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and battered to pieces among the rocks and craggy cliffs!" their weapons broken, and their horfes weak and foundered!

4. Such are the cavalry, and fuch the infantry, with which you are going to contend; not enemies, but the fragments of enemies. There is nothing which I more apprehend, than that it will be thought Hannibal was vanquished by the Alps before we had any conflict with him.

5. I need not be in any fear that you should suspect me of faying these things merely to encourage you, while inwardly I have different fentiments. Have I ever shown any inclination to avoid a contest with, this tremendous Hannibal? and have I now met with him only by acci dent and unawares? or am I come on purpose to challenge

him to the combat?!

I would gladly try, whether the earth, within thefe twenty years, has brought forth a new kind of Carthagenians; or whether they be the fame fort of men who fought at the gates, and whom at Eryx you fuffered to redeem themfelves at eighteen denarii per head. Whether this Hannibal, for labors and journies, be as he would be thought, the rival of Hercules; or whether he be what his father left him, a tributary, a vaffal, a flave to the Roman people..


7. Did not the consciousness of his wicked deed at Saguntum torment him and make him defperate, he would have fome regard, if not to his conquered country, yet furely to his own family, to his father's memory, to the treaty written with Amilcar's own hand. We might have ftarved them in Eryx; we might have paffed into Africa with our victorious fleet, and in a few days have deftroyed Carthage. 8.

At their humble fupplication, we pardoned them. We releafed them when they were clofely shut up without a poffibility of escaping. We made peace with them when they were conquered. When they were diftreffed by the African war, we confidered them, and treated them as a people under our protection.

9. And what is the return they make us for all thefe favors! Under the conduct of a hair brained young man, they come hither to overturn our State, and lay walte our Country.


10. I could wish, indeed, that it were not fo; and that the war we are now engaged in concerned our glory only, and not our prefervation. But the conteft at prefent is not for the poffeffion of Sicily and Sardinia, but of Italy itself. Nor is there behind us another army, which, if we should not prove the conquerors, may make head against our victorious enemies.

.11. There are no more Alps for them to pafs, which might give us leifure to raise new forces. No, foldiers; here you must take your stand, as if you were just now before the walls of Rome. Let every one reflect, that he is now to defend, not his own perfon only, but his wife, his children, his helpless infants.

12. Yet, let not private confiderations alone poffefs our minds. Let us remember that the eyes of the fenate and people of Rome are upon us; and that, as our force and courage fhall now prove, fuch will be the fortune of that city, and of the Roman empire.


ON what fide fo ever I turn my eyes, I behold all full of courage and ftrength. A veteran infantry; a moft gallant cavalry; you, my allies, most faithful and valant; you, Carthagenians, whom, not only your country's caufe, but the jufteft anger, impels to battle. The hope, the courage of affailants, is always greater than that of thofe who act upon the defenfive.

2. With hoftile banners difplayed, you are come down upon Italy. You bring the war. Grief, injuries, indignities, fire your minds, and fpur you forward to revenge. First, they demanded me; that I, your general, fhould be -delivered to them; next, all of you who had fought at the fiege of Saguntum; and we were to be put to death by excruciating tortures.


3. Proud and cruel nation! Every thing must be yours, and at your dispofal! You are to prescribe to us with whom

we are to make war, with whom to make peace! You are to set us bounds; to fhut us up between hills and rivers; but you are not to obferve the limits which yourselves have fixed!


"Pafs not the Iberus." What next? "Touch not the Saguntines; Saguntum is upon the Iberus; move not a step towards that city." Is it a small matter, then, that you have deprived us of our ancient poffeffions, Sicily and Sardinia? You would have Spain too!

5. Well, we shall yield Spain, and then-you will pafs into Africa. Will pafs, did I fay? This very year, they ordered one of their confuls into Africa, the other into Spain. No, foldiers, there is nothing left for us but what we can vindicate with our fwords.

6. Come on, then. Be men. The Romans may, with more fafety, be cowards. They have their own country behind them; have places of refuge to flee to; and are fecure from danger in the roads thither. But for you, there is no middle fortune between death and victory. Let this be but well fixed in your minds; and, once again, I fay you are conquerors.




HAVING AVING spent above twenty years of my life with you, and paffed through various fcenes of peace and war within that time; being perfonally acquainted with many of you, both in your public and private characters; and having an earnest defire to promote your true interest, I truft you will not think me altogether unqualified to give you a few hints by way of advice.


You are certainly a rifing State; your numbers are rapidly increasing; and your importance in the political Cale will be augmented, in proportion to your improving


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the natural advantages which your fituation affords you, and to your cultivating the intellectual and moral powers of yourselves and your children.

3. The first article on which I would open my mind to you is that of education. Nature has been as bountiful to you as to any other people, in giving your children genius and capacity; it is then your duty and your intereft to cultivate their capacities, and render them serviceable to themselves and the community.

4. It was the faying of a great orator and statesman of antiquity, that "The lofs which the Commonwealth fuftains, by a want of education, is like the lofs which the year would fuffer by the deftruction of the fpring."

5. If the bud be blafted, the tree will yield no fruit. If the fpringing corn be cut down, there will be no harvest So if the youth be ruined through a fault in their education, the community sustains a lofs which cannot be repaired;

for it is too late to correct them when they are spoiled." 6. Notwithstanding the care of your legiflators in enacting laws, and enforcing them by fevere penalties; notwithstanding the wife and liberal provifion which is made by fome towns, and fome private gentlemen in the State; yet there is ftill, in many places, "A great and criminal neglect of education."

7. You are indeed a very confiderable degree better, in this refpect, than in the time of the late war; but yet much remains to be done. Great care ought to be taken, not only to provide a fupport for inftructors of children and youth; but to be attentive in the choice of inftructors; to fee that they be men of good understanding, learning and morals; that they teach by their example as well as by their precepts; that they govern themselves, and teach their pupils the art of felf-government.

8. Another fource of improvement, which I beg leave to recommend, is the establishment of focial libraries. This is the eafieft, the cheapest and most effectual mode of diffufing knowledge among the people. For the fum of fix or eight dollars at once, and a small annual payment befides, a man may be fupplied with the means of literary improvement, during his life, and his children may inherit the bleffing.


9. A few neighbors, joined together in fetting up a library, and placing it under the care of fome fuitable perfon, with a very few regulations, to prevent careleffness and wafte, may render the most effential fervice to themselves and to the community.

fo. Books may be much better preferved in this way, than if they belonged to individuals; and there is an advantage in the focial intercourfe of perfons who have read the fame books, by their converfing on the fubjects which have occurred in their reading, and communicating their obfervations one to another.

From this mutual intercourfe, another advantage may arife; for the perfons who are thus affociated may not only acquire, but originate knowledge. By studying nature and the fciences; by practifing arts, agriculture and manufactures, at the fame time that they improve their minds in reading, they may be led to difcoveries and improvements, original and beneficial; and being already formed into fociety, they may diffuse their knowledge, ripen their plans, correct their mistakes, and promote the caufe of fcience and humanity in a very confiderable degree.

12. The book of nature is always open to our view, and we may ftudy it at our leifure. 'Tis elder fcripture, writ by God's own hand." The earth, the air, the fea, the rivers, the mountains, the rocks, the caverns, the ani. mal and vegetable tribes are fraught with inftruction. Nature is not half explored; and in what is partly known there are many myfteries, which time, obfervation and experience must unfold.

13. Every focial library, among other books, fhould be furnished with thofe of natural philofophy, botany, zoology, chymistry, husbandry, geography and aftronomy; that inquiring minds may be directed in their inquiries; that they may fee what is known, and what still remains to be discovered; and that they may employ their leifure and their various opportunities in endeavoring to add to the ftock of fcience, and thus enrich the world with their ob fervations and improvements.

14. Suffer me to add a few words on the use of fpirituous liquor, that bane of fociety, that deftroyer of health, morals and property. Nature indeed has furnished her

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