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the street where he had formerly resided; he found it, but no trace of his house remained ; one of the public edifices occupied the spot where it had stood.

He now faw nothing which brought to his recol. lection, either that particular quarter, the city itself, or the objects with which he was formerly acquainted. The houses of his nearest neighbors, which were frelh in his memory, had assumed a new appearance.

II. In vain were his looks directed to all the objects around him ; he could discover nothing of which he had the finallest remembrance, Terrified, he stopped and fetchcd a deep ligh. To him what did it import, that the city was peopled with living creatures ? None of then were alive to him ; he was unknown to all the world, and he knew nobody; and whilft he wept, he regretted his dungeon.

At the name of the Bastile, which he often pronounced and even claimed as an asylum, and the light of his clothes which marked his former age, the crowd gathered around him ; curiosity, blended with pity, excited their atcention. The moit aged asked him many questions, but had no remembrance of the circumstaoces which he recapitulated.

13. At length, accident brought to his way an ancient domestic, now a superannuated porter, who, confined to his lodge for fifteen years, had barely sufficient strength to open

Even he did not know the master he had served; but informed him that grief and misfortune had brought his wife to the grave thirty years before ; that his children were gone abroad to distant clines, and that of all his relations and friends, none now remained.

14. This recital was made with the indifference which people discover for events long passed and alnjoft forgotten. The miserable man groaned, and groaned-alone. The crowd around, offering only unknown features to his view, made him feel the excess of his calamities even more than he would have done in the dreadful solitude which he had left.

15. Overcome with forrow, he presented himself before the minister, to whose Humanity he owed that liberty which was now a burden to him. Bowing down, he said, “Resore me again to that prison from which you have taken me. I cannot survive the loss of my nearest relations ; of my


the gate.

friends ; and in one word, of a whole generation. Is it possible in the same moment to be informed of this universal destruction and not to wish for death ?

16. “ This general mortality, which to others comes Nowly and by degrees, has to me been instantaneous, the operation of a moment. Whilft secluded from fociety, I lived with myself only ; but here I can neither live with myself, nor with this new race, to whom my anguish and despair appear only as a dream."

17. The minister was melted; he caused the old domes. tic to attend this unfortunate person, as only he could talk to him of his family.

18. This discourse was the single consolation which he received : for he shunned intercourse with the new race, born fince he had been exiled from the world ; and he passed his time in the midst of Paris in the same folitude as he had done whilst confined in a dungeon for almost

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half a century:

19. But the chagrin and mortification of meeting no person who could say to him, “We were formerly knowo to each other," soon put an end to his existence.




O Christopher Columbus, a native of Ge. noa, is defervedly ascribed the first discovery of America :: an event, which opened to mankind a new region of fein ence, commerce, and enterprise ; and stamped with ina. mortality the name of its projector.

He was born in the year 1447. He early mowed a capacity and inclination for a sea-faring life, and received an education which qualified him to pursue it. of fourteen, he went to sea, and began his career on that element, where he was to perform exploits, which should astonish mankind.

3. He made a variety of voyages to almost every part of the globe, with which ady intercourse was then carried on by lea ; and became one of the most skilful navigators in Europe. But his active and enterprising genius would

At the age


not suffer him to rest in the decisions, and tamcly follow the track of his predecessors.

4. It was the great object in view at this time in Iurope, to find out a passage by sea to the East-Indies. The Portuguese, among whom he now refided, fought a new route to these defirable regions, by failing round the fouthern extremity of Africa.

5. They had consumed half a century in making various attempts, and had advanced no further on the western hore of Africa than just to cress the equator, when Columbus conceived his great defign of finding India in the welt. The spherical figure of the earth, which he understood, made it evident to bim, that Europe, Afia, and Africa, formed but a small portion of the globe.

6. It was an impeachment of the wisdom and beneficence of the Author of nature, to suppose that the vast space, yet unexplored, was a waite, urprofitable ocean, and it appeared necessary, that there should be another continent in the west to counterpoile the immense quantity of land, which was known to be in the east.

%. In the sea, near the western islands, pieces of carve ed wood, and large joints of cane had been discovered ; and branches of pine trees, and the bodies of two men, with features different from the Europeans, had been found on the ihores of those islands after a course of westerly winds.

8. Tlcie reasonings and facts, with some others, convinced Columbus that it was posible to find the desired land by failing in a westerly direction. He had a genius of that kind, which makes use of reasoning cnly as an excitement to action. No sconer was he' fatisfied of the truth of his system, than he was anxious to bring it to the rest of experiment; and set out on a voyage of discovery.

9. His first Itep was to fecure the patronage of some of the confidcrabie powers of Europe, capable of undertaking fuch an enterprise. Excited by the love of his coupiry, he laid his scheme before the Senate of Genca, offering to til under their banners. But they, ignorant of the princijos on which it was formed, rejected it as the dream of a vitionary projector.

10. He next applied to John II. king of Portugal. But he being deeply engaged in prosecuting discoverics along the



I 2.

coast of Africa, was not inclined to encourage the undertaking of Colunibus ; yet he meanly sought to rob him of the glory and advantages of his scheme, by privately difpatching a ship to make a discovery in the welt.

When Columbus was acquainted with this perfidious transaction, he quitted the kingdom with indignation, and landed in Spain in 1484. Here, after seven years painful solicitation at court, and surmounting every obstacle, which ignorance, timidity, jealousy, and avarice could lay before him, he obtained his request ; and Ferdinand and Isabella, who then reigned together, agreed to be patrons of his enterprise.

It was ftipulated between him and them, that he should be admiral in all those islands and continents he thould discover, and have the office hereditary in his family; that he should be viceroy of the same for life, and enjoy a tenth of all the merchandize which should be found.

13. Three small vessels were fitted out and victualled for twelve months, furnished with ninety men, and placed under his command. With this little fieet he set sail from Palos on Friday the 3d of August, 1492 ; and taking a westerly course, boldly ventured into the unknown ocean.

14. He foon found that he had unforseen hardihips and difficulties to encounter from the inexperience and fears. of his inen.

To go directly from home into a boundless ocean, far from any hope of relief, if any accident should befal them, and where no friendly port nor human being, were known to exist, filled the boldeft seamen with apprehenfion.

15. What greatly added to their terror, was a new and extraordinary phenomenon, which occurred on the 14th of September. The magnetic needle varied froni the pole, and as they advanced, the variation increased. Nature seemed to be changed ; and their only guide through the trackless waters, to prove unfaithful.

16. After twenty days, the impatient failors began to talk of throwing their commander into the sea, and of refurning home.

Their murmurs reached his ears; but his fertile mind suggested an' expedient in every extremity. By foothing, flattery, and artifice; by inventing reasons for


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every uncomịnon appearance, and deceiving them in the fhip’s reckoning, he kept them on sixteen days longer.

17. On the night of the isth of O&tober, he himself difcovered a light, which appeared to move ; and the next morning gave them the joyful light of land. It proved to be the illand Guanahana, one of the cluster, called Baha

Thus in the space of thirty-fix days, and the fortyfifth year of his age. Columbus completed a voyage, which he bad spent twenty years in projecting ; which cpened to. the Europeans a new world, and made the name of Co. lumbus immortal.

18. With tears of joy and transports of congratulation, the crews of the ships sang a hymn of thankfgiving to God. After touching at several islands, and leaving a small colony, he returned to Spain. On his return he was overtaken by a storm, which became so furious that his destruction feem. ed inevitable. The crews abandoned themselves to despair, and expected every moment to be swallowed up in the waves.

19. In this extremity, he gave an admirable proof of his calmness and foresight. He wrote a short account of his voyage on parchment, inclosed it in a cake of wax, which he put into a tight calk, and threw into the sea, in hopes that some fortunate accident would preserve a deposit of fo. much importance to the world. The storm however subGided, and he arrived at Palos in Spain on the 15th of March, 1493•

20. The populace received him with acclamations; and the King and Queen, no less astonished than delighted with his success, had hin. conducted to court with a pomp suitable to the event, which added such distinguished lustre to their reign. His family was ennobled ; and his former privileges and offices confirmed to him.

21. He foon failed on a second expedition to the new world, with a fleet of seventeen fhips, having on board 1500 people, and all things necessary for establishing plantations. After discovering many islands of the Wett-Indies, and submitting to every labor and vexation in artempting to settle bis colooy, he returned to Spain in 498; to counteract the intrigues and efforts of his enemies in the Spanish coure.

22. He made two more voyages, in which he touched at most parts of the West Indies, discovered the continent,


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