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fallen from its ideal beauty in consequence of sin. This beauty, which is latent in the actual organism, will not manifest itself in its purity except in the life to come. Man is an epitome of all terrestrial and celestial creatures. He is the world in miniature, and as such the lord of creation. He differs from the angels only in sin, and raises himself to the level of divine being by penitence. Sin belongs to the corporeal nature of man; it is the necessary effect of the preponderance of the senses over the intellectual life in process of development.

The fall of man is not only the consequence, but also the cause of his corporeal existence. The imperfectious and the diseases of his actual body, his dull materiality, the antagonism between the flesh and the spirit, the difference of the sexes, all these things in themselves constitute sin, fall, separation from God, the dismemberment of the universal unity. On the other hand, since there is no real being outside of God, what we call separation from God, fall or sin, is but a negative reality, a defect or privation. Evil has no substantial existence. A thing has real existence only in so far as it is good, and its excellence is the measure of its reality. Perfection and reality are synonyms. Hence absolute imperfection is synonymous with absolute non-reality; which implies the impossibility of the existence of a personal Devil, that is, an absolutely wicked being. Evil is the absence of good, life, and being. Deprive a being of everything good in it, and you annihilate it.2

Creation is an eternal and continuous act, an act without beginning or end. God precedes the world in dignity, not in time.3 God is absolutely eternal; the world is relatively

It emanates from God as the light emanates from the sun, or heat from fire. In the case of God, to think is to

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create (videt operando et videndo operaturl), and his creative activity is, like his thought, without beginning. Every creature is virtually eternal; our entire being is rooted in eternity; we have all pre-existed from eternity in the infinite series of causes which have produced us. God alone is eternal actu ; he alone never existed as a simple germ. The nothingness from which the world is derived, according to Scripture, is not equal to 0); it is the ineffable and incomprehensible beauty of the divine nature, the supraessential and supernatural essence of God, inaccessible to thought and unknown even to the angels.?

The genera, species, and individuals are evolved in succession from the Infinite Being. Creation consists in this eternal analysis of the general. Being is the highest generality. From being, which is common to all creatures, life, which belongs only to organized beings, is separated as a special principle. Reason springs from life and embraces a still narrower class of beings (men and angels); finally, from reason are derived wisdom and science, which belong to the smallest number. Creation is a harmonious sum of concentric circles; we have constant crossings between the divine essence, which overflows, expands, and unfolds, and the world or the periphery, which strives to return to God and to be merged in him.3 The aim of human science is to know exactly how things spring from the first causes, and how they are divided and subdivided into species and genera. Science in this sense is called dialectics, 4 and may be divided into physics and ethics. True dialectics is not, like that of the Sophists, the product of human imagination or capricious reason; the author of all sciences and all arts has grounded it on the very nature of things. Through knowledge and wisdom, its culmination, the human soul rises above nature and be. comes identified with God. This return to God is effected, for nature in general, in man; for man, in Christ and the Christian; for the Christian, in his supernatural and essential union with God through the spirit of wisdom and science. Just as everything comes from God, everything is destined to return to God. Scotus teaches predestination, i. e., universal predestination for salvation. All fallen angels, all fallen men, all beings, in a word, will return to God. The punishments of hell are purely spiritual. There is no other recompense for virtue than the vision or immediate knowledge of God, no other pain for sin than remorse. Punishments have nothing arbitrary in them; they are the natural consequences of the acts condemned by the divine law.1

i De divisione naturæ, III., 17 ff. 2 Id., III., 19. * Id., I., 16.

d., I., 29, 46; V., 4.

§ 32. St. Anselm Scotus Erigena went out like a meteor on a dark night. While the Arabian schools 2 were continuing the philosophical and scientific traditions of Greece and the Orient with credit to themselves, the alliance between reason and faith had only a few isolated representatives in Christian Europe during the tenth and eleventh centuries, viz.: Gerbert' (Sylvester II.), who is indebted for his knowledge to

1 De div. prædestinatione, 2-4.

2 The most celebrated schools in the Orient were: Bagdad, Bas. sora, Bokhara, Koufa; in Spain : Cordova, Granada, Toledo, Sevilla, Murcia, Valencia, Almeria, etc. The Arabians are apt pupils of the Greeks, Persians, and Hindoos in science. Their philosophy is the continuation of Peripateticism and Neo-Platonism. It is more learned than original, and consists mainly of exegesis, particularly of the exegesis of Aristotle's system, the strict monotheism of which recoin. mended it to the disciples of Islam. The leaders of Arabian thought are, in Asia : Alkendi of Bassora, a contemporary of Scotus Erigena; Alfarabi of Bagdad (same century), among other things the author of an Encyclopedia, which the Christian Schoolmen valued very highly; Avicenna (Ibn-Sina died at Ispahan, 1036), celebrated in Europe as a physician and learned interpreter of Aristotle ; Algazel of Bagdad (died 1111), a sceptical philosopher and orthodox Mussulman; in Spain: Avempace (Ibn-Badja) of Saragossa, died 1138, Ibn-Tophail of Cadiz (1100-1185), Averroes (Ibn-Roschd) of Cordova, the "commentator of commentators ” (1126–1198), all of them learned physicians, mathematicians, philosophers, and fruitful writers. After the days of Averroes, Arabian philosophy rapidly declined, never to rise again, but it left its impress on Jewish thought (Avicebron or Ibn-Gebirol, eleventh century, the author of the Fountain of Life ; Moses Maimonides, 1135–1204, the still more noted author of the Guide to the Misguided, etc.), and through the latter on Christian thought. See . [Schmölders, Documenta philosophice Arabum, Bonn, 1836]; same author, Essai sur les écoles philosophiques chez les Arabes, Paris, 1842; [Hammer-Purgstall, Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur, vols. I.-VII., Vienna, 1830-56]; Munck, Mélanges de philosophie juive et arabe, Paris, 1859; Renan, Averroes et l'Averroisme, 3d ed., Paris, 1869; [F. Dieterici, Die Philosophie der Araber im 10. Jahrhundert, 8 pts., Leipsic, 1865–76; M. Eisler, Vorlesungen über die Jurlische Philosophie des Mittelalters, 3 vols., Vienna, 1870–84; M. Joel, Beiträge zur Geschichte der Philosophie, 2 vols., Breslau, 1876. - Tr.).

1 the Arabians; Berengar of Tours ;? Lanfranc; 3 and Hildebert of Lavardin, Bishop of Tours, the author of a treatise on morals. The great questions which occupied the mind of Scotus no longer interested them. These subtle reasoners spent their time in discussing the most trivial subjects and the most childish problems: Can a prostitute again become a virgin through the divine omnipotence? Does the mouse that eats the consecrated host eat the body of the Lord ? Christian philosophy is still in its infancy, and therefore delights in such childish sports. But these sports are significant preludes to the combats which the future has in store.

The first really speculative thinker after Scotus is St. ANSELM, the disciple of Lanfranc. He was born at Aosta (1033), entered the monastery of Bec in Normandy (1060), succeeded Lanfranc as Abbot (1078), and as Archbishop of Canterbury (1093). He died in 1109. He left a great

1 Died 1003. 2 Died 1088. De sacra cæna adversus Lanfr., Berlin, 1844. 8 Died, 1089. Opera, ed. Giles, Oxford, 1854. 4 Died 1131. Opera, d. Beaugendre. 6 Opera, Nuremberg, etc., 1491 ff.; also in vol. 155 of Migne's col

a number of writings, the most important of which are: the Dialogus de grammatico, the Monologium de divinitatis essentia sive Ecemplum de ratione fidei, the Proslogium sive Fides quærens intellectum, the De veritate, the De fide trinitatis, and the Cur Deus homo?

The second Augustine, as St. Anselm has been called, starts out from the same principle as the first; he holds that faith precedes all reflection and all discussion concerning religious things. The unbelievers, he says,' strive to understand because they do not believe; we, on the montrary, strive to understand because we believe. They and we have the same object in view ; but inasmuch as they do not believe, they cannot arrive at their goal, which is to understand the dogma. The unbeliever will never understand. In religion faith plays the part played by experience in the understanding of the things of this world. The blind man cannot see the light, and therefore does not understand it; the deaf-mute, who has never perceived sound, cannot have a clear idea of sound. Similarly, not to believe means not to perceive, and not to perceive means not to understand. Hence, we do not reflect in order that we may believe; on the contrary, we believe in order that we may arrive at knowledge. A Christian ought never to doubt the beliefs and teachings of the Holy Catholic Church. All he can do is to strive, as humbly as possible, to understand her teachings by believing them, to love them, and resolutely to observe them in his daily life.

lection, Paris, 1852–54 ; [IIasse, Anselm von Canterbury, 2 pts., Leipsic, 1813–52); Charles de Rémusat, Anselme de Cantorbéry, tableau de la vie monastique, etc., Paris, 1854; 2d ed., 1868;(Shedd, History of Christian Doctrine, vol. II., New York, 1864].

1 Cur Deus homo ? I., 2.

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