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of spiritual being, thought, or intelligence; for the being which comes from the Idea must " resemble” it as the son resembles his mother. Being, in the real and absolute sense of the term, and being-mind (thought) are one and the same thing, from this point of view. This explanation of the world, which, to tell the truth, is but a figure of speech, would perhaps suffice, if the world were actually a society of pure spirits, the abode of goodness, justice, and perfection. But it is a mixture of being and non-being, of spirituality and corporeality, of good and evil. Whence comes this second constitutive element of the phenomenon, this non-being ? From the Idea ? Impossible. The Idea can create nothing but being, intelligence, and goodness. Hence, a second principle that is co-eternal with the Idea has participated in the creation of the world; the monism of the good becomes a dualism of Idea and matter. By coming in contact with the latter, the Idea, or rather intelligence, its offspring, is polluted, diminished, and impoverished. Hence, intelligence must consider matter as its natural enemy, as the chief cause of its diminution, as the seat and the principle of evil; the mind will, of course, , desire to be freed, as soon as possible, from the body which holds it in bondage, and from the visible world, which is a prison, a place of correction. The Utopian system of politics, which sacrifices nature to an abstract principle, asceticism, monachism, the horror of matter which we find among the Neo-Platonists, the Gnostics, and even Catholics, all these elements are the logical consequences of a conception that makes the Idea a reality.

SPETSIPPUS, the successor of Plato in the Academy (347339), seems to see the need of combining the One (the Idea) and the many (matter) by means of a concrete principle that contains them both. He lays great weight on the Pythagorean notion of emanation, development, and series, which forms the very essence of Neo-Platonism, and teaches, in opposition to Plato, that perfection is to be found, not in the original and abstract unity, but in the developed, differentiated, and organized unity. But his reverence for the name of Plato, and the position which he held as the scholarch of the school hindered him from subjecting the master's view to an impartial criticism. The same is true of Xenocrates, Polemo, Crantor, and Crates, who were sueceeded by the sceptic Arcesilaus. It was left to Aristotle, the most distinguished among the pupils of Plato and the founder of a new school, to criticise and reform Academic idealism from the standpoint of concrete spiritualism.

§ 17. Aristotle ARISTOTLE,' was born at Stagira, not far from Mount Athos, in 385. His father, Nicomachus, the physician of King Amyntas of Macedon, came from a family of physicians. The blood of experimentalists and positive scientists flowed in his veins. In the year 367, he entered upon his course of study (as we should say nowadays) at Athens, where he became first a pupil and then the successful rival of the veteran Plato. From 343 to 310, he was the teacher of Alexander, the son of Philip. The friendship between him and Alexander proved advantageous to Aristotle, for it enabled him to accumulate vast collections, and contributed largely toward making him the father of natural science. In 334 he began to teach his philosophy in the walks of the Lyceum at Athens; hence the name applied to his school, and the epithet given to his disciples, -- Peripatetics. After the death of Alexander, he was accused of Macedonianism and atheism, and compelled to retire to Chalchis, in the island of Eubea, where he died in 322.


1 Aristotle, Met., ΧΙΙ, 7: To κάλλιστον και το άριστον μη εν αρχή είναι. Cf. § 65.

Cicero, Acad. posl., I, 9, 34. 8 See & 21. (For the Platonic school, see Diog. L., IV, ch. 1-5; Mullach, vol. III, pp. 51 ff.; Ritter and Preller, pp. 283 ff. For further references, see Ueberweg-Heinze, I, § 44. - Tr.).

* Aristotle's Complete Works; the Berlin edition in 5 vols. : vols. I. and II., the Greek text (rec. Imm. Bekker, 1831); vol. III., a Latin translation (1831); vol. IV., the principal commentaries (coll. by Chr. Aug. Brandis, 1836); vol. V., fragments and commentaries (coll. by V. Rose), Index Aristotelicus ed. H. Bonitz, 1870; the Didot edition, 5 vols., Paris, 1848–70; Tauchnitz edition, 1831-32, 1843; [Aristotle's Psychology, in Greek and English, with introduction and notes, E. Wallace, Cambridge, 1882 ; Nicomachean Ethics, transl., with an analysis and critical notes, by J. E. C. W'elldon, New York and London, 1892 ; transl. also by Williams, ibid., 1876, Chase, ibid., 1877, Hatch, ibid., 1879, Peters, ibid., 1881, Gillies (Sir John Lubbock's Hundred Books), ibid., 1892; Politics, transl. by Welldon, Cambridge, 1888, Jowett, 2 vols., Oxford, 1885–88, Ellis, with an introduction by H. Morley (Sir John Lubbock’s Hundred Books), London, 1892; On the Constitution of Athens, transl. and annotated by F. G. Kenyon, Lon


don, 1891; Poetics, transl. by Wharton, Cambridge, 1883; Rhetoric, transl. by Welldon, London and New York, 1886; translations of the above and of the Metaphysics, Organon, and History of Animals in the Bohn Library; editions of the Politics, with introduction by Newman, 2 vols., Oxford, 1887, of the Ethics, by A. Grant, 2 vols., 4th ed., London, 1884, and Bywater, Oxford, 1894; German translations of Aristotle in Metzler's collection, Hoffmann's Uebersetzungsbibliothek, Engelmann's collection, and in Kirchmann's Philosophical Library. - Tr.). The Metaphysics has been translated into French by Pierron and Zévort, 2 vols., Paris, 1840; the Politics, Logic, Ethics, Poetics, and Meteorology, by Barthélemy Saint-Hilaire, Paris, 1837–62. [For the philosophy of Aristotle, see Biese, Die Philosophie des Arisloteles, 2 vols., Berlin, 1835-42; A. Rosmini-Serbati, Aristotele esposto ed esaminato, Turin, 1858; Bonitz, Aristotelische Studien, I.-V., Vienna, 1862–66; Lewes, Aristotle, London, 1864; Grote, Aristotle, ed. by A. Bain and G. C. Robertson, 2 vols. (incomplete), London, 1872, 3d ed., 1884; E. Wallace, Outlines of the Philosophy of Aristotle, Oxford, 1875, 3d ed., 1883; A. Grant, Aristotle (in Ancient Classics for English Readers), Edinburgh and London, 1878; Davidson, Aristotle and An. cient Educational Meals, New York, 1892; Kappes, Aristoteles-Lexikon, Paderborn, 1894. - Tr.]

The writings attributed to Aristotle deal with almost all the sciences known to antiquity, that is, according to the philosopher's own classification, with the theoretical sciences, which have truth for their object (mathematics, physics, and theology, or the first philosophy), with the practical sciences, which treat of the useful (ethics, politics, etc.), and with the poetical sciences, whose object is the beautiful. The Categories, the De interpretatione, the two Analytics, the Topics, etc., which have been collected under the name Organon, make Aristotle the real founder of logic. True, he was not the first to conceive all the principles of logic; the discussions of the Eleatics, the Sophists, and the Socratics, have shown us how reason gradually became conscious of the processes which it originally employed instinctively; thus the elementary axioms, such as the principle of contradiction, the principle of sufficient reason, the principium erclusi tertii, the dictum de omni et nullo, and without doubt also the more special rules of the syllogism came to be formulated. But it required the genius of an Aristotle to co-ordinate these elements, to complete them, and to formulate them into the system of deductive logic, which constitutes his chief claim to fame.? The physical and natural sciences are ably set forth in the Physics, the De cælo, the De generatione et corruptione, the Meteorology, the De anima, the Parra naturalia, the History of Animals, the treatises on the Parts of Animals, On the Progression of Animals, On the Generation of Animals, etc. The problems of philosophy proper are discussed in a number of writings on first principles, which a diaokevastís collected into a single work com

1 Metaphysics, VI., 1, 9.

? For Aristotle's logie, see Trendelenburg, Elementa logices Aristote. lece, Berlin, 1836 ; 8th ed., 1878. [Erläuterungen, 3d ed., Berlin, 1876; Prantl, Geschichte der Logik, vol. I.; Eucken, Die Methode der aristote lischen Forschung, Berlin, 1872. – Tr.]

prising fourteen books, and placed after the writings on physics (uetà puolrd): hence the name metaphysics, which has since been applied to philosophy proper, a term with which Aristotle himself was not acquainted. Ethics and politics are treated in the Nicomachean Ethics, in the Magna moralia, in the Eudemean Ethics, in the eight books of the Politics. Rhetoric and poetry are discussed in the books known by those titles. Taken altogether, the works of Aristotle constitute a veritable encyclopedia of the knowledge possessed by the fourth century before. Christ.

Philosophy is defined by Aristotle as the science of universals (ý kalólov ÊTLOTun). Every real science is, or at least aims to be, a view of the whole, a general theory ; hence the special sciences are partial philosophies (pinocopíaı), as well as general theories concerning one or more groups of given facts, theories which are summarized and systematized by general philosophy. Conversely, philosophy proper or the first science (Tpørn pilooopía) is a separate science; it is co-ordinated with other sciences (second philosophy), and has a distinct subject-matter of its own: being as such, the absolute or God. But it is at the same time the universal science embracing all the specialties, because its object, God, embraces and contains the principles of all the sciences and the first causes of

1 For the lost works, see E. Heitz, Die verlorenen. Schriften des Ari stoteles, Leipsic, 1865, and Fragmenta Aristotelis, collegit Æm. Heitz, Paris, 1869. One, whose loss was much to be deplored, the treatise On the Constitution of Athens, has recently been found (January, 1891) on a papyrus in the British Museum. Some of the extant works are mutilated and form a confused mixture of genuine texts and spurious commentaries. Some, like the Categories, the De interpretatione, the treatise De Melisso, Xenophane et Gorgia, the Eudemean Ethics, etc., are doubtful. Others, at last, like the De motu animalium, the proloyapıká, the Economics, the Rhetoric to Alexander, etc., are certainly spurious.


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