## F. P. Ramsey: Philosophical PapersFrank Ramsey was the greatest of the remarkable generation of Cambridge philosophers and logicians which included G. E. Moore, Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein and Maynard Keynes. Before his tragically early death in 1930 at the age of twenty-six, he had done seminal work in mathematics and economics as well as in logic and philosophy. This volume, with a new and extensive introduction by D. H. Mellor, contains all Ramsey's previously published writings on philosophy and the foundations of mathematics. The latter gives the definitive form and defence of the reduction of mathematics to logic undertaken in Russell and Whitehead's Principia Mathematica; the former includes the most profound and original studies of universals, truth, meaning, probability, knowledge, law and causation, all of which are still constantly referred to, and still essential reading for all serious students of these subjects. |

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### Contents

PHILOSOPHY 1929 | 1 |

UNIVERSALS 1925 | 8 |

NOTE ON THE PRECEDING PAPER 1926 | 31 |

FACTS AND PROPOSITIONS 1927 | 34 |

TRUTH AND PROBABILITY 1926 | 52 |

PROBABILITY AND PARTIAL BELIEF 1929 | 95 |

REASONABLE DEGREE OF BELIEF 1928 | 97 |

STATISTICS 1928 | 102 |

THEORIES 1929 | 112 |

CAUSAL QUALITIES 1929 | 137 |

LAW AND CAUSALITY | 140 |

B GENERAL PROPOSITIONS AND CAUSALITY 1929 | 145 |

THE FOUNDATIONS OF MATHEMATICS 1925 | 164 |

MATHEMATICAL LOGIC 1926 | 225 |

EPILOGUE 1925 | 245 |

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF RAMSEYS WORKS | 251 |

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### Common terms and phrases

adjective analysis arguments assert atomic functions atomic propositions atomic sentences Axiom of Infinity Axiom of Reducibility Caesar called causal laws chance characteristic classes consider consists construct contradiction deduced define definition degree of belief difficulty discuss distinction elementary function elementary propositions equivalent existential proposition explain express agreement fact false feel finite formal logic functions in extension functions of functions functions of individuals given identity incomplete symbols induction inference infinite number instance Keynes logical product logical sum material implication mathematics meaning measure merely names objects occur partial belief philosophy possible predicative functions premiss primary system Principia Mathematica probability propositional function question R. B. Braithwaite Ramsey Ramsey's range real numbers reason regard Russell Russell's secondary system seems sense sentence simply Socrates is wise sort suppose tautology theory things tions true truth truth-function truth-possibilities values variable hypothetical Wittgenstein