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change has been built, the society has occupied a set of rooms in that building. The members are not merely underwriters. More than a century ago a society of underwriters was formed, and about eighty years ago a society of shipowners. lu 1834 a new Lloyd's was formed by combining underwriters, shipowners, insurance-brokers, and shipping-merchants in one society or committee. The old Lloyd's, or Underwriters' Society, held mainly in view the preparation and annual publication of a Register of British merchant shipping, notifying the age, burthen, quality, and condition of all the vessels. This Register is of great convenience to underwriters and shipowners, in establishing the equity of the terms of insurance for any particular ship. The members of Lloyd's pay an annual fee, for which they have the use of an underwriters' room, a captains' room, a reading-room, an inquiry office, and other apaitments. The affairs are managed by a committee, comprising equal numbers of shipowners, underwriters, and merchants. The primary object of all the members alike is to give what may be called a character to every ship in the British merchant service; an estimate founded on her size, shape, build, materials, age and condition. A merchant can thus tell whether a ship in which his goods are about to be placed is likely to be trustworthy, or has a "good character ;" an underwriter can tell whether a ship which he is about to insure should pay a high or low rate of premium—the higher according to its age or unsoundness; and shipowners can tell what ought to be the relative values of different ships by the same test. To ascertain the characters of ships in this way is a formidable work. In the earlier days of the system, the committee classified ships merely according to their ages and the places where they were built; ranking as "first-class" those built within a certain number of years, and "second-class" those older than this limit. Or, more precisely, they were divided into classes A, E, 1, and O, according to the age of the hull, and into sub-classes 1, 2, and 3, according to the rigging. But this rude method has been superseded by one more reasonable and discriminating, which would take the actual present condition
of the ship into view; seeing that a sound, substantial old ship is more worthy of respect than a cheaply-built new one. Surveyors are appointed by Lloyd's Committee at all the chief ship-buildi ng ports to report upon the ships. As it is optional with every ship-owner whether he will belong to Lloyd's or not, so is it free to him to determine whether his ship shall undergo this scrutiny; but he can obtain better freights and easier insurance if his ship ranks well at Lloyd's, and therefore it is usually worth his while to pay the fee incurred for this purpose. The surveyor ascertains the age of the vessel, the kind of timber mostly employed in her construction, the style of build, the wear and tear she haa received, the amount and kind of repair she has undergone, and her present condition. All these particulars are taken into account in giving her a rank or position. The phrase or designation Al, for any thing that is tirst-rate of its kind, is borrowed from the phraseology of L/uytfi Register. A kind of biography of every ship is kept up; for as in the natural course of things age brings on deterioration in a ship, the rank in 1865 may not be the same as in 18G4. The surveyors record their surveys sufficiently often to make their register truthful as concerns the actual condition of the ships.
Lloyd the mysterious becomes, then, practically a book—a register with which the general public have not much to do —containing items of information concerning a ship's owner, captain, port, age, materials, state of repair, <fcc. Or rather, this is one-half of Lloyd, who has a sort of mystical double existence. The other half consists of a List, known equally by Lloyd's name. Shipping intelligence is obtained from almost every port on the globe by agents in correspondence with Lloyd's, notifying the arrival and departure of all ships, ships "spoken with" at sea, and ships wrecked or damaged. This information is regularly booked, and is afterwards published as Lloyd's List. Most of the ship-news in the daily papers Is obtained f-om this Lis\ Lloyd's Register and Lloyd's Lid belong to and are managed by two different committees, but they are both emanatious of the one great invisible Lloyd.
A ship "spoken with" at sea: It ia a curious proceeding, whether regarded j in connection with matters ashore or matters afloat. Not only is it important for shipowners, shippers, underwriters, and the relatives and friends of passen-j gers and crews, to know something of the whereabouts of a particular ship at a particular time, but the captain of a ship < may anxiously desire to give or receive \ some information or make some request.; How is this to be done, when ships pass each other on the ocean? They can not with safety, and without losing time, approach sufficiently close for the captains to converse visa race, even with the aid of a mammoth speaking-trumpet. This' could be done by the Sibyl and the Syren when they pass each other on their voyages to and from Greenwich ; but on the broad and rough ocean it is a very different affair. The talking is carried j on bv Jl'tffs- Flags of different shapes and i colors are hoisted; and the order in; which they are shown indicates the ship's! name, or any one among a large number: of phrases, sentences, questions, and an- i swers. A very elaborate code or vocabulary is necessary for the working out of such a system. In 1854, a Mercantile Shipping Act was passed, which, among other things, required that every mer-: chant-ship in the British empire should have a particular number, which should belong to it irrevocably, and should be different from the number belonging to any other ship. There were 35,000 British merchant-ships then existing; and as a thousand or so are added every year, to meet the demands of increasing commerce, and to replace old ships broken np, the aggregate must now be i greatly over 40,000. The official num-; ber for each ship under the control of the Board of Trade is marked on the I mainbeam, and written on the certificate of registry, and the owner is not allowed! to change it. If ship No. 30,425 meets! ship No, 40,377, on the ocean, each captain wants to know the number of the oilier ship ; he ascertains it, and then, by' referring to a code or vocabulary pre- | pared by the Board, he can tell, the name of the ship, the tonnage, ano, the port to which she belongs. True, he can U-ll tliis if he ascertain the number ; but there is the difficulty. Ingenious men have devised systems of exhibiting flags
in such modes as to denote numerals. At least a dozen such systems have been adopted, each inventor, of course, insisting that his was the best The Board of Trade, in 185fi, appointed a committee to examine all these systems, with a view to determine which was the best, or whether a new one could be devised better than any of them. The inquiry resulted in the preparation of a Commercial Code of Siyiial*, which is now used by the Royal Navy as well as by the Mercantile Marine. The Board of Trade determines what shall be the official number of each ship, but the Commercial Code determines how to express this number by letters and flags. The Talavera of Liverpool, a sailing-vessel of 437 tons, may change owners, or may change ports ; but she will always, as long as she remains on the Register of British Shipping, be the Talavera; she will always have the 9,999, and this number will always be represented by the flag-signal K L Q N. The Clara of Gloucester, as another instance, whether she changes owners and ports or not, will continue to be the Clara, with the number 12,345, and the signal L B K W.
Every signal-flag represents a letter, and the new Code has eighteen consonant-letters represented by an equal number of flags. Showing not more than four flags at a time, there are nearly 80.000 different permutations or ways in which they may be arranged. Schoolboys will understand this when they bear in mind their famous problem about the persons who sat down to dinner in different order every day ; and lock-pickers will understand it when they count up the millions of ways in which a puzzlelock may be adjusted. If we were to add the groups of five flags at a time, the number of permutations would be more than a million. The authorities have agreed that 80,000 will be enough for all practical purposes; and there can actually be nearly 80,000 differentand distinct signals made by means of eighteen flags, never more than four flags hoisted at a time. The flags are of three different shapes: the square flag, about b feet by 6; the burgee, a square flag with a sort of notch in the front edge; and the/»itdant, a triangular strip, 15 feet long by 5 at the broadest end. They differ still more widely in color and pattern; red I all over, a red spot on a white ground, blue and white stripes, two vertical stripes of blue and yellow, a blue cross on a white ground, a white square spot on a blue ground, a blue square spot on a white ground, two vertical stripes of red and white, a white cross on a blue ground, vertical stripes of red, white, and blue, and so on. Each flag has always the same symbolic meaning; thus a pendant or elongated triangular flag, with a red spot on a white ground, always means C; but what C means, the Code or Vocabulary determines.
The committee appointed by the Board of Trade reported that any good code of signals should "afford a ready means of making known to signal-stations, or when ships pass each other at sea, the identity , of particular vessels, so that their prog- j ress and whereabouts may be correctly reported; of communicating at sea the wants and wishes of masters or captains; and of extending the means of intercourse to the vessels of all countries, by the establishment of an international code of signals." Accordingly, the 80,000 pos- j sible combinations above adverted to are made available for a large budget of seagossip. There being eighteen flags, | there may be eighteen signals of one flag each, and it is arranged that these shall signify such useful little words as " Yes," "No," &c. The groups of two flags each amount to two or three hundred varieties, and furnish many signals useful on shipboard; such, for instance, as attention and demand signals, of which "Show your ensign," and "Pay attention," are examples; signals to denote the points of the compass, and signals of distress on shipboard, such as "On fire," "Fire gains rapidly," &c. The groups of three flags each furnish varieties amounting to some thousands in number. First comes a series relating to many of the troubles incident to shipping, —abandonment of ship, ship aground, capsizing, collision, dismasting, springing a leak, water-logging, <fce.; then a series relating to news, newspapers, letters, despatches, mails, and the like; next a series of questions and information concerning crew, captain, and passengers; then another relating to ship's place, ship's reckoning, nautical instru
ments, observations, and the like; then a series of short phrases bearing relation to a ship's fittings, provisions, engines, and boilers; and lastly, another concerning anchorage, soundings, lights, landmarks, buoys, beacons, pilotage, steering, tides, currents, and other matters relating to the coming of a ship to harbor —all these expressed by hoisting three flags, varying in shape, color, pattern, and arrangement The groups of four flags are, however, the most important of the whole, seeing that they amount to something like 70,000 in number. Here it is that we find the official numbers of ships symbolized—signs by which we may identify every ship in the British empire, whether belonging to the Royal Navy or to the Merchant Service. These, as we have said, are between 40,000 and 50,000 in number; and after they are satisfied, there are many thousand unappropriated groupings of four flags, available for signaling other matters relating to ships and their employment. There are the names of places, islands, seas, headlands, &c, all over the world ; there is a very extensive vocabulary of words, phrases, and sentences useful in maritime matters; and there is a list of short syllables, available in the construction of words not in the vocabulary. And thus it is that some meaning or other is attached to almost every possible combi-_ nation of the flags, in groups of one, two, three, or four each.
But, it may be asked, how do the sailors, captains, and signalmen know the exact meaning of every combination of flags? Can they commit70,000 signals and combinations to memory t Assuredly not. To assist them, a Commercial Code of Signals has been prepared, in an octavo volume. Every flag, according to its shape, color, and pattern, represents a particular letter; every group of such flags represents a particular group of letters ; and every group of letters has a particular meaning in relation to ships and maritime affairs. Thus, in reference to a ship's stores, K B L, the names of three particular flags disposed in a particular way, always denote "tea;" and K B Q [."sugar." In relation to other matters, ! N M would be a startling combination j of two flags, for it denotes "on fire ;" j while N P denotes "fire gains rapidly;" whereas N Q gives the information "fire could be extinguished with immediate aid." Let us suppose that two ships meet at sea. One hoists up four flags in a conspicuous position on one of the masts; the flags being arranged in a vertical row, (oread downwards. The signalman in the other ship notices that the uppermost flag is that particular one in shape, color, and device which represents the letter M, and that the other three represent W, D, and R respectively. He thus gets at the fact that the ship's signal is M W D R; and by referring to the Code-book he finds this to correspond with the number 20,202, the official number of the ship Lamplighter, a number that belongs to no other ship whatever. As far as a sea-telescope can render the flags distincjt, so far does this power extend of ascertaining a ship's name, and at the same time her port and tonnage, and other items also entered in the Register. The ship Lamplighter in a similar way ascertains the name of the other ship; and then they proceed with their gossip, each telling the other whence she came and wliither she is going, and giving and receiving information useful to both. There is, of course, a good deal of hauling up and down of flags in reference to this gossip; but this is routine-work, requiring only patience and attention. One ship may want to buy some bread, or to borrow an anchor of the other, or to send a letter-bag by her, or to ask whether there are any belligerent cruisers about, or whether any storms have been encountered ; the flags and the Code-book enable the one vessel to make, and the other to interpret, the necessary signals for these purposes. The Codebook contains nearly 20,000 words, phrases, and sentences, each with its flagsignal ; whereby the conversational power of ships at sea is really something considerable—all added to the 40,000 or 50,000 signals for the names of ships. Slight differences in the flags distinguish men-of-war and troop or transport ships roin merchant vessels; and there is a system for bringing foreign ships under the same arrangement, whenever governments and owners are willing to do to. Some few shipowners even in England aie too niggardly to afford a complete set of flags, with a Code and a Reg
ister; and some captains are too oldfashioned to take easily to the system; but this foolishness is gradually disappearing.
The invisible Lloyd may continue to keep a record of the inaudible speakings of ships at sea for ages to come, for aught we can see. Day and Martin's blacking would be nothing particular without the name; Day may be dead, and Martin dead, and yet both live in the small stonebottles. And so it is with Lloyd. He lives after his death; lives not only in England, but abroad; for there is an Austrian Lloyd's, founded for much the same purpose as the one in England, and borrowing the very name.
BY THEODOBE KABCHKB.
In the early part of last year, the inhabitants of Paris witnessed a remarkable funeral procession passing along the Boulevards. Men of every rank and every profession, politicians and artists, members of the Institut de France and simple mechanics, followed the hearse which carried to the grave the mortal remains of a great sculptor and a good citizen, David (d'Angers). The students who lined the streets, recognizing among the mourners the venerable old poet Beranger, cheered him enthusiastically, and the silence which is generally observed on such solemn occasions by the French people, was soon broken by the cries of" Vive la liberte! yive Beranger!" But the young patriots were arrested, and several of them sentenced to fines and imprisonment.
This public emotion will be easily accounted for if we remember that in David (d'Angers) the art of sculpture had lost one of its chiefs on the Continent, and the republican party a man who had faithfully belonged to it from his childhood to the end of bis life. During a career of sixty-seven years, he had completed more than one hundred busts and five hundred medallions; and produced, among other chefs-d'oeuvre, the statue of Guttenberg at Strasbourg, the sutuea of General Bonchamps, Corneille, Cuvier, and Jefferson, the triumphal arch at Mar
seilles, and the fronton of the Pantheon at Paris.
Our object is not so much to dwell here on the artistical merits of that great man, as to give the true story of his life. It has been our good fortune to draw it from private sources, from near relations of the late sculptor, and we thought it to be a very instructive tale, for it will prove once more that every high aim may be obtained in the world by a certain amount of energy and perseverance.
David's father was a not altogether unworthy sculptor in wood, and had been left an orphan when still a mere child. A distant relative, a rather indifferent carver, had undertaken to teach him his own profession; but the intelligent boy soon discovered that his master's knowledge was not very profound, and spent all his leisure hours in peeping through the windows of distinguished artists. One of the most illustrious remarked this persevering attention, and addressing one day abruptly the poor youth, who looked steadfastly at him, said, "You seem to be much pleased with my work, my child; shall I teach you to do the game?" The young Louis accepted with enthusiasm, and left his parent a few days afterwards. But his new master was a gambler and a drunkard, and the honest young man, fearing the contagion of a bad example, wisely determined to leave Paris. In the course of his travels he came to Angers, and married there the daughter of a cabinet-maker.
The revolution of 1789 broke out, calling all the children of France to arms for the defence of the territory and the new principles of liberty. Louis David willingly obeyed the solemn appeal of his country, and fought against the Chouans of La Vendee. When, after many troubles and hardships he returned to his hearth, he found himself reduced to dire poverty, and knowing by his own sad experience how many impediments are thrown in the way of an artist, he desired his son, Pierre-Jean, the subject of this notice, to embrace a more lucrative profession. But the latter had inherited his father's love of art, and when yet a mere child spent the whole of his time in carving wood or drawing figures. The young sculptor wanted to go to Paris, and at last, subjugated by the earnest entreaties
Nkw Series—Vol. II., No. 6.
of his beloved child, and of Professor Delusse, the father could no longer withhold his approbation. But alas! that was all it was in his power to give; and young David set out for the metropolis with little more than two pounds in his pocket.
He was then eighteen years old. It would be impossible to retrace the intense sufferings he underwent at that period of his life. He worked assiduously at the triumphal arch of the Carrousel, and earned tenpence a day. During the evening and part of the night he studied the pictures of the French master, Nicolas Poussin, for he had not as yet made his choice between sculpture and painting, for which latter art he retained a great taste. When sleep at last overcame him, he took a momentary rest on what he called his bed: this was simply an old carved door, upon which he stretched a cloth. He thought he would sleep less upon this rude couch, and his body was much bruised. He suffered also very often from hunger. We have before us the following touching note, in his own handwriting:
"Nobody took an interest in me; my father was too poor to help me, and my mother could only exhort me to be pati 'lit. I believe this indifference towards me had its source in my excessive timidity and my pride, which caused me to dissimulate my sad position. One of my friends, a pupil of Roland, brought from time to time a loaf of bread. I have, during eighteen months, eaten nothing but bread, on Sundays exccpted."
In another note he says: "When I studied in order to win the prize of Rome, I lived in the Rue des Cordiers, near the Sorbonne. My room was close under the roof, and in the story beneath me lived a government employe, who gave each Sunday a dinner to his friends. I can not express what were my feelings when I heard the clattering sound of the plates, poor forlorn youth, who ate nothing but bread, and drank but water—accompanied by many a bitter tear. Then, with the mobility of happy youthfulness, the magic word of Rome carried me far away from the employe and his society, and I took my refuge among the great men of Plutarch, or the charming pages of Paul and Virginia and of Atala. When the advancing night fell heavily 46