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sembled. It decides on causes between &c. The object of this society, whose the crowd and private individuals. The labours are eminently successful, is the case thea before it was that of a brewer, improvement of agriculture, and the who affirmed that by means of a new breeding of cattle, the cultivation of invention, he could make use of the waste lands, the encouragement of usespirituous parts, which during the cool- ful inventions, by the distribution of ing of the beer evaporate in the air and premiums and other rewards. Another are lost. His idea was to collect these Society to promote instruction in Chrisparts in a pipe, where they should be tianity, was founded in 1701. It recondensed like common brandy. The ceives 10001. per annum from the King, royal officers, on their side, made ob- and many schools are supported by it. jections to this, affirming that some fraud We made a little excursion to the upon the revenue might be intended. town of Leith, distant about two Eng

We were shewn the library of the lish miles from Edinburgh. The way counsellors, which is in' a handsome to' it is along an unconimonly fine, room, and had not been long establish- broad, paved road, which has an almost ed. Another library, belonging to the uninterrupted row of houses on both lawyers,* consists of 40,000 volumes. sides of it, so that you hardly think that It contains the best ancient and modern you are in another town when you arworks, a collection of mapuscripts, and rive at Leith. There is the old harbour, a complete collection of documents rel- and tbey are busy in forming a new ative to the history of the country; the one. The first is at the mouth of the oldest of these last is of the year 1350: little river Leith ; but it is too confined, the earlier ones are said to have been and is dry at low water : the new one Jost in the passage to England by sea. will consist of a row of docks, several of We saw among them a letter written which are completed. by Mary Queen of Scots, while she was We saw large three-masted vessels, in France, to her mother ; the hand- which go to Greenland on the whale writing and the style were good for that fishery. They are distinguished by the time.

strength with which they are built, and The Bettering house, or House of by the covering of iron on the bows, to Correction, is on a bill of trap, called resist the masses of ice. They sail eveCalton Hill, and is one of the best or- ry year, in March, to Greenland or dered establishments of the kind we Newfoundland. The fishery is not alhave seen. On the same hill there is a ways successful, and these enterprizes monument in honour of Nelson. are often attended with loss. ,

On the oth of December we began Leith is defended by some batteries, our daily rounds with visiting the High but they are not very formidable. DuSchool, in which 800 young people of ring the American war, Paul Jones all ranks receive preparatory instruction, sailed into the river with three armed The school has five classes. The boys vessels, and spread terror as far as Edingo through the lower classes in four burgh, Leiih possesses severai inanuyears, onder four teachers or professors, factories ; the principal branch of its inTo the fifth they receive the preparatory dustry is linen. The town is in the instruction immediately previous to be- period of its increase, and bad already ing sent to College. The branches of attained a high degree of prosperity, learnin: taught there are reading, wri- when several otits merchants made great ting, Latio and. Greek, geography, his- speculations in coloniai goods to the tory and mathematics: The methods Continent: the ture of political affairs of instruction seem to be good. disappointed their bopes, so that several

One of the most useful institutions of of these houses became bankrupt; and the city of Edinburgh is the Highland while we were there, one of them, the Society of Scotland, which has a presi- only one who had commercial relations dent, four vice-presidents, and members with the East Indies, declared itself inof all ranks of society, nobles, merchants, solvent in the sum of 250,0001. sterling, • The Advocates' Library.--Ed.

We reluraed to Edinburgh by the same road, and visited on the way, a Town did not begin till the year 1768; great manufactory for spinning cotton before which time there was not a trace and h-mp, which is put in motion by a of it. Ten handsome streets, parallel steain-engine. The Botanic Garden, to each other, now traverse the city on which we saw after our return, is neither its whole length from East to West. large, por, as it appeared to us, well Queen Street is a bundred feet broad, kept. There are in Edinburgh several and has only one row of houses, the inale breweries, many manufactories of habitants of which enjoy the most beausal volatile, sal aminoniac, &c. The tiful prospect towards the North, over city is supposed to have received its the county of Fife, and the whole course naine from a castle which a Saxon of the Firth of Forth. This advantage prince, named Edwin, had built here in renders the street a very agreeable prothe year 626, and which was called menade in summer. St. George's Edwinburgh.

Street is a huodred and ten feet broad, This city will at a future period cer- and terminates at each end in a fine tainly become one of the most beautiful square. Princess Street, along the cities in Great Britain. Its situation is Forse, serves as a winter promenade. uncommonly favourable, on an emi. Its broad foot pavement is frequently nence near the sea, and combines ad- crowded with walkers. The fine street. vantages of every kind. The New leading to Leith is a third very agreeaTown, which was built after a regular ble proinenade. plan, is every thing that can be wished The architecture of the houses in the in respect to the architecture both of the New Town agrees with that usual in public and private buildings. The con- London : the kitchens are below trast between the Old and New Town ground, and receive their light from a is striking ; the former are black, grated window looking towards the crowded together, and the streets be- street; but they are more spacious and tween them, in part, no more than from comfortable. The streets of the New six to ten feet broad. The two towns Towo have raised pavements on both are joined by a handsome bridge, which sides for the foot passengers, and are was begon in 1765, and finished in paved with basaltic stones, which are -1769. The building of the New found in abundance near Arthur's Seat

VARIETIES,

From the London Time's Telescope, for Nov. 1813.
SAINTS' DAYS, OBSCURE CEREMONIES, REMARKABLE EVENTS, &c:

IN NOVEMBER
ALL SAINTS, NOVEMBER 1.

Some strange customs are obec, ved N the early ages of Christianity the by rustics on Allhallow Eve. Young I word saini was applied to all belier- people in the north (according to Mr. ers, az is evident in the use of it by St. Brand) dive for apples, catching at them Paul and St. Luke; but the term was when stuck at one end of a hanging afterwards restricted to such as excelled beam, at the other extremity of which in Christian virtues. In the Romish is fixed a lighted candle, and that with church, holy persons canonized by the their mouths only, having their hands Pope, are called saints ; and are invoke tied behind their backs ; with many. ed and supplicated by the professors of other fooleries. Nuts and apples chiefly that religion. The church of England compose the entertainment; and from instituted this festival in memory of all the custom of flinging the former into good men defunct, proposing them as the fire, it has, doubtless, had its vulgar patterns for Christian imitation, but not name, of nut-crack night. In Scotland allowing any prayers to be addressed to (says Mr. Pennant) young women dethem.

termine the figure and size of their

VOL. 4.] Remarkalle Days, 8C.-Allhullow-Ere Customs--All Souls. 113 husbands, by drawing CABBAGES, blinde KING WILLIAM LANDED, Nov. 5. fold, on Allhallow Ev ; and, like the The glorious revolution of 1668 is English, they fling nuts into the fire, commemorated on this day; when the This last custom is beautifully described throne of England became vested in by Gay, in bis Spell:'

the illustrious house of Orange. The

fleet which brought over King William Two hazel nuts I threw into the flame,

from Holland left that country on the And to each nut I gave a sweetheart's name; This, with the loudest bounce, me sore amazed,

first of November. “On the third we That, in a flame of brightest colour blazed : passed between Dover and Calais, and As blazed the nut so may thy passion grow, before night, saw the Isle of Wight. For 'twas thy nut that did so brightly glow.

The next day, the fourth, being the The burning of nuts is also alluded day on which the Prince was born and to in the following pretty lines : married, he fancied, if he could land These glowing nuts are emblems true

that day, it would look auspicious to of what in human life we view ;

the army, and animate the soldiers. The ill-matched couple fret and fume,

But others, w'io considered the day And thus in strife themselves consume ;

following was Gunpowder Treason Or from each other wildly start, And with a noise for ever part.

Day, thought our landing that day But see the happy happy pair,

might have a good effect on the minds Of genuine love and truth sincere ;

of the English nation. And Divine With mutual fondness, while they burn,

Providence so ordered it, that, after all Still to each other kindly turn : And as the vital sparks decay,

hopes of our landing at Torbay were Together gently sink away ;

given up, and Russel bid me go to my Till life's fierce ordeal being past,

prayers, for all was lost, the wind sudTheir mingled ashes rest at last.

denly shilied, and carried us into the ALL SOULS, NOVEMBER 2.

desired haven. Here the Prince, MarThis festival is still observed by the shal Schomberg, and the foot soldiers, church of Rome. The followion is the landed on November the filth. I never alleged origin of it:--A monk, having found a disposition to supersi visited Jerusalem, and passing through my temper; yet I must confess this Sicily.as he returned home.had the curi- strange ordering of the winds and sea-, osity to visit Mount Etna, which, from sons, just to change as our affairs reits constantly giving out fire and smoke. quired it, could not but make deej imwas imagined by soine to be the mouth pressions on me. of the internal regions. This religious

POWDER PLOT, Nov. 5. moak, hearing the demons within

"We are now to relate an event, one complaining that many departed souls of the most memorable that history has were taken out of their hands by conveyed to posterity, and containing the prayers of the Cluniac monks ; on at once a singular proof both of the his return, re'ated the idle story to strength and weakness of the human Ojilo his abbot, who immediately an- mind; its widest departure from morals pointed this day to be annually observed and most steady attachment to religious in the monastery, and incessant prayers prejudices. 'Tis the GUNPOWDER to be made for departed souls.' The TREASON of which I speak; a fact as day was soon afterwards solemnized as certain as it appears incredible.' a general holiday, by the pope ; but it The Catholics, disappointed in their was deservedly abolished at the Refor. expectations of favour trom James 1. m . lo Catholic countries, on the were enraged beyond all measure. er and day of All Souls, the churches Categby, a person of that persuasion, are hung with black; the tombs are first thought of an extraordinary merbod opened ; a collin covered with black of revenge, which was no other than to and surrounded with wax lights, is blow up the parliament house, when placed in the nave of the church : and the members should he assembled, and in one corner, figures in wood, repre, the king opening the session. This senting the souls of the deceased, are diabolical scheme he communicated to hallway plunged into the flames. .

Percy, a descendant of the illustrious P ATE EN BUM. Vol. 4.

house of Nortbumberland, who, being

charmed with the measure, they cau- breasts every other motive; and it was tiously inlisted some other conspirators, an indiscretion at iast, proceeding chiefly and seot over to Flanders in quest of from these very bigoted prejudices and one Guy Fawkes, an officer in the partialities, that saved the nation. Spanish service, of whose zeal and "Ten days before the meeting of resolution they entertained no doubt. parliament, lord Monteagle, a catholic, Every thing being concerted, the con- son to lord Morley, received the followspirators took the following oath of ing letter, which had been delivered secrecy, which they confirmed by re- to his servant by an unknown hand. ceiving the sacrament together : You My lord, Out of the love I bear lo some shall swear by the Blessed Trinity, and of your friends, I have a care of your by the sacrament you now purpose to preservation. Therefore I would adreceive, never to disclose, directly or vise you, as you tender your life, to indirectly, by word or circumstance, the devise some excuse to shift off your mitter that sh ill be proposed to you to attendance at this parliament. For keep secret, nor desist from the erecu. God and man have concurred to punish tion thereof until the rest shall give you the wickedness of this time. And think leave ! They next (1605) hired a not slightly of this advertisement ; but house in the name of Percy, adjoining retire yourself into your country, where that in which the parliament assembled; you mily erpect the event in safety. For and finding that a cellar was to be let though there be no 'uppearance of any under the house of lords, they seized stir, yet, I say, they will receive a territhe opportunity of renting it, and, ble blow this parliament, and yet they forming a communication between shall not see who hurts them. This Percy's house and it, deposited there counsel is not to be condemned, becau se thirty-six barrels of gunpowder, which it may do you good, and can do you no they covered with faggots and billet harm : For the danger is past, as soon wood. The doors of the vault were as you have burned the leiter. And I then boldly thrown open, to prevent hope God will give you the grace to any appearance of danger : and nothing make good use of it, unto whose holy remained, but to watch the opportunity protection I commend you. of rendering their horrible malice com- •Monteagle knew not what to make plete.

of this letter; and though inclined to The king, the queen, and prince think it a foolish attempt to frighted . Henry, were all expected to be present and ridicule him, he judged it safest to at the opening of parliament; but prince carry it to lord Salisbury, secretary of Charles, on account of his tender age, state. Though Salisbury too was inwould necessarily be absent, and him clined to pay little attention to it, he it was intended to assassinate. The thought proper to lay it before the king, princess Elizabeth alone remained of who came to town a few days after. To the royal family whom papistical ven- the king it appeared not so light a geance had not devoted; and it was matter ; and from the serious earnest resolved to seize her, and proclaim her style of the letter, he conjectured that it queen immediately after the catastrophe, implied something dangerous and im

The day, so long wished for, now portant. A terrible blow, and yet the approached, on which the parliament authors concealed; a danger so sudden was appointed to assemble. The and yet so great ; these circumstances dreadful secret, though communicated seemed all to denote some cont on nce to above twenty persons, had been re- by gunpowder; and it was thought ligiously kept, during the space of near advisable to inspect all the vaults below a year and a half. No remorse, no the houses of parliament. This care pity, no fear of punishment, no hope of belonged to the earl of Suffolk, lord reward, had, as yet, induced any one chamberlain, who purposely delayed conspirator either to abandon the en- the search till the day before the meetterprise, or make a discovery of it. ing of parliament. He remarked those The holy fury had extinguished in their great piles of wood and faggots which

VOL. 4.] Gunpowder-Plot--Origin of the word Mayor... 115 lay in the vault under the upper house, federates, was already in arms, in order and he cast bis eye upon Fawkes, who to seize the princess Elizabeth. She stood in a dark corner, and passed him- had escaped into Coventry; and they self for Percy's servant. That daring were obliged to put themselves on their and determined courage, which so much defence against the country, who were distinguished this conspirator, even raised from all quarters, and armed, by among those heroes in villany, was the sheriff. The conspirators, with all fully painted in his countenance, and their attendants, never exceeded the was not passed unnoticed by the cham- number of eighty persons ; and being berlain. Such a quantity also of fuel, surrounded on every side, could no for the use of one who lived so little in longer entertain hopes either of prevailtown as Percy, appeared a little extra- jpg or escaping. Having therefore ordinary; and, upon comparing all confessed themselves, and received abcircumstances, it was resolved that a solution, they boldly prepared for death, more thorough inspection should be and resolved to sell their lives as dear made. About midnight, sir Thomas as possible to the assailants. But even Koevet, a justice of peace, was sent this miserable consolation was denied with proper attendants; and before the them. Some of their powder took fire, door of the vault finding Fawkes, who and disabled them for defence. The bad just finished all his preparations, he people rushed in upon them. Percy immediately seized him, and, turning and Catesby were killed by one shot. over the faggots, discovered the powder. Digby, Rookwood, Winter, and others, The matches and every thing proper being taken prisoners, were tried, confor setting fire to the train were taken in fessed their guilt, and died, as well as Fawkes' pocket; who finding his guilt Garnet, by the hands of the executioner. Dow apparent, and seeing no refuge but Notwithstanding this horrid crime, the in boldoess and despair, expressed the bigoted catholics were so devoted to utmost regret that he had lost the oppor- Garnet, that they faucied miracles to be tuoity of firing the powder at once, and wrought by his blood; and in Spain of sweetening his owo death by that of he was regarded as a martyr. his enemies. Before the council he dis. The lords Mordaunt and Stourton, played the same intrepid firmaess, two catholics, were fined, the former mixed even with scorn and disdain ; ten thousand pounds, the latter four refusing to discover his accomplices,and thousand, by the star-chamber; because showing no concern but for the failure their absence from parliament had beof the enterprise. This obstinacy lasted gotten a suspicion of their being actwo or three days : but being confined quainted with the conspiracy. The to the Tower, left to reflect on his guilt earl of Northumberland was fined and danger, and the rack being just thirty thousand pounds, and detained showa him, bis courage, fatigued with several years prisoner in the Tower; so long an effort, and unsupported by because, not to mention other grounds hope or society, at last failed him; and of suspicion, he had admitted Percy inhe made a full discovery of all the con- to the number of gentlemen pensioners, spirators.

without his taking the requisite oaths.' Catesby, Percy, and the other crime LORD MAYOR'S DAY, NOVEMBER 9. inals, who were in London, though The word mayor, if we adopt the they had heard of the alarm taken at a etymology of Verstegan, comes from letter sent to Monteagle; though they the ancient English maier, able or pobad heard of the chamberlain's search ; tent, of the verb may or can. King yet were resolved to persist to the ut- Richard I. A.D. 1189, first changed most, and never abandon their hopes the bailiffs of London into Mayors; by of success. But at last, hearing that whose example, others were afterwards Fawkes was arrested, they hurried appointed. Upon the authority of an down to Warwickshire; where sir old resident in the city of York, we are Everard Digby, thinking himself assur- informed that the title of Lady was, till ed that success had attended his con- within these few years, retained by the

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