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of such dignity, upon affairs of such inportance, should ap. pear more elevated than any character. To your worth Thould it correspond, not to that of the speaker.

%. And now I shall inform you why none of those, who stand high in your esteem, speak in the same manner. The candidates for office and employment go about solicit. ing your voices, the Naves of popular favor. To gain the rank of general, is each man's great concern ; not to fill this station with true manlike intrepidity.

9. Courage, if he poffess it, he deems unnecessary ; for, thus he reasons ; he has the honor, the renown of this city to support him ; he finds himself free from opprellion and control ; he needs but to amuse you with fair hopes ; and thus he secures a kind of inheritance in your emolu.

Add he reasons truly.

But, do you yourselves once assume the conduct of your own affairs ; and then, as you take an equal share of duty, fo shall you acquire an equal share of glory. Now, your ministers and public speakers, without one thought of directing you faithfully to your true interest, reñign themselves entirely to these generals. Formerly you divided into classes, in order to raise the supplies ; now the business of the classes is to gain the management of public affairs.

The orator is the leader; the general seconds his attempts ; the Three Hundred are the affiftants on each fide ; and all others take their parties, and serve to fill up the several factions. And you see the consequences.

This man gains a statue ; this amaffes a fortune ; one or two command the State ; while you

sit down unconcerned, witnesses of their success; and for an uninterrepted course of ease and indolence, give them UP


and glorious advantages, which really belong to you.




OBSERVE and mark as well as you may, what is the temper and disposition of those persons, whose {peeches you hear, whether they be grave, serious, fuber, wise, discreet persons. If they be fuch, their speeches


commonly are like themselves, and well deserve your attention and observation.

But, if they be light, impertinent, vain, pasionate persons, their speech is for the most part accordingly; and the best advantage that you will gain by their speech, is but thereby to learn their dispofitions ; to discern their failings, and to make yourselves the more cautious both in your conversation with them, and in your own speech and deportment ; for in the unseemliness of their speech you may better discern and avoid the like in yourfelves.

3. If any person, that you do not very well know to be a person of truth, fobriety, and weight, relate strange stories, be not too ready or easy to believe them, nor report them after him. And yet, unless he be one of your familiar acquaintance, be not too forward to contradi&t him; or if the necessity of the occasion require you to declare your opinion of what is so reported, let it be modestly and gently, not too bluntly or coarsely. By this mean, on the one side, you will avoid being abused by your too much credulity ; on the other side, you will avoid quarrels and distaste.

4. If any man speak any thing to the disadvantage or reproach of one that is absent, be not too ready to believe it ; only observe and remember it ; for it may be it is not true, or it is not all true, or some other circumstances were mingled with it, which might give the business reported a juftifcation, or at least an allay, an extenuation, or a reasonable excuse.

5. If any person report unto you some injury done to you by another, either in words or deeds, do not be over hasty in believing it, nor suddenly angry with the person so accused; for it is possible it may be false or mistaken ; and how unseemly a thing will it be, when your credulity and pallion shall perchance carry you upon a supposed injury, to do wrong to him that hath done you none. 6. When a person is accused or reported to have injuryoll,

before you give yourself leave to be angry, think with yourself, why should I be angry before I am certain it is true ; or if it be true, how can I tell how much I Tould be angry,'till I know the whole mater? Though it may

be he hath done me wrong, yet pollibly it is misreprefented, or it was done by mistake, or it may be he is sorry


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7. I will not be angry

till I know there be cause, and if there be cause, yet I will not be angry till I know the whole cause ; for till then, if I must be angry at all, yet I know not how much to be angry ;


be it is not worth my anger, or if it be, it may be it deserves but a little. This will keep your nıind and carriage upon

such casions in a due temper and order; and will disappoint malicious or officious tale-bearers. 8. If a man, whose integrity you very

well know, make you great and extraordinary professions and promises, give him as kind thanks as may be, but give not much cred. it to it. ' Cast about with yourself what may be the reason of his wonderful kindness; it is twenty to one


will find foniething that he aims at, beside kindness to you.

9. If a man flatter and commend you to your face, or to one that he thinks will tell you of it, it is a thousand to one, either he hath deceived and abused


fome means to do so. Remember the fable of the fox commending the singing of the crow, when she had somewhat in her mouth that the fox liked.

If a personi be choleric, passionate, and give you ill language, remember, first, rather to pity him than to be moved into anger and passion with him ; for most certainly that man is in a diftemper, and disordered. Observe him calmly, and you shall fee in him so much perturbation and disturbance, that you will easily believe he is not a pattern to be imitated by you, and therefore return not cboler for anger; for you do but put yourself into a kind of frenzy because


see him so 11. Be sure you return not railing, reproaching, or revíling for reviling; for it doth but kindle more heat, and you will find silence, or at least very gentle words, the most exquisite revenge for reproaches that can be ; for either it will cure the distemper in the other, and make him fee and be sorry for his paffion, or it will torment him with more perturbation and disturbance.

Some men are excellent in the knowledge of husbandry, some of planting, some of gardening, some in the mathematics, some in one kind, some in another ; in all your conversation, learn as near as you can wherein the kill and excellence of any person lies, and


him un


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talk of that subject, and observe it and keep it in memory or writing ; by this mean you will glean up the worth and excellence of every person you meet with, and at an easy rate put together that which may be for your use upon all occafions.

13. Converse not with a liar or a fwearer, or a man of obscene or wanton language ; for either he will corrupt you, or at least it will hazard your reputation to be one of i he like making. And if it doth neither, yet it will fill your memory with such discourses, that will be troublesome to you in after-time, and the returns of the remembrance of the passages which you long since heard of this nature, will haunt you, when your thoughts should be better employed. 14.

Let your speech be true ; never speak any thing for a truth which


know or believe to be false. It is a great sin against God who gave you a tongue, to speak your offence against humanity itself; for where there is no truth, there can be no fafe society between man and man. 15. As you must be careful not to lie, fo


must avoid coming near to it: you must not equivocáte, you muft not speak that absolutely, which you have but by hearsay or relation : you must not speak that as upon knowledge which you have but by conjecture or opinion only.

16. Let your words be few, especially when your bet: ters, or strangers, or men of experience or understanding, are present ; for

you do yourself at once two great mischiefs. Firlit

, you betray and discover your own weakness and folly. Secondly, you rob yourself of that opportunity which you might otherwise have to gain knowledge, wisdom, and experience, by hearing those whom you filence by your impertinent talking.

17. Be not over earnest, loud, or violent in talking ; for it is unseemly; and earnest and loud talking make you over: Thoot and lose

business. When you

should be consid. ering and pondering your thoughts, and how to express them fignificantly, and to the purpose, you are striving to keep your tongue going, and to lilence an opponent, not with reason, but with noise.

18. Be careful not to interrupt another in his talk; heat him out ; you will understand him the better, and be able

give him the better answer. It may be, if you will give


him leave, he will say something more than you have yet heard, or well understood, or that which


did not expect. 19. Always before you speak, especially where tlie business is of inoment, consider beforehand, weigh the sense of your mind, which

intend to utter;


the expressions you intend to use, that they may be significant, pertinent, and inoffensive ; and whereas it is the ordinary course of inconsiderate persons to speak their words, and then to think, or not to think till they speak ; think first and speak after; if it be in any matter of moment or seriousness, Be sure you give not an ill report to any


you are not sure deserves it. And in most cases, though a man deserve ill, yet you should be sparing to report him fo. In some cases indeed you are bound, in honesty and justice, to give that account concerning the demerit or default of a person that he deserves.

21. Avoid scoffing, and bitter and biting jeering, and jefting, especially at the condition, credit, deformity, or natural defects of any person ; for these leave a deep impression, and are most apparent injustice ; for were you so used, you would take it amifs ; and many times such an injury costs a man dear, when he little thinks of it.

22. Be very careful that you give no reproachful, bitter, menacing, or spiteful words to any person; nay not to fervants or other perfons of an inferior condition. There is no person so mean but that you may stand in need of him in one kind, or at some time or another. Good words make friends, bad words make enemies ; it is the best prudence in the world to make as many friends as honestly you can.

23. If there be occasion for you to speak in any company, always be careful, if you speak at all, to speak lateft, especially if strangers are in company; for by this mean yon will have the advantage of knowing the fense, judgment, temper, and relations of others, which may be a great light and help to you in ordering your speech ; and you will better know the inclination of the company, and speak with more advantage and acceptation, and with more fecurity against giving offence.

24. Be careful that you commend not yourselves ; it is the most useless thing that can be. You should avoid flattery from others, but especially decline flattering yourselves.

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