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place in the panorama unfolded before the visitor. Pera, the city of diplomacy, and Galata, the seat of Frank commerce, have acquired quite an European look, through new buildings. Stone houses of several stories, broad gas-lit streets, elegant coffee-houses, glass-covered arcades, rich shops, booksellers' establishments, photographic ateliers brilliant fronts full of silks and jewellery, an Italian and French theatre, a Chateau des Fleurs,' palaces of the embassies casinos and clubs, combine to form a whole which has nothing Oriental about it. On the other side of the haven, Stamboul—where the , Muhammadan city is joined by the Armenian, Greek, and Israelite quarters, Yeni Kapu, Psamatia, Fauar, Jubali, and Balata—has retained its appearance; but even there stone is beginning to be sub- i stituted for wood, and ere long street lighting will enable the Mussulman to go out after sunset without the indispensa-' ble paper lantern, which the slightest puff of wind extinguished, and its bearer was' then left to defend himself as best he could against mud-holes, masterless dogs, and night watchmen. Then, too, the Turks will be able fearlessly to cross the bridge to Pera and Galata, and more frequently take part in the fetes and soirees, so constantly given in the two' Frank quarters, where many Muhamma- i dans and Oriental Christians are already residing.
Only twelve years ago the streets of Pera and Galata were narrow, winding, and dirty. Any one who ventured into them at night carried in one hand a lantern, in the other a pistol, or a loaded stick. Most foreigners remained at home at night, and felt securer when they heard the massive gates, which separated one quaVter from another, but have now disappeared, banged to. It was rarely that an ambassadorial ball brought together the foreign colony and the Levantines. The latter, as Europeans who had become Easterns, formed a separate group; and three other groups were composed of the Christian subjects of Turkey, Armenians, Bulgarians, and Greeks. National and religious hatred created even greater hostility among these groups than did trade jealousy. The Europeans, too, lived in colonies, and grew so accustomed to thi; existence that thev avoided ;ill co'i
i tact with strangers, regarded every new
Those fires, which made a breach for progress, imposed, it has been calculated, a yearly tax of 400,000^. No house stood longer than twenty years, and in that period Constantinople became a new city. In ten minutes a house was burned to' the ground, in a few hours an entire quarter became a prey of the flames. Every week, every day, and not unfrequently twice or thrice a day, Constantinople was alarmed by the fire signal. Then thundered the alarm-guns, posted on a hill upon the Asiatic side, and commanding the whole neighborhood; the cannon in the towers of Galata and the Seraskierat replied, the public criers dashed their ironshod sticks on the ground, and repeated from street to street the 017 of " Yaugin var!" Half-naked firemen ran with wild yells through the city, and knocked down every one who did not get out of their way in time.
In one respect the transformation of the city is to be regretted. The old wooden houses were light, elegant, and characteristic. Painted of different colors, and protected by widely-projecting roofs, they made Constantinople, seen from the roads, the most 'splendid and Twu^nr ivnorima in the world. The
naiTow, winding streets offered light and shade and a warm breeze. The rooms were lofty and airy, and could be easily wanned in winter with a mangal. The modern stone houses do not catch fire, but their six stories, their small windows, and smoking chimney-pots, convert Pera and Galata into European towns. Not a single architect has thought of imitating the delicious style of the old wooden houses in the new building material. All have strived to produce clumsy, massive buildings, true to the plumb-line, and to treat the city in the same way as Turkish reform has treated the national garb.
In one district it is a great pity that it was forced to yield to the new style. Galata was joined by the Kaviar-Khan, consisting of several gloomy and dirty lanes, in which were one-storied shops, with iron doors and grated windows, for the sale of caviare and other wares. At certain hours of the day there assembled in these lanes bankers, merchants, money-chaugers, brokers, agents, and speculators, among whom the Greek element prevailed. They stood on doorsteps, or sat under the awnings of the shops on straw-bottomed chairs, or sometimes on the bare ground, and smoked • or let the beads of their rosary slip through their fingers. Here the most contradictory reports passed from mouth to mouth, they gesticulated, yelled, quarrelled, and settled prices. Goods or shares were not the object of this traffic, eveiything turned on gold, English, French, Kussian, Turkish gold, and its relative value in Turkish paper money. Kaviar-Khan was the exchange of Constantinople, and might almost be called a power. The government in vain issued decrees against this system, in vain did it several times order the Khan to be closed, in vain did it erect right facing it an elegant, airy, sheltered exchange —Kaviar-Khan held its own till the paper money was called in. Even now the prices of sugar and caviare are discussed there, but the fate of Turkey will never more be decided in its lanes. While the Khan has fallen into decadence, however, the Exchange is flourishing, and the share-holders are paid very good dividends.
In addition to the Exchange, credit
associations, factories, streets, and railways have sprung into existence. Two years ago an industrial exhibition was got up for the encouragement of agriculture and trade, at the close of which the prize-holders were presented to the Sultan, and decorated by him with the ; Medjidie. Abd-ul-Asiz, before he ascended the throne, was a man of progress. He possessed a model farm, which he managed himself, on the Asiatic coast, : two leagues from Constantinople, and I he tvent to his estate almost daily in his 'steam yacht. On his accession he gave it to his nephew, Murad Effendi, but made him pledge himself to continue it. : The Sultan has also made a fine collecj tion of minerals. He is fond of sport, is an excellent horseman, and has accepted a nomination as member of a jockey club, which has been founded at Smyrna by Count de Bentivoglio. His • tastes have naturally led the Turkish : youths to imitate him. Every year in spring and autumn, races are held in the ; vicinity of Constantinople—real races with stands, judges, jockeys, a weighingi place, and everything belonging to it. 1 In the same way a mixed committee get up an annual regatta, in which yachts, boats, and kalks take part, and there are both rowing and sailing-matches.
The Turks have taken a more rapid and lively interest in all material progress, than the Christians and Jews. There is a natural reason for this. Trade and finances were in the hands of the rayahs, i who yielded to their natural sloth, and rarely quitted a circle of operations by which they earned money easily and quickly. The Turk, to whom this system of business had hitherto been strange, but who had a large capital at his dis'posal, did not hesitate to intrust his | money to new societies, recommended i by respectable names. While the Christian only saw in these enterprises an oppressive competition.
The whole society on the Bosphonis is extravagantly superstitious. Turks, Armenians, Greeks, and Jews, are alike in this respect, and the Levantines follow the general current. The Greek believes in a domestic spirit (Stikio,) who lives at the bottom of a well, and comes up at night in order to do the inhabitants of the house good or evil, according as they have pleased or displeased him. The Stikio assumes all possible forms, and appears as a dandy, a girl, a negro, &c. He performs small services for his proteges, but any one who offends him can reckon on tricks being played him, or even on a thrashing. Like the Greeks, the Armenians have taken to the worship of pictures of the saints. The saint demands that a lamp should burn before his picture day and night, and if it ever goes out, he avenges himself by fearful dreams and night-mare. Fortune-felling by the hand or the surface of a well is in universal repute. At the present time, a Muh.irnmadan negress and an old Jewess are'carrying on a roaring trade, and are always consulted in illness or robberies. On certain days people make a pilgrimage to Elijah's well, or to the springs of Balukli, whose water on such days possesses a healing power.
Whenever these and similar Oriental fantasies do not show themselves, you might imagine you were in Europe. In Pera and Galata balls and parties are given, which will bear comparison with the salons of Paris. The Orientals are fond of and cultivate music, and they are quite conversant with the Italian operatic repertoire. Their taste, it is true, does not rise above a certain level; in music, they adorer Verdi; literature, Alexandre Dumas; and in philosophy, Volney. Pera lias a large opera-house, with boxes fitted up in the Italian style, an orchestra of fifty musicians, and an Italian troupe. Scalese, Corsi, Negrini, Madame Penco, and other notabilities! have sung on its boards. A French theatre, which has been for two years under the management of an Armenian, plays everything: tragedies and dramas in prose and verse, comedies and farces. In an Armenian theatre, where the language employed is Turkish, you can see! both original pieces and translations from the French and Italian. Amateur theatres pullulate; every circle of society can supply a full number of lovers, male and female, noble fathers, respectable ladies, •• and villains.
The Turkish women have willingly adopted European amusements and fashions. Operas and balls p^ase them far better than the solitary life to which they were formerly condemned. In Eu
rope, however, there are also serious employments for the female sex, which reader the wife the husband's assistant. The Oriental wife will not listen to anything of this sort, and belives she has fulfilled her duty when she annually presents society with a child, which she does not suckle herself. If a young Greek, Armenian, or Levantine girl is educated in a convent, she leams to read and write, a little; if she remain at home, she learns to speak French from her European governess. She gets on fastest in those things in which she receives no instruction, and will look out of the window for half the day, or practise positions before the mirror. The mother dreams away three-fbrths of her time on the sofa, and leaves her children, who are always numerous, to the • care of the servants. The lesson she mcessantly repeats to her daughter is to look out for a husband. As there are far more girls than young men, the latter are treated by the ladies with that attention which in Europe falls to the share of the fairer sex. The richest toilette, the most provocative desire to please, and employed, and even scandal is not shunned, if it compromise a man; the end justifies the means. Love-letters, rendezvous, secret betrothals, in case of need even an elopement, followed by the paternal blessing—all is permitted, but no mesalliance. In this land, where there is no nobility, no aristocracy of the mind or of wealth, a Castilian arrogance prevails. Everybody is vain of his personal position, so that a cloth-dealer would never give his daughter to a tailor, or a carpenter marry a shoemaker's daughter.
When the daughter has visited the theatres long enough, and shown herself sufficiently at the promenades, followed at some distance by her mother, and,her object of marrying has been gained, she asks for a rich equipment, not in clothes and linen, but in silk dresses, jewelery, and, above all, diamonds. No maidservant will many a shoeblack unless he lays at least a diamond breast-pin on the altar of love. The most necessary things are neglected, but there is a lavish display of superfluities. When married, the 'young lady rises at a late hour, spends a good part of the day on the sofk, drinks ! many cups of coffee, receives visits from time to time, forgets tine little she has learned, does not write, read, or work, and leaves all the household duties to her numerous servants, all monetary cares to her husband. The latter goes at daybreak to Galata, spends his day in the office, at Kaviar Khan, or on 'Change, and goes home late at night. In winter, the couple, whether rich or not, visit the theatre, where they have a box or at least the fourth of a box. On Sunday morning, church and a walk offer an excuse for displaying the richest toilette. The embassy balls, which unite all the fractions of society, are naturally attended. So soon as the first beams of the May sun burst forth, everybody flies and settles down either on the quay of Therapia, or at Biyuk-dereli, and YeniKeiii, on the shores of the Bosphorus, on the Gulf of Kani-Kbl, or under the shady groves of the islands of Kalki and Prinkipo. The town house is entrusted to a poor family, who in this way get free lodgings, and a wooden house is hired for six months, generally at a very high price, in which the lady shuts herself up; for the whole day. She dreams till eve- j ning on her eternal sofa, and then goes out in a dazzling toilette, to refresh her- j self in a coffee-house on the beach. As' regards the husband, he goes every morning, in all weathers, in a kaik or steamer, to Galata. The trip takes two h'ours, and is either dangerous or uncomfortable. In a kaik you are exposed to be upset by; every puff of wind; on the steamer, three to four hundred persons are packed together in the cabins, on deck, and on the paddle-boxes. At night the husband returns home tired and hungry. Thus people live in summer on the Bosphorus, J expensively and uncomfortably. Where [ the money comes from is an insoluble enigma with many families.
On Corpus Chnsti day everybody hastens from the countiy into town. The; Catholic clergy of the European quarter celebrate this festival with great pomp, j On each Thursday and Sunday for a fort-! night a procession marches forth from the two churches of Galata and Pera, and j proceeds, with various halts at street altars, and. under a shower of flowers, through the streets, where houses are adorned with flags and carpets. The boys and girls of the Christian schools cany
flags, the sWs of the most respectable families appear in the costume of St. John, with a shepherd's staff and sheepskin, or else in that of St. George, helmet and lance. In short, the procession is an Italian one, more theatrical than religious. Several Turkish cavasses precede the procession and make way for it, and the banners are followed by a battalion of troops with the band. By the side of the cross, which is borne by a priest, marches a guard of honor, and Turkish officers with drawn sabres surround the Host. A second battalion ot troops closes the procession. When there is a halt at an altar and the believers kneel down, the drums roll, the Hand plays the imperial march, and the soldiers present arms.
The intolerance of the Christians forms a disgraceful contrast with the respect which the Turks display for all confessions. The insults exchanged between Greeks and Catholics at every festival would frequently lead to sanguinary excesses if the Turkish authorities did not interfere. On Easter eve the Greeks assemble in the court-yards . near their churches, with a lighted taper in one hand and a pistol in the other. For three days they keep up an incessant firing in honor of the Saviour's resurrection. Woe to any Catholic who fell among these pious people! Trampled on, beaten, singed by pistol-shots, the "dog of a Latin" would for a long time bear the marks of Greek fraternal love. The Jews were formerly exposed to such ill treatment at Easter, that they dared not show themselves in public. At the present day the Turkish authorities have taken such severe measures, that only a symbolic insult still occurs. An enormous sheet of paper, on which a caricaturist has drawn a Jew, is carried through the . streets, and the Christians throw copper or silver coins at it. The bearers burn the picture in front of a church, and thence proceed to a pot-house to spend the money in a Christian debauch, which generally ends in fraternal knife-stabs. The disappearance of this religious rancor would mark a progress greater than any of those to which we have referred in our article.*
"An instinct in some minds, like the Bpeci.il capabilities of the pointer," is a description given of Etymology; but the most successful truffle-hunter of the race could scarcely unearth derivations such as we are about to cluster in this paper. They have been revealed in accidental ways—stumbled upon in old authors, or in modern who have ransacked the old; but, in the regular course eliciting etymolo'gies, they never would have r been found at all.
A'n abbot of Cirencester, about 1216, conceived himself an etymologist, and, as a specimen of his powers, has left us the Latin word "cadaver," a corpse, thus dissected. "Ca," quoth he, is abbreviation for "caro;" "da," for data; "ver," for vermibus. Hence we have "caro data vermibus," flesh given to the worms! While the reader smiles at this absurdity, it is curious to know that our common word "alms" is constructed on much the same principle, being formed (according to the best authority) of one letter taken from each .syllable of the cumbrous Latinized Greek word "eleemosyna."
The aforesaid abbot no doubt pronounced some thousands of times during bis life the transubstantiating formula, "Hoc est corpus meura;" whence has grown the conjuror's catchword, and slid into the usage of ordinary life iii connection with jugglery or unfair dealing, "hocus-pocus."'
At the abbot's period, also, a clause was extant in the tenure of many English estates, to the effect that the owners might not fell the trees, as the best timber was reserved for the Royal Navy; . bat any trees that came down without cutting were the property of the tenant Hence was a storm a joyful and a lucrative event in proportion to its intensity, and the larger the number of forest paJriarchs it laid low the richer was the lord of the land. He had received a veritable "windfall." Ours in the nineteenth century come in the shape of any unexpected profit; and those of us who own estates rather qunke in sympathy with our trembling trees on windy nights.
Under those trees roamed the red and
fallow deer, which had a habit of scraping up the earth with their fore-feet to the depth of several inches, sometimes even of half a yard. A wayfaring man through the olden woods was frequently exposed to the danger of tumbling into one of these hollows, when he, might truly be said to be "in a scrape." Cambridge students in their little difficulties .picked up and applied the phrase to other perplexing matters which had brought a man morally into a fix.
As the season went round those deerscrapes became overgrown with vegetation, and were picturesque discrepancies in the woodland surface. One of the plants that might be found thus helping to cover unsightliness was that named in Latin fumitory, and in English "earthsmoke." Wherefore so called? Because the old botanists believed it to be produced by spontaneous generation from vapors arising out of the earth. Saith one of these credulous folk, "It conieth out of the erthe in grete quantite, lyke smoke: thys grosse or coarse frfmositie of the erthe wyndeth and wryeth out, and, by working of the ayre and sunne, turaeth intoo thys herbe."
Another plant, the derivation of which seems equally curious, is mustard. Etymologists have fought over it, and pulled it to pieces in diflferent directions. "Multum ardet," says one, or, in old French, "moult arde," it burns much. "Mustum ardens," hot must, says another, on account of French mustard being said to have been prepared for table with the s weet must of new wine. But a picturesque story about the name is told as follows: Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, granted to Dijon certain armorial bearings, with the motto "Moult me tarde" —I long or wish ardently. This was sculptured over the principal gate, and, in course of years, by some accident the central word got effaced. The manufacturers of sinapi or seneve (such were the former names of mustard), wishing to label their pots of condiment with the the city arms, copied the mutilated motto; and the unlearned, seeing continually the inscription of "moult-tarde," came to call the contents by this title.
So, likewise, because a fixed scale of duties were payable to the Moorish occupants of a fortress on Tarifa promontory,