generally of a reserved character.
t Generals ProtosotVand Sacken were governon of the Grand Dukes, and the Baroness de Licren governess of the Grand Duchesses and the confidential friend of their mother.
Paul did not long remain indifferent to so many attractions; the Grand Duke | was, however, not an immoral man; he was virtuous both in his purposes and intentions; he abhorred profligacy, was much attached to his beautiful wife, and' had not the least suspicion that a witty ladronne could ever so bewitch him as to make him fall distractedly in love with her. He therefore freely indulged in what he considered to be a mere liaison Platonique, and this was the beginning of his extravagances.
The Empress Catherine, who knew the human heart far better than her son did, i was deeply grieved on account of her daughter-in-law. She soon sent her son to travel with his wife, and gave the strict- [ est injunctions that no expense should be spared to render their tour through Europe as brilliant and entertaining as money and her influence at the various courts i they visited could make it They trav- ] eled under the incognito of Comte et j Comtesse du Nord; and it is well known that the wit and cleverness of the Count, I the beauty of the Countess, and the affability of both, left the most favorable impressions of them in the countries they visited.
It must not be supposed that the early education of the Grand Duke Paul had been neglected; far from it, Catherine had certainly done every thing within human means to give her son such an education as would render him capable and worthy of reigning over the vast empire of Russia. Count Panin, the most distinguished statesman of his day, respected both at home and abroad for his integrity, high moral conduct, sincere piety and education, had been Paul's governor. His Imperial Highness had had
in addition the best instructors of the day, many of them foreigners of great distinction in the literary world; his religious education had been most particularly attended to, and Paul was up to the day of his death most devoutly disposed; even now the places where he used to kneel, absorbed in solitary prayer, and often bathed in tears, are pointed out, and the parquet is actually worn by his knees.f Count Panin belonged to several masonic lodges, and the Grand Duke was introduced to some of them; in short, nothing was kept back from him that could contribute to his physical, moral, or intellectual improvement. Paul was one of the best horsemen of his day, and had distinguished himself at caroussels at an early age: he knew the Sclavonic, the Russian, French, and German languages to perfection, had some knowledge of Latin, was well versed in history, geography, and mathematics, and spoke and wrote with great fluency and correctness. Two principal assistants had acted under Count Panin in conducting the education of the Grand Duke: the one, Sergey Pies:cheff, post-captain in the navy, the other Baron Nicolay, a native of Strasburg. M. de Plestcheff had served in the British navy, was a distinguished officer, and a man of general information, but particularly well versed in Russian literature; Baron Nicolay was a savant who had resided at Strasburg, and distinguished himself as the author of various works. Both these gentlemen attended Paul during his tour through Europe. Plestcheff published subsequently Les Voyages du Comte etde la Comtesse du Nord, and both remained attached to, and influential with, the Emperor to the very end of his career.
At Vienna, Naples, and Paris, Paul imbibed those high aristocratic ideas and tastes, subsequently so little in harmony with the spirit of the times, which led him into great excesses in his endeavors to maintain the manners and customs of the ancien regime, at a time that the French Revolution was sweeping away everything of the kind from the continent of Europe. But however mischiev
* Strange enough, another Mademoiselle Nelidoflf appeared in a similar manner at the Court of the Emperor Nicholas.—Editor of Article.
f The officers' guard-room, in which I sat when on duty at Gachina, was next to hisprivate closet; and I have frequently heard the groaning of the Emperor Paul when at prayers.