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fable, invisible, incorporeal God, flashing through the whole world with rapid thoughts.

The leading thought in the teaching of Empedocles, freed from its theological shell, meets us again in the system of the Ionian Anaxagoras. Anaxagoras is the founder of corpuscular physics, and, by his hypothesis of the ordering voûs, anticipates the teleology hi Plato and Aristotle.

§ 11. Anaxagoras ANAXAGORAS? was born at Clazomena in Ionia, of an illustrious family. He seems to have emigrated to Athens about 460, and to have been, for thirty years, the central figure in this new intellectual centre of Greece. His friendship for Pericles, Euripides, and Protagoras, and his profound contempt for the official religion made it necessary for him to retire to Lampsacus towards the close of his life. Here he died about 429 B. C. Like the majority of the great physicists of antiquity, he left a book tepi Dúoews, a few fragments of which are still extant.

Anaxagoras opposes Heraclitus in two essential points :

1. He opposes his dynamism with a mechanical cos mogony.

2. He substitutes dualism for hylozoistic monism, as. suming the existence of an unintelligent, inert substance and of an intelligent principle, the cause of motion.

1 Mullach, p. 12, v. 39.7

Φρήν ιερή και αθέσφατος έπλετο μούνον

φροντίσι κόσμον άπαντα καταΐσσουσα θοησιν. 2 Aristotle, Met., I., 3; pressim ; Simplicius, In Phys., f. 33, 34, 35, 34; Diog. Laertius; Fragments collected by Schaubach (Leipsic, 1827), Schorn (Bonn, 1829), Mullach (1., pp. 243 ff.), Ritter and Preller (pp. 112 ff.); [Burnet (pp. 282 ff.); Breier, Die Philosophie des Anaxagoras, Berlin, 1810); Zévort, Dissertation sur la vie et la doctrine d’Anaxagore, Paris, 1818.


1. THE MATERIALS OF THE COSMOGONY. - Matter cannot be reduced to a single element, to a bomogeneous substance, like water, air, or fire, that may be transformed into other substances. It is inconceivable how a substance can become another substance. Hence there are several primitive elements, and not only four, as Empedocles teaches; nay, there is an infinite number of them. These germs of things (ottépuara) are infinite in number and infinitely small (χρήματα άπειρα και πλήθος και σμικρόTnta), uncreated, indestructible, and absolutely unchangeable in essence. The quantity of these first principles is always the same; nothing can be destroyed or added (πάντα ίσα αεί ... αεί πάντα ουδέν ελάσσω έστιν ουδε Thelm); they change neither in quality nor in quantity. Nothing comes into being or passes away. Our usual notions of birth (coming-into-being) and death (passingaway) are absolutely wrong. Nothing is produced ex nihilo, and nothing is lost; things are formed by the combination of pre-existing germs, and disappear by the disin tegration of these germs, which still continue to exist. Hence it would be better to call coming into being, mixture, and passing away or death, separation. There is no other change except change of place and grouping, external metamorphosis, movement; the notion of change of essence or transubstantiation is a contradiction.

2. EFFICIENT AND FINAL CAUSES OF THE CosMOGONY. — Anaxagoras no longer regards the motion which produces and destroys things as an original and eternal reality, inherent in the very nature of the ele. ments. The latter are inert and incapable of moving by themselves. Hence they cannot account for the move.

1 Simplicius, In Phys., 34: Το δε γίνεσθαι και απόλλυσθαι ουκ ορθώς νομίζουσιν οι Έλληνες ουδέν γάρ χρήμα ουδε γίνεται ουδε απόλλυται αλλ' από έόντων χρημάτων συμμίσγεται τε και διακρίνεται. και ούτως αν ορθώς καλοϊεν τό τε γίνεσθαι συμμίσγεσθαι, και το απόλλυσθαι διακρίνεσθαι.

ment in the world and the order which rules it. In order to explain the cosmos, we must assume, in addition to the material, inert, and unintelligent elements, an element that possesses a force and intelligence of its own (vous). This element of elements is absolutely simple and homogeneous; it is not mixed with the other elements, but is absolutely distinct from them. The latter are wholly passive; the volls, however, is endowed with spontaneous activity; it is perfectly free (aútokpatńs), and the source of all movement and life in the world. The inferior elements have no consciousness of their own; the mind knows all things past, present, and future; it has arranged and organized everything with design and according to its teleological fitness; it is the eternal governor of the universe, more powerful than all the other elements put together.

3. COSMOGONY. - In the beginning, the inert and unintelligent elements were all jumbled together (óuoû návra). In this original chaos (uiryma), everything was in everything: gold, silver, air, ether, all things which are now separated, formed an indeterminate and inert mass. The intelligent substance alone lived a distinct life of its

Then it entered the chaos and disentangled it, making the cosmos out of it (είτα νούς ελθών πάντα διεκόounge). The germs, being set in motion by the Nous, were separated and mingled together again according to their inner affinities. From the point where movement is imparted to the chaos, the whirling motion (divos) gradually extends over a wider and wider space to all parts of the world; it continues, as is proved by the rotation of the heavens, and will continue without interruption until the uirypa is completely separated. Our earth is a cylindrical body and is composed of the heaviest germs, which were carried towards the centre of the world by the orig. inal motion. The lighter corpuscles, which form water, were deposited upon this solid mass; higher up, the atmosphere is formed by the germs of air ; at last, in the heavenly regions, the most subtle elements, the fiery ether, are mixed together again. A second separation of elements takes place, and the original motion parts off from the earth the different solid, mineral, and other bodies which compose it; from the water it parts off the different liquids, and so on, until our central world receives the shape which it now has. The stars are solid masses, which were torn from the earth by the rotatory motion originally possessed by it in common with the rest of the universe, and which were ignited by coming in contact with the celestial ether. The sun is a fiery mass, púdpos diátrupos. The moon has mountains and valleys in it, and borrows its light from the sun.


The views which we have just expounded forecast the cosmogonic theories of Buffon, Kant, and Laplace. Anaxagoras also anticipates comparative physiology by advancing the principle of the continuity of beings, by pointing out the unity of purpose in the diverse vegetable and animal types. In spite of all that has been said, however, he is so far from being a spiritualist in the Cartesian sense of the term, that he conceives animals, and even plants, as sharing in the volls. If man is more intelligent than animals, it is, he believes, because his mind employs more developed organs. All living things, without exception, are endowed with mind.

How do living beings partake of mind? Does the intelligent principle of Anaxagoras exist outside of these beings, or is it but the sum of all the intelligences, all the purposes, and all the motive forces, whence movement in general results ? On the one hand, it is certain that, inasmuch as the vous knows all things past, present, and future, and knows them before the organization of matter, it in no wise resembles either the Substance of Spinoza or the active Idea of Hegel; for the Substance of Spinoza and the Idea of Hegel know things only through the mediation of the human brain; that is to say, by means of previously-organized matter. Anaxagoras is so decided in his assumption that the voüs is free and conscious of its action, that he regards the word Fate (einapuévn) as devid of meaning. Besides, the very term which he uses to designate the motive principle signifies reason, purpose. He seems to make a transcendent being of it, one that exists independently of other beings, and acts upon them in a purely mechanical way. He even seems to consider these beings, not as intelligent in the true sense of the word, but as automata which appear to be intelligent withiout really being so. On the other hand, he speaks of the presence of the volls in living creatures as though he were a pantheist. The long and short of it is, the thinkers of this remote age never broached the questions of transcendency and immanency, personality and impersonality, conscious intelligence and unconscious intelligence. Heraclitus found nothing objectionable in assuming a primitive substance and a perpetual state of change. Similarly, we may suppose, Anaxagoras maintained both the transcendency and the immanency of the volls, without even suspecting that he was contradicting himself.

The same may be said in answer to the question whether the voûs of Anaxagoras is simply less material than other substances, or whether it is an absolutely immaterial entity. It is undoubtedly true, on the one hand, that the attributes of the volls are altogether like those of the spirit of spiritualism, and that the voûs seems to have nothing in. common with matter except existence. Yet, on the other hand, there seems to be but a difference of degree between the vous and material substances: the vous, in fact, is the finest, the most mobile thing of all (NETTÓTATOV TÁVTOV χρημάτων); it is identical with the αήρ ψυχή of Anax


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