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lonel by June, 1799, and out of one hundred and thirty-two officers who were in the regiment at the former date, only myself and one other remained in it at the Emperor's death. It waa as bad or worse in those regiments in which the tyranny of Araktchejeff and the other "Gach-j inois" was less restrained than with us.: As may be conceived this system kept the families to which officers belonged in a state of perpetual fear and anxiety, and one may almost say that St. Petersburg, Moscow, and indeed all Russia, were in a state of constant mourning.

Although the aristocracy was of course extremely careful to conceal its discontent and its grievances, the expression of the former sometimes broke out, and dur- { ing the coronation at Moscow the Emperor could not avoid perceiving it. But the lower classes of the people, "the million," greeted the Emperor with such enthusiasm,wheneveran occasion offered, that he attributed the coldness and apparent want of affection of the nobility only to moral corruption and Jacobinical leanings. As regards the moral corruption he was certainjy so far right, as in many instances several of the most discontented had smiling faces and smooth words of flattery when he addressed them individually, which Paul, with his frank and honest nature, never suspected to be duplicity, particularly as he often declared " that being ready and willing to grant a legal trial and full redress to any one who thought themselves aggrieved or unjustly treated, he had no fear of being unjust." It was, however, his arbitrary mode of proceeding that alienated the affections of the noblesse, and sowed the seeds of discontent in every corner of the empire.

I make no apology for introducing here an anecdote of Paul's reigri, in illustration of his extraordinary character and mode of proceeding. I have already mentioned that grass green was formerly the color worn by the Russian army and white by the navy, and that Paul had changed them both into dark green, of a bluish tint, so as to render it more like the blue worn by the Prussian army. This dye being made of mineral substances, which settled down at the bottom of the vate, it became a matter of great difficulty to manufacture a large quantity

of cloth of precisely the same shada The troops were however to appear in the new uniforms by a certain day, at the manoeuvres at Gachina, and it was necessary to procure a large quantity of cloth dyed in piece. But everything had to be done in such a hurry that the commissariat department had no time to sort the differet shades for the several brigades and divisions, so that in many regiments there was some difference of tint in the uniform. Paul observing this immediately, was very angry, and forthwith sealed a pattern with his own seal, and issued a severe rescript to the Board of Manufactures, ordering that the crown factories should all make the cloth of precisely the same color and shade as per pattern. My father was then Vice-President of this Board, and in fact the manager of the whole department, for Prince Usoupoff, the President, never did anything. The Emperor ordered, therefore, Lieut.-General Lamp, President of the War Office, to recommend this affair to my father's special attention; and the latter, in consequence, issued a circular order to the crown manufactories, embodying his Majesty's commands and desiring them to report immediately by return of post.

The reports were sent in almost simultaneously, and represented that the nature of the dye rendered it impossible to make cloth dyed t» piece of exactly the same shade throughout, and my father communicated this to General Lamp. Just at the moment a sort of grippe was very prevalent at St. Petersburg, terminating fatally in many instances, and my father was seized with this disorder, becoming very ill indeed, with high fever and a tendency to delirium. Of course perfect quiet was ordered for him.

Meanwhile General Lamp carried bia portfolio to Gachina, where the Emperor then resided; and on his arrival found his Majesty on horse-back just going to a review. The Emperor asked whether there was anything new or important, and the General answered, "Nothing of interest except a letter from VicePresident S , with an answer from

the manufacturers, who one and all informed him that it was utterly impossible to dye the cloth in piece of exactly the same shade." "What, impossible!" said the Emperor; "very well." Without saying another word Paul dismounted, went into the palace, and immediately despatched a special fieldjuger to Count Pahlen, Military Governor of St Petersburg, with the following order:

"Banish out of the town Privy Councillor

8 , dismissed from the service, and send

the messenger back immediately with a report of this order having been executed.

(Signed) "paul."

I was sitting watching my poor father in a room adjoining his cabinet, when Major-General Lisanoviteh, the PoliceMaster, an intimate friend of the family, came in and asked me, "What is your father doing!" I replied, "Lying in the next room, as I fear, on his deathbed." "Indeed,"repliedLisanovitch; "I must nevertheless see him, as I have an order from the Emperor to communicate to him instantly." With this he went into the inner room and I followed him.

My poor father's face was quite purple, and he was scarcely conscious of what went on about him. Lisanovitch called out to him, "Alexander, Alexandrovitsch!" twice, and my father rousing himself a little, said, "Who are you: what do you want t" "I am Lisanovitch, the Police-Master, don't you know me 1" My father replied, "Oh, Wassily Ivauitsch, it is you. I am very ill, what do you want 1" "Here, sir, is an order for you from the Emperor." My father opened the paper, and 1 placed myself so as to be able to read and at the same time observe the effect on my father's face. He read the paper, rubbed his eyes, and exclaimed, •• Good God '. but what have 1 done t" "I don't know anything, except that I must send you away out of St. Petersburg." "But you see, my dear friend, in what a state I am." "1 can not help that; I must obey orders. 1 shall leave a police officer in the house to witness your removal, and will go myself immediately to report your state to Count Pahlen: you had better send your son to him too."

1 thanked God when I saw my poor father grow pale, alter having been previously quite purple, for 1 feared he might have iia.i an apoplectic stroke. My dear mother, who was all energy and presence of mind in moments of difficulty, knowing that the Emperor would be inexora

ble at first, sent immediately to our villa, situated a couple of miles out of town, to have a bed prepared in the gardener's room which was heated with a stove: it was in winter but not very cold; she also ordered a coach to be prepared and sent for a doctor.

I went to Count Pahlen, who was very much attached to my father, and had been very kind to me on several occasions. "Here is a pretty job," said he; "will you have a glass of Lafitte I" * "I don't want any Lafitte, but I want you to let my father remain where he is." "That is impossible; dites a votre pere qu'il sait combien je 1'aime et que je n'y puis rien, que si 1'un de nous deux doit aller au diable c'est lui qui doit y aller. Qu'il sorte de la ville coute que coute apres cela nous verrons a ce qu'on peut faire. Mais pourquoi diable est il renvoye t" asked the Count. "Ni moi ni mon pere n'en savons rien." I then shook hands and went away.

On returning home I found everything ready for my father's removal; my dear mother had been indefatigable, had wrapped him well up in fur clothing, and got a bed made in the carriage into which he was lifted, she herself sitting alongside and the doctor following in another carriage. In three hours after the order had been issued my father had already passed the barriers of the city. The police officer made his report to Count Pahlen to that effect, he being Governor, and the latter sent back the h'eld-jiiger to the Emperor to report that the order of banishment had been executed.

In the evening I went to see my father; both my mother and the doctor were with him and no serious consequences were anticipated. But, alas, he got a slight touch of palsy from which he never recovered. Two days after this occurred, it was announced that the Emperor and the whole court were to be in town the next morning; a guard was ordered as usual, and it was my turn for duty. Out of one hundred and six men, of which my squadron consisted, ninety-six were to be on parade, mounted, which is a large number. As it was usual that when one of a certain name suffered punishment, all others bearing the same name were made to suffer too, ray appearance on parade just when my father had been dismissed the service and banished, became rather a nervous affair; but there was no help for it, appear I must with my whole squadron. I knew, indeed, j that it was well drilled; but mistakes might occur, and the consequences might be most serious to myself: not only to myself, but to my squadron, and even to the whole regiment; as had happened more than once under similar circumstances.

* It was a standing joke that the Count always offered a gloat of Latitte to any one that got into a scrape

Our commanding officer, Prince Galitzin, ordered my squadron out (on the previous day) to make a rehearsal of the parade, and the officers and men were so nervous that everything went wrong; the general was in despair. I begged him, however, to be quiet, and not find fault and all would go well. I myself praised the men, ordered them to go to the vapor bath, and afterwards eat a good substantial supper and go quietly to bed. As to the officers, who ran the greatest risk, I begged of them to think of nothing, but only listen to the words of command. I gave strict orders at the barracks not to have my men called up until I should come myself. In those days the soldiers all wore curls and thick pigtails, with plenty of powder and pomatum, and dressing the hair took a long time, as we had only two perruquiers in each squadron; so that the men, when preparing for a parade, were obliged to sit up all night for their "frisure."* Tliis would never have done in my precarious position, where everything depended on the state of the men's nerves; | and I therefore got all the hair dressers of the regiment together to dress up my squadron, by which means I was enabled to allow the men a good long sleep. At live o'clock in the morning I had them called up, and at nine o'clock men and horses were all ready, and when drawn up before the barracks looked fresh and in 'good spirits. I mounted my fine bay mare, Le Chevalier d'Eon, gave the men a cheer, then the word of command, and marched off to the palace.

At tirst the Emperor looked sulky, but

*Thia was a part of the Prussian system of which some people are so much enamored.—Editor of Article.

I gave the word of command with redoubled energy, the officers and men did their duty admirably, and his Majesty, to his own astonishment I believe, was so much pleased, that he came to praise me twice. Everything, in fact, went right for me, for the squadron, for the regiment, and for my father; indeed, for every one that had to speak to his Imperial Majesty that day, for a storm of this kind affected all who came near him, whether male or female, not excepting his own family.

I must now beg of the reader to accompany me once more to Gachina, and we must also go back to the moment at which the Emperor signed the order for my father's dismissal and banishment. With the same pen he appointed Senator Arskenewski Vice-President of the Board of Manufactures, in place of my father, and by a special rescript, directed him to enforce his orders respecting the colors of the cloth. Arskenewski was a very intelligent and excellent man, and known to be a particular friend and admirer of my father. This the emperor too was aware of, for on most occasions they voted together in the Senate, and Paul had often sided with them; it is therefore evident that in the nomination of Arskenewski, there was no animosity against my father. Without an hour's delay, for the very minutes were of importance, the new Vice-President took his seat at the board: Prince Usoupoff, the President, could neither give any explanation of what had occurred, nor offer any suggestion as to what should be done. Arskenewski examined himself into the business, went then and consulted my father, and finding that nothing else was to be done more than what my father had done, and rather than incur any further responsibility, he presented a petition to the Emperor requesting permission to leave the service, and enclosed a letter to his Majesty explaining the motives of his request. In the meantime, Beklisheff, the Attorney-General of the Senate, who was in fact, Minister of Justice, recommended my father to write a short letter to the Emperor, expressing his sorrow at having incurred his heavy displeasure This and Arskenewski's petition he took care to present to Paul immediately after hia return from the parade at which I had received so much praise. The Emperor had himself just recovered from the grippe, and felt still unwell in consequence; and on hearing how roughly the sentence of banishment had been carried out he was much moved. He called in the Procureur-Qeneral, and with tears in his eyes requested him to wait immediately on my father, apologize for his petulance, for the cruel injustice of which he had been guilty, and entreat his forgiveness. After this kind message, he sent every day, sometimes twice, to inquire about my father's health, and when he was at length able to go out and wait on his Majesty, a most touching scene of reconciliation took place in Becklisheff s presence: my father being of course restored to his former position.

This occurrence was most unfortunate for the Emperor in public estimation, both my parents being very much loved and respected; indeed, there were not two more popular people in Petersburg, and deservedly so, from their kindness and benevolence to those who were oppressed or distressed, and their politeness to all. During the few days of my father's banishment, and afterwards on his return home, constant inquiries were made for him; and the detestation people felt for the treatment he had experienced was loudly expressed, and in no measured terms, both in conversation and in letters which arrived from Moscow and the interior. It may appear in • credible that, in a country subject to the autocratic rule of a sovereign whose power was not limited by constitutional rules and customs, and whose natural violence was untamable, so much " freedom of blame" should have been used: but the old Russian spirit was then still in existence, and not to be silenced by severity or police regulations.

With a man of the Emperor Paul's character, so anxious to do right and so generous in his disposition, how differently things might have happened if Count Pahlen had taken advantage of my father's severe illness and used the police-master's report, thereby giving the Emperor time to reflect and examine the cause of provocation. But it did not suit the plans of Count Pahleu and those who acted with him, to allow Paul to

K«w Serum—Vol. II., No. 6.

repent; his doom was sealed, he was to perish. Whenever Pahlen heard high words of criticism, he used to call the speakers to order, saying, "Messieurs! Jean f. . . . qui parle brave homme qui agit"

Edinburgh Review.

LETTERS FROM EGYPT.*

Egypt, at the commencement of the present century, was almost as unknown and mysterious as her own hieroglyphics. If we except the Arabic histories and descriptions open only to the learned in that recondite language, Herodotus was our most recent authority. Egypt, possessing the highest interest to the historian and the divine, was scarcely as much known to Europe as the wilds of Tarta^ ry. Napoleon first broke the spell of mystery that held the land, and the celebrated commission of the French Institute, headed by Denon, accompanied the armies which fought beside the Pyramids. Then followed Bruce, Belzoni, Niebuhr, Burckhardt; all of whom did good work towards disinterring Egypt from the sands of its deserts, and removing the obstacles raised by Mohammedan intolerance and apathy. At length, about the year 1825, a small party of Englishmen met in Cairo, living among the people like Copts or Arabs, and patiently studying the manners and customs both of ancient and modern Egypt. Two of that party were Wilkinson and Lane, one of whom exhausted the ancient people, the other, with inimitable accuracy, the modern Egyptians.

Such was our acquaintance with the land of the Pharaohs, of Joseph, and of Moses, when, five-and-twenty years ago, a line of steam-packets to Alexandria threw open the country to pleasure-seekers and health-seekers. The Nile soon superseded the Rhine for a fashionable tour, and we have been inundated, not by its fertilizing waters, but by a flood of books about Egypt, of which it may be generally said that they have done little to increase our knowledge of the antiquities of the country, nothing whatever

* Ltlters from Egyjtt, 1863-65. By Ladi Duff Gordon. London: 1865. 34

to make us better acquainted with its' people. We know no more at the pres- > ent day of the inhabitants, of their feel-! ings and tastes, their human sympathies | and religious hopes, than we did before j the stream of tourists setNilewards. True, Mr. Lane may be said to have done all that can be done in the way of describing that people; but the "Modem Egyptians" is not intended to give us everyday experience of life in Egypt—rather the results of that experience. Even the brilliant pages of Euthen, of Miss Martineau, and those of two or three other writers, , afford us little insight into the inner life of the Egyptian. Nor is the cause far to! seek. A foreign people can not be understood in a short, and generally hurried, visit; nor indeed can they be appreciated' by the oldest resident, unless he will consent to waive all prejudice and live among them as one of themselves.

Perhaps Lady Duff Gordon will not be envied for the experience she has gained, j It has been dearly bought, enforced by protracted illness, and involving banishment from her family and friends, the privileges of society, even the common i comforts of life. She went to Egypt unprejudiced against the people, and has | lived among them, chiefly at Thebes.! Her letters, which form the little volume j at the head of this article, were not writ-' ten for the public eye, but were addressed to her two nearest relations: they are, therefore, entirely free from constraint,' and do not pretend to high literary mer-1 it, although they are written in a singu- j larly captivating and vigorous English | style ; but they possess the rare virtue of enabling the reader to realize the position of the writer and the true aspect of the people. Livingstone has borne witness to African virtues, the "Competition Wallah" has courageously fought the battle of our Indian fellow-subjects, we have felt with Vambe'ry the parting from his faithful but filthy friends, who were so repulsive till on better acquaintance we learned to respect their hearts. The same lesson may be learned from these letters, for it is not often that an Englishman, let alone an English lady, lives among modern Egyptians. Every one who has done the same in any country of the East will enter into her feelings -Aii en she says:

"I am so used now to onr poor, shabby life, that it makes quite a strange impression on me to see all the splendor which English travelers manage to bring with them on board their boats,—splendor which, two or three years ago, I should not even have remarked. And thus, out of my 'inward consciousness' (as Germans say), many of the peculiarities and faults of the people of Egypt are explained to me and accounted for." (p. 357.)

To form a just estimate of the Egyptian, we ought to have more of an acquaintance with him as he is; we require some knowledge of the events of history that have reduced him to his present state, and of the government that every day moulds his thoughts. Let us briefly relate how he has reached his present condition, and what is the pedigree of the people whose "country is a palimpsest, in which the Bible is written over "Herodotus, and the Koran over that."

For the last two-and-twenty centuries, Egypt has been without a native ruler. The ancient kingdom of the Pharaohs fell with the second subjugation of the country by the Persians, about the year B.o. 350 ; after having been shaken toils foundations, and its capital destroyed, by Cambyses two centuries before. The. Persians were succeeded by the Greeks, to whom the possession of Egypt passed, with that of Persia, of which it was a province, by the conquest of Alexander the Great; and under the Ptolemies it recovered much of its prosperity, albeit theirs too was an alien rule. Three hundred years later, when it became a Roman province, the population consisted partly of Greek, partly of slaves. The Egyptian himself was almost denationalized. Augustus perpetuated the degradation of the native inhabitants, and since his time the system he inaugurated of government by lieutenants of the Empire has continued, with the exception of the more brilliant period corresponding to the times of the Crusades. The Mohammedan invaders, six centuries later, found the country in every respect weaker than when the Romans first gained possession of it. Religious animosities had been added to political feuds. The native population having embraced. Christianity under the ritual of the Coptic Church, hated the Greek communion and its professors more than they hated the newly promulgated faith of Arabia.

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