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at the siege of Chioggia as to be enrolled take into account. On the ground of by the Doge Contarini in the list of cit- toleration alone, it may be affirmed that izens of the republic. A grant is also religious liberty is the surest safeguard of extant, setting forth the service done by political strength and freedom, him, for which the doge decreed him an | For the capital of Italy we would exannual pension for life of "five hundred press the same wish that, when uttered ducats of good gold." Englishmen have by an old Scottish patriot and reformer, not been wanting in Italy in our own ! was adopted by the city of Glasgow as time, both serving on the battle-field its motto—" Let Florence flourish by the without pay in the cause of liberty, and preaching of the Word." protesting with the pen against past misgovernment as peaceful residents in the lair cities of the country. Inscriptions in English on many sign-boards indicate their presence and number in beautiful Florence. An English church, built by subscription, opened in 1844, is in the Via Maglio. Our great poetess, Mrs. Browning, better known by her maiden name, Miss Barrett, at a recent period sang her last song by the banks of the Arno; and there also has since passed away from the living an old man eloquent and lettered, Walter Savage Landor, the subject of many errors and eccentricities, but, from first to last, through fourscore years, the friend of Italian freedom.
One thing remains to be noted, and it is the best of all, not only in itself, but in its bearing on the future strength and greatness of Italy. The Word of God is no longer a prescribed book in Florence, and full 'religious toleration is allowed by the constitution. "Who could have thought," writes one, "that in a city where a few years ago the prison door closed on those who were only guilty of reading that prohibited book, the Bible, we should now, in full security, be printing Bibles, Testaments, and a large evangelical literature, and consecrating to the preaching of the gospel the first Italian Christian church erected here for many a century, and held in possession—like the builUmg of which it is a part—under the royal signature, by the deceudanta of the Israel of the Alps t" The reference is to the Waldensiau church, and college, and to a printing-press, established under royal authority, in a portion of the prem
Una! •}•'!( Miscellany.
BY LOUISA 8TDAKT COSTELLO.
[In this ballad the Breton poet, according to custom, confounds the famous Cambrian chiuf, Arthur, with a warlike divinity of the aucicut Bretons; of bulh-iu-on<» marvelous tales are told, most of them wjll known. This k-gend is ot great ant.quily, as the recurruiico ul triplet* proves.]
The prince of Erin's daughter sweet
For her he sought a partner meet,
By many sought, she all disdain'd,
And none would choose who came to woo,
Her favor till Prince Etflamingain'd,
But he had vow'd in pious mood.
There to abide in solitude
Far from the bride he held so dear.
And, even on his wedding night,
He rose and left that lady bright,
Slid down the stair and wakened none,
Then fast and far he journey'd on,
Followed by his hound alone.
But, when he reach'd the shore, in vain
But with the moon his hopes awoke,
A little chest, pierced thro' and broke,
He dragge'd it towards him, got therein,
ises of the Palazzo Salviati. But others, besides the Vaudois pastors, are engaged in the same field, not without encouraging results. Of the higher traits of their labors this is not the place to speak; but there is an influence at work which has greater power than statesmen always
That was a time, so legends say,
Arthur, of Brittany the lord,
When Icap'd Paint Efflamm from the flood,
His steed beside him, snorting blood,
Before him rear'd a beast of dread,
Green scales all o'er his shoulders spread,
A tnil of iron, twisted tight,
Juws stretching wide,from car to ear, Arm'd with sharp, pointed teeth, that white
As the fell wild boar's tusks appear.
Three days on ceaseless conflict bent,
Not one the other could subdue, Until the king was almost spent,
When to the shore St. Efflamm drew.
When Arthur saw the saint, he cried, "A drop of water, pilgrim spare!"
"Ay, by God's help," the Saint replied,
And thrice he struck the mountain height—
The monster he attacked again,
Then in the throat his sword thrust deep; The beast sent forth one cry of pain,
And, headlong, floundered o'er the steep.
The victor said, with courteous air,
"Nay, gentle king, it is not meet:
Amazed, at mom, awoke the bride,
And, even as brimming streamlets flow,
All day, the livelong day she wept,
Then came a blissful dream, that gave
"Come, follow me," he said, "and save
Oh, come, my solitude to share,
And let us spend our lives in prayer."
And, in her sleep, she thus replied:
Like thcc, recluse will I abide,
Aged bards have sung the lay,
How the bride blest angels bore Across the ocean, far away,
And laid Iw by the hermit's door.
When she awoke, with falfring hand
"Thy wife, thy dear one, here I stand,
He knew her voice, of tender tone—
Close to his own he built a cell,
There lived in peace the holy pair,
The weak would to their cells repair,
One night the sailors saw the sky
Next day a mother, sore distrcst,
Her infant on her barren breast,
Came, Enora's help to pray—
In death the holy Lady lay!
Bright as sunshine was her face,
Filled with glory was the place,
And by her knelt, all shrined in light,
A radiant child in vesture white.
Straight to St. Efflam's cell she sped;
That no one should such truths forget—
THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE.
Two of our public libraries—the Astor, of New York, and the Redwood, of Newport—contain a complete set of the Gentleman's Magazine, so remarkable as a continuous publication. The history of a book is often as interesting as the book • itself, and this is eminently time of the Gentleman's Magazine.
This world-renowned magazine waa founded by Edward Cave, whose life, written by Dr. Johnson, and now contained among his biographies, first appeared in its volumes. The first number was issued in 1731, under the title of "The Gentleman's, or Monthly Intelligencer, by Sylvanus Urban, Gent" The publication, a novel one at that period, secured the fortune and immortality of its projector. For many jjears he endeavored to enlist printers and publishers in' the undertaking, but without success. "That they were not restrained by virtue from the execution of another man's design," says Dr. Johnson, "was sufficiently apparent as soon as that design began to be gainful; for in a few years a multitude of magazines arose and perished." The original purpose of Cave was to condense the more important articles, which appeared in the weekly newspapers, into a monthly collection—"a method," he states in his advertisement, "much better calculated to preserve those things that are curious than that of transcribing." Hence the title-page of the early volumes is ornamented with a device, typical of this purpose, viz: a hand grasping a boquet of flowers, under which are the words, "E Pluribus Unum," afterwards adopted as our national motto. The very word magazine also expressed the same general design, and this word was then for the first time introduced into the language to express a literary collection, or repositary." Johnson, in the first edition of his dictionary, published in 1755, after giving the previous definitions of the word, as, "a store house," "an arsenal," "an armory," adds, "of late this word has sig- j nified a miscellaneous pamphlet from a periodical miscellany named the Gentleman's Magazine, by Edward Cave." That part of Dr. Johnson's life, which records his connection with this magazine, is the most pathetic and interesting of his history. His aid was required aud given in every department of the periodical—poetry, prose, criticism, abridgement, and replies to correspondents. His sturdy sense, together with his varied acquisitions in every department of knowledge, gradually led its proprietors from the low field of compilation and selection into the higherone ot original composition. "London, a poem," appeared in its columns in May, 1738. The reports of the proceedings in Parliament—if they can with propriety be so denominated—also formed a marked feature of the magazine, and aided in extending its influence and circulation. It is well known that, owing to the eiToneous opinions which then prevailed, the publication of such reports subjected the offender to severe penalties. Seven years after the first number
of the magazine was issued, the House of Commons had adopted a resolution " that it is an high indignity to, and a notorious breach of the privileged of this House for, any news writer in letter or other papers (as minutes or under any other denomination) or for any printer or publisher of any printed newspaper, of any denomination, to presume to insert in said letters or papers, or to give therein any account of the debates or other proceedings of this House, or any committee thereof; as well, during the recess as the sitting of Parliament, aud that the House will proceed with the utmost severity against such offenders." Notwithstanding these threats and the dangers incurred, a large part of this magazine was devoted to such reports, which for some years were furnished by Johnson. Without hearing the speakers (seo them he could not), often with little else than a memorandum of their names, and a meagre note or two of the line of argument, given to him by Cave, or any one who had stood in the gallery of the House of Commons, he wrote out the debates ; sometimes making speeches for those who had not made them, and " always taking care," as he said to Boswell, "not to let the Whig dogs have the best of it." Thus, many speeches, made familiar to us by frequent declamation in our school boy days, which we then regarded as the eloquence of English statesmen, were invented by Johnson. The reply of Pitt to Walpole, beginning with the words, "The atrocious crime of being a young man, which the honorable gentleman has with such spirit and decency charged upon me," is a ease in point. Once in company with Lord Loughborough, Dr. Francis, and Mr. Foote, the conversation turning on this "Reply," it was praised with much warmth by those present Dr. Johnson, who had remained ! silent, and contrary tb his habit not even seeking to participate in the conversation, at length astonished the company by saying, "that speech I wrote in a garret in Exeter street!" When he was informed that Dr. Smollett was writing a History of England, he wrote to'him, cautioning him not to rely on these debates, given in the Gentlemen's Magazine, as they were' not authentic; but the work of his own imagination!
These reports were called "debates in the Senate of Lilliput," and under this disguise were impeded and meagre; as we have seen, and often imaginary. They are of little value as any true reflection of "the age and body of the time." And it is remarkable that for years most of the intelligence which the British public possessed of the deliberations of their representatives should be of such a character, and derived from a man, who, whatever may have been his abilities or learning, was equally well known for his narrow prejudices, ungovernable temper, and blind party zeal, all unfitting him from giving any lair or undistorted representation of public questions.
So imperfect were the reported proceedings of the British Parliament in the time of Burke, that in one of his earlier speeches, he refers thus to the subject:
"All our proceedings have been constantly published, according to the discretion and ability of individuals, with impunity, almost ever since I came into parliament. By prescription, people had obtained something like a right to this abuse. I do not justify it. The abuse had now grown so inveterate that to punish it without a previous notice would have an appearance of hardship, it' not injustice. These publications are frequently erroneous, as well as irregular, but not always so. What they give as reports and resolutions of this House have sometimes been fairly given."
As may be seen from this statement of Burke, in which praise and censure are commingled, to report the proceedings of Parliament, even that great orator could denominate "an abuse."
As in the age of Johnson, Burke and Pitt, so in that of Swift, Pope and Addison, reporters as a class and reporting as a profession, were alike unknown; and this single fact may suffice to explain much that would be otherwise unaccountable in the history of many eminent men of both these periods. Without birth or fortune, with so little talent for debate, that during the nine years he sat in Parliament, he never but once attempted to speak. Addison rose to the highest po- j litical post in the kingdom. Macauley has given the true explanation of this seeming anomaly:
"During the intervals," he says, "which elapsed between the time when the censorship of the press ceased and tho time when parliamentary proceedings began to be freely reported, literary talents were, to a public
man, of much more importance, oratorical talents of much less importance, than incur time. At present the best way of giving rapid and wide publicity to a statement or an argument is to introduce that statement.or argument into a speech made in Parliament. If a political tract were to appear superior to the "conduct of the Allies," or to the best numbers of the Freeholder, the circulation of such a tract would be languid indeed compared with the circulation of every remarkable word uttered in the deliberations of the-Legislature. * * * The orator, by the help of the short hand writer, has to a great extent superseded the pamphleteer."
Reporting has been brought to great perfection within the last few years, and now, both in America and England, constitutes a distinct profession. It is well for the interests of society that this is the case. Much that would have been very desirable in settling the truth of history, much that would have added to the stock of positive knowledge, has been forever lost for the want of the practice of this art. Philips, in his "Curran and his Cotemporaries," alludes to our losses from this cause during the stormy period of the Irish orator. How many noble orations have died with the occasion which awakened them, and can no more be recovered than the fleeting breath can be recalled back to the mansion from which it has once passed away! Some of the best speeches of Mr. Calhoun, which competent judges pronounce superior, as models of compact reasoning, to any found in his published works, were never reported, and now live only in the memory of those who heard them. The indifference of Henry Clay to the reports of his speeches, was a matter of notoriety at every period of his life. The utterance of his opinions and feelings was given to the breath of popular applause, or censure, with the same carelessness with which a noble oak resigns its leaves to the autumnal winds. When the reporter brought to him, for correction, a proof of his great speech on the compromise measures of 1850, he refused even to look at it
By whomsoever made, the report of the Methodist Church property trial, when that church was divided by a northern and southern line, was a most remarkable exhibition of the skill of the reporter. The best exemplification, both as respects rapidity and accuracy in reporting, in any work of magnitude, is to be found iu the Congressional Globe. The reporters j accomplish within stated periods an amount of labor which would seem almost incredible. Either a natural aptitude, or | great practice, has brought them to such perfection that they are able to take down 10,000 words in an hour. Some of them j have taken down two hundred and twenty-five words in a minute, and between twelve and thirteen thousand words in an hour. Now, how voluble soever a speaker may be, he seldom utters more than 7,500 words in that time. Even the late Mr. Choate did not much exceed this rate. Hence the absurdity of the statement, which went the round of the newspapers, that he could not be reported. But, besides, he spoke with much intonation, and this greatly aids the reporter.
The debates of Congress make about 40 columns daily of the Globe, and appear the next day after they have taken place.
In such a mass of printed matter, there is, of course, much that is worthless, much that is irrelevant to the subject professed to be discussed. The future historian, who consults it for a knowledge of the questions which have agitated our time, as he wades through one speech after another, will be ready to exclaim, "Gratiano speaks an infinite deal of nothing. He talks more than any man in Venice. His reasons are as two grains of wheat hid in two bushels of chaff. You shall seek all the day ere you find them, and when you have found them, they are not worth the search." Still with all their faults, these reports must always remain the most valuable, and, in fact, the .only authentic parliamentary history of the present time.
•The Gentleman's Magazine contains many curious and interesting contributions to science and literature, and many remarkable events and circumstances have here their appropriate record. We read the obituary notice of the death of Sir Joshua Reynolds, written by Burke, as if the great painter, whose portraits nnited the dignity of historical painting with the amenity of landscape, had died but yesterday. Other men, less known, have then- merits portrayed in graceful eulogy.
"Some Frail memorials which the votive hand
The earliest known copy of "God save the King" is to be found in its pages in 1745—this national anthem having been sung that year in the theatres, when the rebels were occupying Edinburgh! The earliest account of Franklin's experiments in electricity appeared in this magazine for 1750, Franklin being at that time his majesty's postmaster at Philadelphia.
Rogers, Charles Lamb, and others whose names are now so familiar to us, made their first attempts at authorship in the pages of this magazine. The earliest contributions of the two named are in the year 1777.
Selections from this magazine have been made at various periods—a very discriminating one being that published in London in 1811, in four volumes. A knowledge of its contents has been further promoted by five index volumes, in. which the subjects are alphabetically arranged, and thus made easily accessible to the student. A list of the plates and cuts contained in, the magazine was published in 1821. The Gentleman's Magazine has survived all its earliest competitors for public favor. The London MagT azine, published in 1732—the Royal Magazine, in 1759—the European, 1789— Scot's Magazine, 1796—enjoying amid all the revolutions of taste, and the competition of more modern enterprises an extensive circulation, and the prediction contained in some lines prefixed to one of its numbers in 1752 has been fulfilled.
"Why tho' ten thousand authors fall
* * * *- •"
To live shall be thy happy lot
In driving or walking along a country, road during the spring or early summer time, how pleasing it is to see the way beautifully chequered by varied light and shade, when the sunshine plays between the yet light foliage of the hedgerowirees which grow on either side!
When there is a longer break than usual from tree to tree we are almost ready to complain of the bright sunlight,