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Proclus, Eunapius, Stobæus,3 Photius,4 Suidas, and mod ern historical works.6

1 See $ 25.

? Eunapii Sard. Vitæ philosophorum et sophistarum, ed. Boissonade, Paris, 1849.

8 Stobæi Eclogarum physicarum et ethicarum libb. græce et latine ed. Heeren, 2 vols., Gött. 1791, 1801 (out of print) id. ed. Meineke, 2 vols., Leipsic, 1860, 1861; Stobæi Florilegium, ed. Th. Gaisford, 4 vols., Oxford, 1822; Leipsic, 1823; Meineke, 4 vols., Leipsic, 1855–57.

* Myriobiblion, ed. Höschel, Augsburg, 1801. The patriarch Photius flourished in the 9th century.

5 Lexicon of Suidas, ed. Gaisford, London, 1834 ; Bernhardi, 2 vols., Halle, 1834. Suidas flourished about 1000.

6 Especially: [Mullach, Fragmenta philosophorum Græcorum, 3 vols., 1800-1881; Diels, Docographi Grieci, Berlin, 1879]; Ritter and Preller, Historia philosophiae Graeco-Romanæ ex fontium locis contexta [7th ed., Schultess and Wellmann, Gotha, 1888]; Ritter, Geschichte der Philosophie alter Zeil, Berlin, 1829 ; Brandis, Handbuch der Geschichte der griechisch-römischen Philosophie, 3 vols., Berlin, 1835–1860; same author Geschichte der Entwickelungen der gr. Philosophie, etc., 2 vols., 1862–64; Röth, Geschichte unserer abendländischen Philosophie, 2 vols., Mannheim 1818-58; Laforêt, Histoire de la philosophie ancienne, 2 vols., Brussels, 1867; Ed. Zeller, Die Philosophie der Griechen in ihrer geschichtlicher Entwickelung [(five editions since 1844), 5th ed. begun in 1892, 3 pts. in 5 vols., Leipsic (Engl. transl. of all but part dealing with Aristotle and elder Peripatetics, by S. F. Alleyne and O. J. Reichel, London and New York, 1876-1883. Same author's smaller work, Grundriss der Geschichte der griechischen Philosophie, 4th ed., Leipsic, 1893; Engl. transl. by S. F. Alleyne and Evelyn Abbot, New York, 1890. — Tr.]. The following may also be consulted with profit: Grote, History of Greece, 6th ed., 10 vols., London, 1888; the same author, Plato and the other Companions of Socrates, 5th ed., London, 1888; (same author, Aristotle, 2 vols., 2d ed., 1879; Schwegler, Geschichte der griechischen Philosophie, 3d ed. Tübingen, 1886; Ferrier, Lectures on Greek Philosophy, 2 vols., Edinburgh and London, 1866; London, 1888; Teichmüller, Studien zur Geschichte der Begriffe, Berlin, 1874; Neue Studien, Gotha, 1876-79; Byk, Die vorsokratische Philosophie, Leipsic, 1875-77; Burnet, Early Greek Philosophy, London and Edinburgh, 1892; Mayor, A Sketch of Ancient Philosophy from Thales to Cicero, Cambridge, 1881 ff.; Benn, The Greek Philosophers, 2 vols., London, 1883; Windelband, Geschichte der griechischen Philosophie, 21 ed., Munich, 1894; Marshall, A Short

For the Patristic period : the polemical writingy of the Fathers, especially the λόγος προτρεπτικός προς "Έλληvas, the Pedagogue, and the otpónata of St. Clement of Alexandria, the Principles and the Anti-Celsus of Origen, the Apologeticus of Tertullian, the Institutiones divinæ of Lactantius, the City of God and the Confessions of St. Augustine.

For the Scholastic period : the De divisione nature of Scotus Erigena, the Monologium, the Proslogium, and the Cur Deus homo of St. Anselmus, the Theology, the Ethics, and the Dialectics of Abelard, the Sentences of Peter the Lombard, the Commentary of Averroes, the Sum of St. Thomas, the Quæstiones of Duns Scotus and Occam, the Opus majus of Roger Bacon, the writings of Raymundus Lullus, the historical works of Ritter, Cousin, and Hauréau.2

History of Greek Philosophy, London, 1891 ; Chaignet, Histoire de la psychologie des Grecs, 5 vols., Paris, 1887–92 ; Ziegler, Die Ethik der Griechen und Römer, Bonn, 1881 ; Schmidt, Die Ethik der alten Griechen, 2 vols., Berlin, 1881 ; Köstlin, Die Ethik des klassischen Alte. thums, Leipsic, 1887; Luthardt, Die antike Ethik, 1887, Walter, Die Geschichte der Aesthetik im Alterthum, Leipsic, 1893; Rohde, Psyche, Seelenkult und Unsterblichkeitsglaube der Griechen, 2 vols., Freiburg, 1890-94 ; Bergk, Griechische Litteraturgeschichte, 2 vols., Berlin, 1872, 1883; K. 0. Müller, Die Geschichte der griechischen Litteratur, 2 vols., Stuttgart, 1882–84 ; Mahaffy, History of Classical Greek Literature, 3 vols., 2d ed. London, 1892 ; Teuffel, Geschichte der römischen Littera tur, 5th ed., Leipsic, 1890 ; Bender, Grundriss der römischen Litteraturgeschichte, 2d ed., Leipsic, 1889 (Engl. transl. from first ed. by Crowell & Richardson, Boston, 1884); Preller, Griechische Mythologie, 2 vols., Berlin, 1875; Lehrs, Populäre Aufsätze aus dem Alterthum, 2d ed., Leipsic, 1875; Laurie, Historical Survey of Pre-Christian Education, London, 1895 (first published as a series of articles in the “School Review," May, 1893-April, 1895). For further references, see Ueberweg-Heinze, § 7, pp. 27–33. Consult also the general histories of philosophy mentioned on pages 13 ff. - Tr.). · Collected by J. P. Migne, Paris, 1840 ff.

(For primitive Christianity, patristic and scholastic philosophy, consult, besides the general histories of philosophy mentioned on pages

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For the philosophy of the Renaissance : the De docta ignorantia of Nicholas of Cusa, the De subtilitate and the De rerum varietate of Cardanus, the De immortalitate anime of Pomponatius, the Animadversiones in dialecticam Aristotelis of Ramus, the Essais of Montaigne, the Triumphus philosophia, the De rerum æternitate, and the De mundo of Taurellus, the Aurora of J. Boehme.1 13 ff. : Drummond, Philo Judæus, or the Jewish-Alexandrian Philosophy in its Development and Completion, 2 vols., London, 1888; Deutinger, Geist der christlichen Ueberlieferung, Regensburg, 1850–51 ; Ritschl, Die Entstehung der altkatholischen Kirche, 2d ed., Bonn, 1857 ; de Pressensé, Histoire des trois premiers siècles de l'église, Paris, 1858 ff.; Baur, Das Christenthum der drei ersten Jahrhunderte, 2d ed., Tübingen, 1860; J. Alzog, Grundriss der Patrologie, 3d ed., Freiburg, 1876; Pfleiderer, Das Urchristenthum, Berlin, 1887; Stöckl, Geschichte der Philosophie der patristischen Zeit, Würzburg, 1859; Huber, Die Philosophie der Kirchenräter, Munich, 1859 ; Neander, Christliche Dogmengeschichte, ed. by J. Jacobi, Berlin, 1857 ; IIarnack, Lehrbuch der Dogmengeschichte, 3 vols., 2d ed., Freiburg, 1888–90; Donaldson, A Critical History of Christian Literature and Doctrine, 3 vols., London, 1865–66; same author, The Apostolic Fathers, London, 1874; Ritter, Die christliche Philosophie, 2 vols., Göttingen, 1858-59 ; Rousselot, Études sur la philosophie dans le moyen-âge, Paris, 1810-42; Hauréau, De la philosophie scolastique, 2 vols., Paris, 1850; same author, Histoire de la philosophie scolastique, 2d series, Paris, 1872-80 : Stöckl, Geschichte der Philosophie des Mittelalters, 3 vols., Mayence, 1864-66; Baeumker, Beiträge zur Geschichte der Philosophie des Mittelalters, Münster, 1891 ff.; Reuter, Die Geschichte der religiösen Aufklärung im Mittelalter, 2 vols., Berlin, 1875–77; W. Kaulich, Geschichte der scholastischen Philosophie, Prague, 1863; Werner, Die Scholastik des spiiteren Mittelalters, 3 vols., Vienna, 1881 ff.; Gass, Geschichte der christlichen Ethik, Berlin, 1881; Ziegler, Geschichte der christlichen Ethik, Strasburg, 1886; 2d ed., 1892; Luthardt, Geschichte der christlichen Ethik, 1888; Lecky, A History of European Morals from Augustus to Charlemagne, 2 vols., London, 1869; 3d ed., 1877; Denifle, Die Universitäten des Mittelalters, Berlin, 1885; Laurie, The Rise and Early Constitution of Universities, New York, 1888. For further references, see Ueberweg-Heinze, vol. II, $$ 1, 3, 4 ff.; $s 19 ft. - TR.]

[For the Renaissance, see the general and modern histories of philosophy (pp. 12–16), and the following: Carrière, Die philoso

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For modern times Bruno's Del infinito universo and De monade, Campanella's Atheismus triumphatus, Philosophia sensibus demonstrata, and De gentilismo, Francis Bacon's Novum organum, Hobbes's De cive and De corpore, Descartes's

, Discourse on Method and Principles, Malebranche’s Recherche de la vérité, Spinoza's Ethics, Locke's Essay concerning Human Understanding, Leibniz's New Essays and Monadology, Berkeley's Principles of Human Knowledge, Condillac's Treatise on Sensations, Holbach's System of Nature, the Essays of Hume and Reid, Kant's Critiques, Fichte's Science of Knowledge, Schelling's System of Transcendental Idealism, Hegel's Logic and Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences, the Meta physics and the Psychology of Herbart, Schopenhauer's Worlıl as Will and Idea, Comte's Course on Positive Philosophy, J. S. Mill's Logic, Herbert Spencer's First Principles, Albert Lange’s History of Materialism, Ed. von Hartmann's Philosophy of the Unconscious, etc.; likewise the chief works of modern scientific literature of general and therefore philosophical interest, like the Celestial Revolutions by Copernicus, the Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy by Newton, the Spirit of the Laws by Montesquieu, the Analytical Mechanics by Lagrange, the Natural History of the Heavens by Kant, the Celestial Mechanics and Exposition of the System of the World by Laplace, Darwin's book on the Origin of Species, etc.;

phische Weltanschauung der Reformationszeit, 1847, 2d ed., Leipsic, 1887 ; Voigt, Die Wiederbelebung des classischen Alterthums, 1859 ; 3d ed., edited by Lehnerdt, 2 vols., Berlin, 1893 ; Burckhardt, Die Cultur der Renaissance, 2 vols, 1860, 4th ed. by L. Geiger, Leipsic, 1886 (Engl. transl. by S. G. C. Middleman, London, 1878 and 1890); Geiger, Renaissance und Humanismus in Italien und Deutschland, Berlin, 1882; Symonds, The Renaissance in Italy, 7 vols., London, 1875– 1886; Peschel, Geschichte des Zeitalters der Entdeckungen, 2d ed., Leipsic, 1879. For further references, Ueberweg-Heinze, vol. III, OS 2-6. — Tr.)

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finally, the historical works of Ritter, Erdmann,2 Barchou de Penhoën,3 Michelet * (of Berlin), Willm, Chalybæus,& Bartholmèss,? Kuno Fischer, Zeller,' Windelband, 10 etc.11

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1 Geschichte der neueren Philosophie (vols. IX.-XII. of his Ge. schichte der Philosophie), 1850-53.

2 Versuch einer wissenschaftlichen Darstellung der neueren Philosophie, 6 vols., Riga and Leipsic, 1834-1853.

8 Histoire de la philosophie allemande depuis Leibniz jusqu'à nos jours, Paris, 1836.

4 Geschichte der letzten Systeme der Philosophie in Deutschland von Kant bis Hegel, 2 vols., Berlin 1837–38.

Histoire de la philosophie allemande spuis Kant jusqu'à Hegel, 4 vols., Paris, 1846-49.

6 Historische Entwickelung der spekulativen Philosophie in Deutschland von Kant bis Hegel, Dresden, 1837, 5th ed., 1860; Engl. translation, 18.34.

Histoire des doctrines religieuses de la philosophie moderne, 2 vols., Paris, 1855; Histoire philosophique de l'Académie de Prusse, 2 vols., Paris, 1851.

8 Geschichte der neueren Philosophie, 8 vols., Mannheim and Heidel. berg, 1854 ff.; [2d ed., 1865 ff. ; 311 ed., vol. I., 1 and 2, 1878, 1880; vol. II., 1889; vols. III, and IV., 1882; 2d ed., vol. V., 1885, vol. VI. 1895; vol. VII. (Hegel) not yet published ; vol. VIII. (Schopenhauer), 1893. Engl. translation of vol. I., 1, by J. P. Gordy, New York, 1887; of vol. III., book 2, by J. P. Mahaffy, London, 1866; of vol. V., chaps. i.-V., by W. S. Hough, London, 1888. Baco und seins Nachfolger, 2d ed., Leipsic, 1875, Engl, translation by Oxenford, London, 1857. - TR.).

9 Geschichte der deutschen Philosophie seit Leibniz, Munich, 1872; 2d ed., 1875.

10 Geschichte der neuern Philosophie, vol. I., 1878, vol. II. 1880.

11 [Lechler, Geschichte des englischen Deismus, Stuttgart and Tübingen, 1841 ; Biedermann, Die deutsche Philosophie von Kant bis auf unsre Zeit, 2 vols., Leipsic, 1813 ; Damiron, Essai sur l'histoire de la philosophie au 17me siècle, Paris, 1816 ; Fortlage, Genetische Geschichte der Philosophie seit Kant, Leipsic, 1852; Ch. de Rémusat, Histoire de la philosophie en Angleterre, etc., 2 vols., Paris, 1875; Harms, Die Philosophie seit kant, Berlin, 1876 ; Leslie Stephen, History of English Thought in the Eighteenth Century, London, 1876; Eucken, Geschichte und Kritik der Grundbegriffe der Gegenwart, Leipsic, 1878; 2d ed.,

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