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to pursue. An antagonism is thus tacitly produced (in Rome antagonisms hardly ever cease to be tacit) which takes the form of a struggle between prelates who inwardly consider themselves the only legitimate administrators of the political functions of the Roman Court, and a set of excited enthusiasts from the northern aide of the Alps, who have been largely invading that province which the former think themselves entitled to own exclusively. It is a strange phenomenon to see the temporal power practically productive of an influence which would rather mitigate than stimulate the fury of the struggle now waged in its behalf. But a habit of practically governing human conditions always imparts some degree of prudence; and this lesson has also not been quite lost on those in whose hands has long resided the government of the States of the Church. Since centuries those hands have been purely Italian; for although a universal principle is sought to be set up at present in behalf of these States as the domain of all Catholics, in reality they have been an endowment for Italian prelates alone ever since Hadrian VI. These Italian prelates administered these same States in troubled times not without success: they have acquired not indeed a very elevated order of statesmanship, but yet a tradition of diplomatic skill' and governmental adroitness that have been practically evidenced, and the knowledge whereof has not been quite blotted out in the minds of those who in virtue of their birth are the representatives of an Italian element in the ecclesiastical world of Home. With an ill-suppressed jealousy do these prelates look on the sudden inflwx from abroad of wild zealots, promoting with mad impetuosity the adoption of measures whose rashness it is shrewdly felt must imperil terribly the safety of that estate which it is the merit of Italian skill to have preserved so long. It is a common remark in certain circles of Rome, that unfortunately the old and approved traditions of polisy have been discarded for the wild inspirations of foreign adventurers, who personally have nothing to lose if their counsels were really, to ruin the States of the Church. Within the range of a common antagonism to- the suggestions of a vehemently fantastic and foreign party, these Roman prelatesof the
old school concur in Cardinal Antonelli'a temporizing spirit in so far as it is directed merely to break the force of'this particular influence; although it would be a great mistake to infer that they are disposed to devote themselves, cordially to his support as minister, or express admiration for the measures of his administration. On the contrary, Cardinal Antonelli is probably the object of as much criticism and jealousy and personal hostility on the part of these same prelates as ever any minister was. This, however, is only the ordinary fate of all Cardinal Secretaries of State in Rome, who always reside in the centre of a world alive with personal passion, the action of which they never escape feeling in the end. A point of real importance, however, is the spread in ecclesiastical circles, that are specifically Roman, of a feeling of inward hostility, not individual and spasmodic, but compact and corporative, although at present still suppressed, and flowing in underground channels, against the set of socalled interlopers who are charged with overthrowing the sound maxims of the Roman Court, with impelling it to ruin by their fool hardiness, with recklessly staking by their mad course the interests of the Church and of churchmen: a feeling of prospective, not of immediate influence, but which contains within it elements for a marked division, that apparently wants but a safe occasion for bursting into staring prominence. • The ill-feeling which we believe thus to pervade a numerous and distinct section in the ecclesiastical world of Rome, is stimulated by the decided dislike against a particular corporation with which the champions of an ecstatic policy have allied themselves closely. Beneath the ever smooth surface which is presented by the decorously deferential deportment of clerical Rome, there lurks as much compressed passion and anger and envy as ever have distracted the most secular court. Especially keen is the jealous sensitiveness on the score of what is due in rank and position and influence—a sensitiveness rather pointedly in contrast with the professions of humility forever on the lip. The quarter where this feeling has ever been particularly strong is that of monastic congregations. These brotherhoods— impelled by the nature of their narrow i constitutions to an exaggerated estima-; tion of their specific foundation—of the! especial merit of their particular founder | —have ever been intensely jealous of i any marked preference shown to one • brotherhood over the other. The bitter- J est party passions have often burned j hotly on the ground of such supposed j preference within the seemingly so loving atmosphere of societies, where | all alike profess to have turned away their minds from all thought of the! world and its interests; and all alike profess to find their delight in being steeped in peaceful contemplation of heavenly objects. From the intensity which has been thrown into contests of this nature, one would be tempted to surmise that the sense of personal pride, Bo strictly repudiated by those who profess monkish vows, was here viewed by the members of all sides in the light of a | religious duty of homage to the specific; divinity of their founder. At all events it 4s an historical fact that repeatedly the Court of Rome has witnessed vehement, . although not necessarily clamorous, opposition to any particular confraternity that might have acquired especial influence for the time.
There is, indeed, not one of the great and leading orders that at some time or other, in a period of exceptional success, has not had a run of this kind against it But all these oppositions were as ephe- | meral as the casual ascendancy which | kindled them, with the exception of one. I That exception is justly furnished by the \ order which h.as taken up a position es- j sentially differing in the scope of its j importance from that which others have ever been able to assume—the Society of the Jesuits. This is not the place to enter into any exposition of the points which must always constitute an essential distinction between the organization of the Jesuit order and every other that has hitherto existed. It is enough for the purpose that engages our attention to note the fact that the instinct of all confraternities has systematically concurred in deep feeling of jealous hostility against the exceptional constitution and superior pretensions of this singular body; and above all that at the present moment this feeling has been intensified by pro
found irritation at the asserted extension of late to almost absolute ascendancy of the influence of this Society over the minds of those who are in possession of authority. It is no easy matter with the guarded nature of Romish ecclesiastics to arrive at the conviction that one hat been able to see the feelings that really lie near their hearts. Yet we will venture upon the confident assertion, that bitter resentment at the extraordinary influence which the Jesuits have succeeded in usurping over those whose voice is now absolute in the government of the Church, is the feeling which most . pointedly possesses those who can lay a claim to any degree of independence among the ecclesiastics living within the actual precincts of Rome. We venture to affirm that wherever access can be obtained to the confidential outpourings, be it of monks that languish in neglected cells, or of secular priests who for some cause have not succumbed to the reigning influences, their burden will be angry complaint at the excessive power to which in recent years the mysterious Societ/ of Jesuits has attained.
To drag to light in a distinct shape the influence so universally testified to in a whisper is a matter of difficulty. That noiseless stealthiness of gait, which is so marked a feature in the carriage of the individual Jesuit, extends also to the manner in which the Society works as a body. While it is felt how the mindf of those who rule and govern the Church have been completely secured within a net, inquiry is baffled to detect the hands that spun and threw this net—the precise season when it was flung, or even the arms that at this moment keep it in position. It is in accordance with the principles of the Society not to make a needless exhibition of its personal existence, to seek for essential power with as little display as possible, and to volatilize as far as can be the influence which is so indefutigably striven for. Real possession, and not show, is the object the Society cares for. The conspicuous high places of office are not, therefore, what the Jesuits seek to compass; but rather the unobtrusive and seemingly humble posts of those intimate attendants upon great dignitaries, who acquire full confidence aud obtain the means for insensibly instilling views and feelings into fascinated hearts. It' is here that are displayed the capabilities of that mysterious organization which' makes the Society so formidable. While the eye of a stranger will probably fail to detect one professed member of the Society among the prelates who figure with the emblems of rank, the Society has made good its hold on those with whom those prelates consort, and especially on the confessionals to which they resort. It is through this mystic func- j tion of inward confidence that the Jesuits particularly operate. At the, present moment the Jesuits have succeed- j ed in becoming the spiritual advisers of almost every member of the Papal Court, and of all those sections of the lay society in Rome that, from their rank,' stand necessarily in relation more or less close to the Sovereign and his Court. The most fashionable confessors, the most popular preachers in Rome are now all Jesuits; and immense is the tacit influence which they command in virtue of these positions, while insensibly they have made their own the university and the schools in the Papal States. It is an influence of too subtle a nature to analyize, but it is one whose positive action is most formdiable. Even Cardinal Antonelli, who is not naturally predisposed in this sense, has been unable to keep himself clear from the mys-! terious influence of a body he looks on' with dislike and fear, and his confessor! is a member of the Society. In addition to these favored posts for operating directly upon individual hearts, the Jesuits have contrived to introduce themselves largely among the working members of the congregations upon whom devolves the real business of elaborating the decisions and proclamations of the Roman Court. The cardinals and prelates who figure as the official representatives of these bodies, are content to receive their inspirations thus from Jesuit assistants who are indifferent to public recognition of their essential labors. It is in this noiseless and underground method that, true to its traditions and to its mysterious organization, the Society has proceeded until, according to the testimony of those best able to look into the anatomy of the Roman Court, the
action of the Society's influence has attained the proportions of an overgrown upas-tree, casting the unwholesome blot of its outspread and dank shadow over the whole brain of the Church's government.
It is not, however, within the compass of any human stealth to pick its course so lightly as to avoid leaving behind some trace that can bring home conviction. With all this mastery in self-restraint, and all the severity of their discipline in unostentation, the Jesuits have yet been unable to repress some burst of self-betraying triumph, and to avoid employing some modes of procedure that necessarily have brought them before the public. On the 20th November last, the mighty fane of St. Peter's gathered within its vast walls a throng of human beings eager to look upon a gorgeous and rare rite 'that day to be celebrated in the great temple. It was indeed a scene of gorgeous splendor—a scene admirably rich in all those points of pomp calculated to attract a mind prone to ecstatic awe; to inflame a sense for mysterious and mystic worship which flashed upon the spectator as that morning he stepped inside that grandest building raised by man—the work of his hand which nearest arrives to being the expression in stone of a creation and of space. On that day this noblest of shrines was decked out with a profusion of bright hangings, and a blaze of tapers which quite killed the sun's rays by its flood of light, while the beauty and taste of the designs in which these countless candles were architecturally disposed imparted to the decorations a singular effectiveness. All the doors leading into the atrium were thrown wide open, and yet black streams of pushing spectators flowed throqgh them on and on without break, until even the vastness of St. Peter's wore the look of a peopled building. Among the crowd that flocked in so bigly, many were the curious strangers from over the sea and the Alps, hurrying to see the great signt of the day. Few of these, however, had an understanding of what the scene really meant upon whose gorgeous show they gazed intently. Perhaps, indeed, some might have gleaned an inkling if they caught up broken words which dropped at moments from the taciturn' lips of friars of all orders who stood and; roamed about St. Peter's in sullen knots.' But only few of the strangers who fig-; Tired so numerously that morning will have been able to gather the true import' of the glittering ceremony they were looking on.
That ceremony was being performed: in celebration of a new saint. Another had been added to the host of the beatified by the decree of Pius IX., and it! has always been customary that such a promotion should be kept holy by him who had been thus able to swell the heavenly' hosts with a-recruit These promotions have not been scarce of late; on the j contrary, Pius IX. has been particularly i favoured with an exceptional plentiful-' ness of individuals found deserving of the exaltation; and Rome has seen, in the three last years, a quiet unusual num-1 ber of canonizations and beatifications. It was not, therefore, the merit of the occurrence which gave a real peculiar interest to this particular beatification. That was derived from the nature of the individual selected as the object of ova-; tion, and from the interests that had sue-' ceeded in obtaining it for him; and they themselves were therefore celebrating a 'public triumph in the achieved exaltation of the man whom they had been strenuously supporting in the contest for heavenly honors. Who, then, was this new saint whose promotion gave occasion to the gorgeous display of pomp and cere-' monial? It was the great Jesuit controversialist and indefatigable missionary against the rampart heresies of Protestant Germany, Canisius; the man who, of all others, could claim to be the type and representative in his life, his teaching, and his doings, of the peculiarities which constitute the essential characteristics of the action of the Society and the particular claims it puts forward to special merit. All that goes to make up the most striking section of the history of the Society of Jesus, and exhibits in a striking degree its distinctive features, lies embodied in the figure of the man who was the foremost champion in the great crusade, mainly due to the services of the Jesuits, 'which again permanently recovered to the Holy See a large portion of heretical Germany. For Canisius ''•
was not merely a missionary full of zeal and controversial vigor, distinguished principally by his readiness always to do public battle for his religions convictions. Canisius was an administrator and organizer as well as an unflinching member of the Church purely militants It is not only the victory won in Germany over Protestants, but also the manner in which that victory has been turned to account, which are indissolubly connected with the name of Canisius. It is he who instituted in Germany the Jesuit seminaries that permanently exerted so vast an influence upon that country; it was he who composed a catechism which became the text-book not only of these schools, but generally of all Catholic foundations in those parts; and it was he who elaborated and defined and introduced that peculiar method of instruction which became systematically observed in the important seminaries directed by the Society. Therefore, Canisius, even more than Loyola, may be considered the type and representative of the system and spirit that dwell in the Society of Jesus; for Loyola expressed only the elementary impulse of a certain enthusiasm not yet reduced to form, but Canisius represents its matured expression, its practical aspect, the spirit and the shape within the discipline of which this impulse has walked on earth. Canisius is the hero—the representative man of the Jesuits. This greatest achievement—the religious reconquest of Gel-many—is inseparably connected with his memory, as also the perfection of his methods of teaching and reasoning which they have systematically pursued as most consonant to their principles. In the glorification of Canisius, the practical action of the Society of Jesus has therefore been glorified—a tribute of homage the contemplation whereof can hardly have failed to inspire some bitterness of feeling into not a few among the many friars of all kinds who that morning glided about St. Peter's; and which, however intelligible a gratification to the members of the Society, has not impossibly been on their part as unwise a manifestation of ascendancy as it certainly has been a signal instance of . deviation from • the else so guardedly observed rule not to indulge iu displays
•which can provoke irritation. On that 20th of November, Pius IX., under circumstances of a political nature that in- , tensified the significance of the demonstration, promulgated deliberately his implicit acknowledgment of the superior excellence of the Society of Jesus, by elevating to the highest honors within; his gift an individual than whom the, Society can not boast of a more com- j plete representative. Undoubtedly it was a great triumph for the brotherhood, as it was a public exhibition of the absolute power to which its influence has attained in the present Court of Rome.
Of the particular sense, however, in which this influence has of late years been exerted very conclusive indications are furnished by a publication which is itself an innovation on the traditional tactics of the Society, and a striking acknowledgment of the necessity for new weapons to combat the spirit of modern times. It is necessary to remind the reader of the impossibility of any individual action in public by a professed Jesuit Whatever is done by a member of the Society is done with the concurrence of its constituted authorities, or he! becomes a rebel and is forthwith subjected to penalty. The intrinsic wrong of an individual impulse has no connection whatever with the condemnation. | A priest may be actuated with the most I real devotion—his impulse maybe fraught with essential benefit to the Society and its interest, and yet if he should ever pre- j sume to promote these of his own authority he will forthwith be liable to penance; for the cardinal principle on which the Society reposes is the absolute renunciation of individual personality by . its members—the absolute dependence! always for motive impulse upon command from above. Therefore no Jesuit can continue to remain one and yet engage in -occupations, however innocent or meritorious in themselves, otherwise than at the desire or with the sanction of his superior. The individual Jesuit can never exist but as an organ—more or less important according to his natural capacities—that helps to feed a mighty and all-absorbing body. When, therefore, we find ourselves in presence of a large enterprise with which members of the Society have been continuously connect- ,
ed, we can have no hesitation in repudiating from that fact alone any belief in the existence of purely individual influence: much more must this be the case when without attempt at disguise the seat of direction for the enterprise is publicly located in the seminary of the Society in Rome. We allude to the periodical the Civtttd Catholica, which, since a series of years, has issued from the presses of the Society, edited by members of the Society, and written by members of the Society, who make no disguise of their authorship, and are located in a house specially set apart for them. These circumstances impart a capital importance to this periodical. It is as much the avowed organ of the Society as the Moniteur is the official mouthpiece for the proclamations of the French Government. In it the Society of Jesus promulgates, with an indefatigable vehemence of argumentation, its views on all points of doctrine and on all the great questions of the day. Originally the periodical was issued at Naples; but Ferdinand II., who, with the despotic principles imitated also the suspicious nature of Philip II., took umbrage at the contents of a report to the General of the Society by the editors of this paper, and banished them and it from his territories. The story is a curious one. It appears that in accordance with the strict dependence that prevades the Jesuit body, the managers of the CXviltd Catholica make to their superior a report at the end of the year on the success and condition of their periodical. This report is secret, and meant only for the use of the authority to whom it is addressed. A copy fell however into the hands of the Neapolitan police, when King Ferdinand was stung to passion by reading pungent observations on the obstacles which the the arbitrary jealousy of the Neapolitan police put in the way of the journal. The effect wrought upon the autocratic susceptibilities of this inflated despot, by the discovery of such unseemly freedom of stricture, was the instantaneous expulsion of the guilty parties and the prohibition of the Ctviltd Catholica in his dominions. The paper then was transferred to Rome, and the whole talent and energy of the Society became directed towards making it a powerful publication. The