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For European philosophy in general : (Stanley '), Brucker, Tiedemann,3 Buhle, Degérando, Tennemann, 1893 (Engl. transl. by Stuart Phelps, 1880); Seth, From Kant to Hegel, London, 1882; Eacken, Beiträge zur Geschichte der neueren Philosophie, 1886 ; Monrad, Denkrichtungen der neueren Zeit, Bonn, 1879; Höffding, Einleitung in die englische Philosophie unserer Zeit (German transl. by Kurella), Leipsic, 1889; Bowen, Modern Philosophy, 6th ed., New York, 1891; Roberty, La philosophie du siècle, Paris, 1891; Royce, The Spirit of Modern Philosophy, New York, 1892; Burt, A History of Modern Philosophy, 2 vols., Chicago, 1892; Falckenberg, Die Geschichte der neueren Philosophie, 2d ed., 1892 (Engl. transl. by A. C. Armstrong, Jr., New York, 1893); Höffding, Den Nyere Filosofie Historie, Kopenhagen, vol. I., 1894; vol. II. will be issued in 1895; German translation of both volumes, by Bendixen, in the press (O. Reisland, Leipsic); W. Whewell, History of the Inductive Sciences, London, 1837, 3d ed., 1863; J. Schaller, Geschichte der Naturphilosophie seit Bacon, 2 vols., Leipsic, 1811-44; J. Baumann, Die Lehren von Raum, Zeit und Mathematik in der neueren Philosophie, 2 vols., Berlin, 1868–69; König, Die Entwickelung des Causal problems von Cartesius bis Kant, Leipsic, 1888; same author, Die Entwickelung des Causalproblems in der Philosophie seit Kant, 2 pts., Leipsic, 1889-90 : Lasswitz, Geschichte der Atomistik vom Mittelalier bis Newton, 2 vols., Hamburg and Leipsic, 1890; Grimm, Zur Geschichte des Erkenntnissproblems von Bacon bis Hume, 1890; Vorländer, Geschichte der philosophischen Moral, Rechts-,

1 [History of Philosophy, London, 1655; in Latin, 2 vols., Leipsic, 1712. Also, Pierre Bayle, Dictionnaire historique et critique, 2 folio vols., 1695-97; 4th ed., revised and enlarged by Des Maizeaux, 4 folio vols., Amsterdam and Leyden, 1740; Boureau-Deslandes, Histoire critique de la philosophie, 3 vols., Paris, 1730-36 ff. – Tr.)

? Historia critica philosophiæ inde a mundi.incunabilis, 6 vols., Leipsic, 1742–67.

8 Geist der spekulativen Philosophie, 6 vols., Marburg, 1791-97.

Lehrbuch der Geschichte der Philosophie, 8 vols., Göttingen, 1796– 1804.

6 Histoire comparée des systèmes de la philosophie, 3 vols., Paris, 1803; 2d ed., 4 vols., 1822-23.

6 Geschichte der Philosophie, 11 vols., Leipsic, 1798-1819; Grundriss der Geschichte der Philosophie, Leipsic, 1812; (Engl. transl. 1833 and 1852 (Bohn's Library)}

Ritter, Hegel, Schwegler, Renouvier, Nourrisson, Cousin,6 Janet, Prantl, Lange, Erdmann, 10 Ueberweg, 11 und Staatslehre der Engliiniler und Franzosen, Marburg, 1855; Mack intosh, On the Progress of Ethical hilosophy during the 17th and 18th Centuries, Edinburgh, 1872; Jodl, Gesch: hte der Ethik in der neueren Philosophie, 2 vols., Stuttgart, 1882–89; Bluntschli, Geschichte des allgemeinen Staatsrechts und der Politik seit dem 16. Jahrhundert, Munich, 1864; 0. Pfleiderer, Religionsphilosophis ruf geschichtlicher Grundlage, 2 vols., 3d ed., Berlin, 1893 (vol. I. : Geschichte der Religionsphilosophie von Spinoza bis zur Gegenwart); Engl. transl. by A. Stewart and A. Menzies, London, 1886-1858; Pünjer, Geschichte der christlichen Re

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1 Geschichte der Philosophie, 12 vols., Hamburg, 1829-53.

3 Vorlesungen über die Geschichte der Philosophie, published by Michelet, Berlin, 183. (vols. XIII-XIV. of the Complete Works); [Engl. transl. by E. S. IIaldane in 3 vols., London, 1892–1896. - TR.]

8 Geschichte der Philosophie im Umriss, Stuttgart, 1848; 15th ed. 1891; (Engl. translations by Seelye, New York, 1856 ff., and J. H Stirling, 7th ed., Edinburgh, 1979).

4 Manuel de philosophie ancienne, 2 vols., Paris, 1844; Munuel de philosophie moderne, Paris, 1842.

6 Tableau des progrès ile la pensre humaine depuis Thalès jusqu'à Leibniz, Paris, 1858, 1860.

6 Cours d'histoire de la philosophie, Paris, 1829 [Engl. transl. by 0. W. Wight, 2 vols., New York, 1899. — Tr.] ; Histoire générale de la philosophie depuis les temps les plus anciens jusqu'au dic-neuvième siècle, 1 vol., Paris, 1803; 12th ed. published by Barthélemy Saint-Hilaire, Paris, 1884.

7 Histoire de la philosophie morale et politique dans l'antiquité et dans les temps modernes, Paris, 1858.

8 Geschichte der Logik im Abendlande, 4 vols., Leipsic, 1855 ff.

9 Geschichte des Materialismus, 3d ed., Iserlohn, 1876-77; (Engl. transl. in 3 vols. by E. C. Thomas, London, 1878–81. — Tr.).

10 Grundriss der Geschichte der Philosophie, 2 vols., 3d ed., Berlin, 1878, [4th ed. prepared by B. Erdmann, 1895; Engl. transl. 3 vols., ed. by W. S. Hough, London, 1590.- TR.).

11 Grundriss der Geschichte der Philosophie, 3 vols., 7th ed., published and enlarged by Heinze, Berlin, 1888; [8th ed. vol. I., 1894, vol. III, 1, 1896; Engl. transl. by G. S. Morris, New York, 1872-74. —TR.)

Scholten, Dühring, Lewes,3 Lefèvre,4 Alaux, Franck,6 Fouillée, Fabre,8 Kirchner.9

ligionsphilosophie seit der Reformation, 2 vols., Braunschweig, 1880–83; Engl. transl. by W. Hastie, vol. I., Edinburgh and London, 1897; Dessoir, Geschichte der neueren deutschen Psychologie, vol. I., Berlin, 1895; Buckle, History of Civilization in England, London, 1857–60 ; Draper, History of the Intellectual Development of Europe, New York, 1863; Lecky, History of the Rise and Influence of the Spirit of Rationalism in Europe, London, 1865, 5th ed , 1872 ; Dean, The History of Civilization, New York and London, 1869; Hettner, Litteraturgeschichte des 18. Jahrhunderts, 3 parts, Braunschweig, 1862–70; Paulsen, Geschichte des gelehrten Unterrichts (from middle ages to the present time), Leipsic, 1885; Engl. transl. by E. D. Perry, New York and London, 1895. For further references, see Falckenberg (trans.), pp. 15–17; also Ueberweg-Heinze, vol. III., § 1 ff.; and Windelband's History of Philosophy. Tr.)

History of Religion and Philosophy, 3d ed. much enlarged, 1868 (Dutch); French transl. from 2d ed. by Réville, Paris and Strasburg, 1861; German translation from 3d ed. by Redepenning, Elberfeld, 1868

2 Krilische Geschichte der Philosophie, 4th ed., Leipsic, 1894.

8 A Biographical History of Philosophy from its Origin in Greece down to the Present Day, 3d ed., London, 1863. * La philosophie, Paris, 1879

Histoire de la philosophie, Paris, 1882.

Dictionnaire des sciences philosophiques, 2d ed., Paris, 1875. * Histoire de la philosophie, Paris, 1875, 4th ed., 1883; Extraits des grands philosophes, Paris, 1877. 8 Histoire de la philosophie, Paris, 1877.

Kalechismus der Geschichte der Philosophie, Leipsic, 1878; 2d ed., 1881. [To these may be added : Trendelenburg, Historische Beiträge zur Phitosophie, 3 vols., Berlin, 1816-67; Zeller, Vorträge und Abhandlungen, 3 series, 1865-81; Hartenstein, Historisch-philosophische Abhanıllungen, Leipsic, 1870; Sigwart, Kleine Schriften, 2 vols , 1981; 2d ed , 1989; Lucken, Lebensanschauungen der grossen Denker, Leipsie, 1890; Raumann, Geschichte der Philosophie, 1890; Windelband, Geschichte der Philosophie, Freiburg, 1892 (Engl. transl. by J. H. Tufts, London and Cew York, 189 ): Bergmann, Geschichte der Philosophie, 2 vols., Berrin, 1532-94. Deussen, Allgemeine Geschichte vier Philosophie, in six parts. vol. 1., part 1, Leipsic, 1891; Willmann, Geschichte des Idealism

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3 vols., vol. I., Braunschweig, 1894. For further references, see Ueberweg-Heinze, vol. I., $ 4, Falckenberg, and Windelband. Histories of special philosophical sciences : Prantl (mentioned above); Harms, Die Philosophie in ihrer Geschichte, vol. 1., Psychologie, vol. II., Logik, Berlin, 1877, 1881; Siebeck, Geschichte der Psychologie, Gotha, 188084; Sidgwick, History of Ethics, London and New York, 3d ed., 1892; Paulsen, System der Ethik, 2 vols., 3d ed., Berlin, 1894 (vol. I., PP. 31-191, contains a history of ethics); Paul Janet, Histoire de la science politique dans ses rapports avec la morale, 3d ed., Paris ; same author's History of Ethics, mentioned above; Bosanquet, The History of Æsthetics, London and New York, 1892; Flint, History of the Philosophy of History, New York, 1891. For further references, see Ueberweg-lleinze, vol. I., $ 4, pp. 8–15; Windelband (transl.), pp. 20, 21; and Falckenberg, pp. 15-17, 628–629. The following are the most important philosophical journals : The Philosophical Review, vol. 4, 1895; Mind, New Series, vol. 4; The Monist, vol. 5; The American Journal of Psychology, vol. 6; The Psychological Review, vol. ?; International Journal of Ethics, vol. 5; Zeitschriji für Philosophie mil philosophische Kritik, New Series, vol. 106; Vierteljahresschrift fiir wissenschaftliche Philosophie, vol. 18; Philosophisches Jahrbuch, vol. 8; Zeitschrift für Philosophie und Pedagogik, vol. 2; Jahrbuch für Philosophie und spekulatire Thrologie, vol. 9; Zeitschrift für exacte Philosophie, vol. 21 ; Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie, vol. 8; Archiv für systematische Philosophie (Now Series of the Philosophische Monatshefte), vol. 1; Philosophische Studien, vol. 11; Zeitschrift für Psychologie und Physiologie der Sinnesorgane, vol. 8; Zeitschrift für Völkerpsychologie und Sprachwissenschaft, vol. 25; Rerue philosophique, vol 20; Revue de métaphysique et de morale, vol. :3 ; L'année philosophique, vol. 5, 1894; L'année psychologique, vol. 1 ; Rivista Italiana di Filosofia, vol. 9. The following American and English philosophical series are of value to the student of philosophy: Griggs's Philosophical Classics (German philosophers), G. S. Morris, editor, Chicago; Philosophical Classics for English Realers, W. Knight, editor, Philadelphia and Edinburgh; Series of Modern Philosophers, E. II. Sneath, editor, New York; Ethical Series, E. H. Sneath, editor, Boston; The Library of Philosophy, J. H. Muirhead, editor, London and New York; The English and Foreign Philosophical Library, London ; Ethical Library, J. H. Muirhead, editor, London and New York; Bohn Library, London. The most extensive German collection of philosophical works is the Philosophische Bibli. othek, J. H. von Kirchmann, editor, lleidelberg. Felix Alcan, Paris, publishes the Bibliothèque de Philosophie. — TR.)

I

GREEK PHILOSOPHY

FIRST PERIOD

AGE OF METAPHYSICS PROPER OR PHILOSOPHY

OF NATURE

(600-400)

§ 4. Origin of Greek Philosophy 1 The philosophy of the Hellenes emancipates itself from their religion in the form of theology and gnomic mo. rality. Aryan naturalism, modified by the national genius

* (Cf. chapters on mythology, etc., in Grote's History of Greece (cited page 8); Preller's Mythologie (cited page 9); Lehrs, Populäre Aufsätze (cited page 9); and histories of Greek philosophy. - Tr.]

? That is to say, philosophy is of comparatively recent origin, while religion, which precedes it historically, is as old as nations and humanity itself. Philosophy, being a late product of human development, plays but a subordinate and intermittent part in history. Religion, on the other hand, guides its destinies. It is the primordial and permanent expression of what lies at the very root of our nature, that is, the will, and consists essentially in the will to be, until the evolution of consciousness enables it to foresee its highest and absolute end, the good. To will-to-live means to resist annihilation, consequently, to dread everything that is supposed to have the power of destroying and of preserving life. Now, the horror of death and of the forces which produce it, the passionate desire for life and whatever is able to preserve it, is precisely what constitutes the essence of euréßeca, the characteristic trait of the religious phenomenon. This is so true that we find the belief in immortality and the worship of the dead as beings that continue to live in spite of all, intimately connected with all religions. Such a belief simply represents the desire of the will-to-live to continue even after death and beyond the grave,

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