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“ 2.-The extent of the auricular contraction is very inconside
rable, probably not amounting to one-third of its volume, hence the quantity of blood expelled by it into the ventricle,
is much less than its capacity would indicate. “ 3.—The ventricular contraction is the cause of the impulse
. against the side; first, because the auricular contraction is too inconsiderable to be capable of producing it; second, because the impulse occurs after the auricular contraction, and simul. taneously with the ventricular, as ascertained by the sight and touch; third, because the impulse coincides with the pulse so accurately as not to admit of being ascribed to any but the
same cause. “ 4.-It is the
of the heart which strikes the ribs. “ 5.—The ventricular contraction commences suddenly, but it is
prolonged until an instant before the second sound, which in
stant is occupied by the ventricular diastole. “ 6.—The ventricles do not appear ever to empty themselves com
pletely. “ 7.—The systole is followed by a diastole, which is an instanta
neous motion, accompanied with an influx of blood from the auricles, by which the ventricles re-expand, but the apex col
lapses and retires from the side. “ 8.-After the diastole, the ventricles remain quiescent, and in a
state of apparently natural fulness, until again stimulated by the succeeding auricular contraction.
OF THE SOUNDS.
9.—The first sound is caused by the systole of the ventricles. “ 10.-The second sound is occasioned by the diastole of the ven-.
OF THE RHYTHM.
Order of Succession :" 1.-The auricular systole. “ 2.—The ventricular systole, the impulse and the pulse. “ 3.-The ventricular diastole. “ 4.—The interval of ventricular repose, towards the termination
of which, the auricular systole takes place.
“ This is the same as indicated by Laenner, viz. the ventricular systole occupies half the time, or thereabout, if a whole beat.
“ The ventricular diastole occupies one-fourth, or at most onethird.
“ The interval of repose occupies one-fourth, or rather less.
“ The auricular systole occupies a portion of the interval of repose.
ADIEU TO SPRING.
Adieu, sweet time of joy and hope !
Farewell, farewell to all thy gladness;
Thy songs without a note of sadness.
The spirit's spring, the hill-side's freshness,
Where ev'ry feature's free from harshness.
Man's spring of life, in joy, in fleetness;
Love's bland enchantment and its sweetness.
Its heat, its dust, ennui and sameness :
All hail sobriety and tameness.
NOTICE OF A
“Journal of a Voyage from Calcutta to Van Diemen's Land.”.
In the course of our Editorial lucubrations, we have had occasion, more than once, to remark, that of the numerous books which have been written concerning this Colony, very few, indeed-nay, not more than one or two, can be at all relied upon, as authentic and accurate sources of information. In the majority of instances, the authors are influenced by some selfish motive, which, although not perhaps palpably obvious to themselves, does undoubtedly guide their labours, and imbue them with partiality and prejudice. It would far exceed the limits, to which we must restrict ourselves, were we even to enumerate the thousand and one volumes, which have been published, illustrative of this Colony and that of New South Wales; but a pretty, little, unpretending volume, the production of a gentleman, has recently reached us, which, as giving a tolerably accurate description of our Colony, demands, we conceive, some slight respect at our hands.
This is “ The Journal of a Voyage from Calcutta to Van Diemen's Land, from Original Letters, selected by Mr. Prinsep," and it contains a modest, but lively account of the country, and of the state of society amongst the higher classes. Of the voyage hither from India, we shall say nothing; but shall devote our observations to the writer's account of this Colony, and its inhabi. tants,---of that class, at least, to which his rank in society gave him easy and immediate access. The description of the author's arrival at Hobart Town is extremely characteristic :--
“ As we sailed on to the mouth of the Derwent, the shores closed in upon us by degrees, D'Entrecasteaux's Channel* and Adventure Bay lay on our left, Cape Raoul and Cape Pillar on the right; at the very entrance of the river were Bruné's, Rabbit, Iron Pot, and Betsey's Island. At length a pilot came on board, a regular jolly English tar, a novelty to us, as a Ganges pilot would be to you with his leadsman and servant carrying his writing desk, Hobarton was still forty miles up the river, but we were cheered with the hope of reaching it about four in the afternoon; and as we approached within twenty miles, the character of the land began to soften, the barrenness to disappear. The rocks sunk into undulating ground, or rose at times into hills of considerable size, but clothed with richest foliage from the water's edge to their very summits. The river was most beautiful, ever and anon breaking into little bays and creeks, which, being the most sheltered places, had been chosen by the settlers, shewing most inviting brightcoloured pasture and corn-fields in contrast with the dark green foliage around their neat little farms, scattered about, bringing old England and all its dear recollections home to us. And this at the Antipodes! At length, crossing a little cove on our left, appeared the white houses of Hobarton covering a sloping hill, under a huge black table-mountain. It was picturesque beyond measure.
But the extent of the town, and the size of the warehouses, surprised us not a little. It was in the best of spirits that I approached this place; for the fears of finding myself in a strange land were driven away before we came to anchor. I was expected—nay, welcomed -letters had arrived before; and who should rise out of the second boat which came alongside, but B, my old fellow-passenger. It was six o'clock, a cold windy spring evening, but I went to prepare accommodations for my family, and the captain and I enjoyed a thousand English associations as we walked up the High-streetcarts and cottages, ships and shops, girls in their pattens, boys playing at marbles ; above all, the rosy countenances, and chubby cheeks, and English voices. Every thing new and delightful; but the climax of pleasures awaited us at the end of our walk, a blazing fire, tea, toast, and exquisite butter, at the Macquarie Hotel. We sat for an hour with our feet on the fender, enjoying all this, and when the captain returned to his ship with apples, bread, and news of the accommodations we had secured, I marched over the way
to my friend B
's precious fireside and family circle. “ Stepping in this manner at once from a cold comfortless ship into a comfortable house and society, naturally put me into good
Another entrance to the river, and a very beautiful one, but dangerous from choals.
to be so.
humour with the place. The beauty of the scenery—the descriptions of the climate, and the acquaintances we found, induced us soon to land our baggage, and look out for a spot here, in which to sit down for months, instead of going on to Sydney. The settlement of a residence was a matter of no small difficulty. The few empty cottages open to our choice, presented such a contrast to the mansions of India, that much amusement seemed promised by an independent establishment. But servants, a very necessary part, were not to be had; and our own blackies, though three in number, could not undertake the household. Free men find so many means of making money here, that they will not take service, and so the convicts, or, as they are delicately called, the prisoners, supply all demands of this nature; and if the histories of every house were made public, you would shudder. Even in our small menage, our cook has committed murder, our footman burglary, and the housemaid bigamy! But these formidable truths are hushed up, or tried
“The owner of a pretty pigeon-house, commanding a splendid panorama from the top of a high hill behind the town, came temptingly with an offer to board and lodge us all for six months, at the rate of £25 a month. This was reasonable,' compared with the expensive hotel, but the situation was too bleak for me; moreover, there were nine children, and the house was transparent (literally) against the light, consequently pervious to every wind. A retired military officer next advanced, with a proposal to keep house with him in his beautiful farm, at New-town, a village, two miles from Hobarton. Here, then, am I, writing at a window, with the best garden in the world, and one of the loveliest of views before me. Every kind of English fruit is hanging from the trees, in luscious abundance. I am preparing to feast on those rarities to an Indian -gooseberries and currants. Our neat well-finished cottage, with complete farm-houses in its rear, stands on the top of one of the lowest hills through which the salt-water river Derwent flows; the garden covers the slope below it; a lagoon, or bay of the river lies in its lap, at the bottom; green hay-fields clothe all the surrounding slopes; neat English houses are scattered upon them; and beyond the river rise the woody and stony mounts, as yet untouched by the hand of man. These are the beauties that environ me, yet I can give you but a faint idea of the combined landscape that they form. I can remember no English village that surpasses Newtown, and only two or three in Switzerland. All the drives about are of the same kind; and they tell me, the farther inland we go, the more beauty we shall meet. Our gig and horse will carry us hither by-and-by.”
“B—t, my old fellow-passenger, is, of course, our highly respected Colonial Secretary; and this introduction to our Colonial society will, at once shew, the bias and tendency of our author's observations and impressions. Accordingly, we are informed, that he and his party" found pleasant society amongst the government !"
“Colonel Arthur (he continues) and his lady have been very
kind; and others particularly so! Then our “ kind friend Fcompanies our visitors on a trip to Launceston, most probably with a view, at the same time, to set on foot the celebrated base-line project; altogether, we learn, that “the society of Hobarton is very pleasant, and to us has been very kind; but the chief amusement to strangers is the constitution of this society. The population of the future empire of Van Diemen's Land (for in fifty years it must be independent) is founded upon the dregs, that have been drained from England Most of our new friends have sprung
from the lowest democracy. Their mother language will soon undergo a change: the next generation will certainly expel the h from its place in the dictionary, and admit it as a h' aspirate, to the h'apples, and the h'oranges!"-p. p. 116 117.
Now, this is a text upon which an instructive thesis might be written; for, as regards the society in Hobart Town, it consists of far greater variety, than has been mentioned by our author. deny, however, at once and peremptorily, that the future population of this island will be “ founded upon the dregs of the lowest democracy.” It is very well for a would-be aristocrat, who can have no means of accurately surveying the state of society here, to hold in contempt all those, who are not of the pure Merino breed, or, as it is termed, of the “s
government:" but in doing this, one order of the community, and that by far the most important, has been entirely and heedlessly overlooked. We allude to the great and growing body of our extensive land-owners—the future countrygentlemen of Van Diemen's Land. For very many years, this Colony can never become a great commercial nation. When New Zealand becomes extensively colonized, and when some of the islands in the South Seas become similarly distinguished, then may this country be enabled to extend its commercial relations; but tiil then, the land—and the land alone-must be looked to as the source of its enduring prosperity. But even now, the landed interest of this Colony is of considerable extent and influence. Let us look at the numbers of respectable and even wealthy* settlers, which are so numerously scattered over the island; and we shall perceive at once the power, which they possess at the present moment, and which, in a political point of view, must be eventually increased an hundred-fold. What are our staple articles of exportation ? Oil, wool, and corn-but especially wool, which, in proportion to the others, may be estimated, at about two-thirds more. As the resources of the settler are augmented, and as more land is brought into cultivation, a larger quantity of corn will be grown,
and we shall be enabled to supply more than one foreign port with this essential article. Let us, in short, view the interests of the land
By "wealthy settlers,” we do not mean monied men,-but men who possess their Rocks and herds, and their cultivated lands,-in other words--their money's worth.