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vol. 4.] Useful Arts.— Important Application of Steam.
: 122 The same important advantages will manship, and the arrangement of its be found in boiling and evaporating all appendages, are such as to obviate evekinds of vegetable, oily, or saline sub- ry danger from mismanagemeat, or stances; and any operation requiring a from its wearing out by long use. heat considerably above that of boiling The following vessels are attached water may be performed with certainty to the steam-boiler for boilipg sugar and safety. It is particularly applica- and distilling rum - Tico clarifiers. ble to many chemical operations, and each holding 5
nd each holding 500 gallons. They are various other branches of business; placed at an elevation allowing of their such as soap-boiling, salt-refining, dy- being supplied with cane-juice from the iog, tallow-melting, chandling, &c. mill. The index cocks regulate the
Then follows a description of the ap- heat admitted into the sleum coils placparatus for boiling sugar and distilling ed at the bottom of the clarifiers ; rum by the beat of steam :—the steam- there are likewise two cocks to carry off boiler may be placed in any small build- the condensed water. Large cocks ing adjoining either the boiling-house are inserted in the clarifiers to draw off or the still-house. It is represented in the clarified cane-juice into the grand an engraving accompanying Mr. Tay; evaporator. Openings with screwJor's pamphlet, as placed in the shed" plugs are also provided to discharge the
mça covers the hre-places of the impurities which settle at the bottom of teaches, * &c. now generally used. the clarifiers, and render these vessels 1 The fire-place of the steam-boiler, con- easy to clean. A scum funnel and structed to burn cane-trash, wood, or pipe is attached to receive and carry off coals, according to the situation in ihe scummings. The grand evaporawhich it is to be employed. The mer- tor, capable of containing 620 gallons. curial guage, which at the same time The index cock. by which heat is ad. shows the state of the steam in the mitted into tbe steum coil of the grand boiler, and provides for its escape long evaporator, and by wbieh the rate of before it can attain a pressure which boiling is regulated. A discharging would incur risk. The safety-valve, valve. opened and closed with a lever through which any superfluous steam handle. empties the contents of the passes off. The float guage, indicating grand evaporator into the second evapthe quantity of water in the boiler, and Oraror
in the boiler, and orator in a few minutes. The second pointing out when it requires to be evaporator, capable of containing 380 supplied. A cast-iron box rivetted to gallons, furnished with steam coil, reg. the boiler, containing a perfect safety- ulating cocks, scum-funnel, and a disvalve, which limits the pressure of the charging valve with lever hapdle, by steam in the hoiler, and is so secured which the teache can be supplied with as to be inaccessible to the workmen. syrup. The teache, containing 145 The boiler may be supplied with
ith gallons, provided with steam coil and water by a pump worked by hand or regulating cocks, by which the boiling attached to the steam-engine ; or an of the sugar is completed. The sugar apparatus is furnished, if desired, which when boiled to its proper proof can be feeds the boiler without labous or ma- drawn off into the coolers by means of chinery. In either case, the water for a cock in the teache. this purpose is drawn from a cistern placed over the fire-Alue at the end of The whole of the apparatus is supa the boiler ; and, by returning the con- ported on a bandsome and substantial densed water from the boiling and dig- frame work of cast iron, with steps and tilling apparatus into the cistern, heat platforms conveniently placed to get at and labour are economised. The the various vessels. Two stills, capaprinciple on which the steam boiler is ble of working 500 gallons each, proconstructed, the mode in which it is vided with copper heads, man holes, executed both as to material and work, and discharging cocks and index cocks, • The name of the pans used for boiling
m by which heat is admitted to the steam sugar in the West-Indies.
cuits placed in the stills, and by adjustQ ATAENEOM. Vol. 4.
ing which the rate of their working is liable to wear out. Their first cost and regulated.
the expense of erecting them are much . These stills may be used with a com- less than of those in present use. Lamon worm or with the patent refrigera. bour, fuel, and time, are most materialtor, by means of which distillation may ly economised by this mode of workbe carried on without requiring water ing. The quality and quantity of the for condensation, and with great æcon- sugar produced will be improved and omy of time, beat, and labour.
increased. The flavour of the rum dis. This apparatus takes very little room, tilled by the heat of steam will be finer and is not liable to be out of repair, and cleaner than that which has been the stills and refrigerator may be placed exposed to the action of fire. No subin distinct buildings, and yet be heated stance is more liable to be wasted or by the same steam-boiler. The fol- spoiled during its manufacture than sulowing advantages will be found to re- gar; and it is beyond the reach of art sult from the adoption of this appara- to remedy the most common injuries tus :--The vessels employed are not done to it.
FALLING STONES FROM THE MOON.
From the London Monthly Magazine, August 1818. - ROYAL INSTITUTION.
In 1727, 27th November, the celeIN Mr. Brande's interesting Lectures brated Gassendi saw a burning stone fall 1 on Mineralogical Chemistry, he late- on Mount Vaisir,io Provence; he found. ly introduced the following observations it to weigh 591bs. on meteoric stones. We do not, how. In 1672, a stone fell near Verona, ever, agree with him in the theory of weighing 300lbs. Aod Lucas, when their origin, for many reasons; but we at Larissa, 1706, describes the falling will name one of a conclusive nature of a stone, with a loud bissing noise, and viz, that, if they came from the moon, smelling of sulphur. they could never fall beyond the paral. In September, 1753, De Lalande lel of twenty-seven or twenty-eight de- witnessed this extraordinary phenomegrees of north or south latitude,
non, near Pont de Vesli. In 1768, no The first tolerably accurate narration less than three stones fell in different (says Mr. Brande,) of the fall of a me- parts of France. In 1790, there was teoric stone, relates to that of Ensisheim, a shower of stones near Agen, witnessnear Basle, upon the Rhine. The ac. ed by Mr. Darcet, and several other recount which is deposited in the church spectable persons. And on the 18th was thus :-A. D. 1492, Wednesday, of December 1795, a stove fell near 7 November, there was a loud clap of Major Topham's house in Yorkshire ; thunder, and a child saw a stone fall it was seen by a ploughman and two from heaven ; it struck into a field of other persons, who dug it out of the wheat, and did no harm, but made a hole it had buried itself in; it weighed hole there. The noise it made was 561bs. heard at Lucerne, Villing, and other • We have various other, and equally places ; on the Monday, King Maxi- satisfactory, accounts of the same kind. milian ordered the stone to be brought All concur in describing a luminous to the castle, and, after having convers- meteor moving through the air in a ed about it with the noblemen, said the more or less oblique direction, attended people of Ensisheim should hang it up by a hissing noise, and the fall of siony in their church, and his royal excellency and semi-metallic masses, in a state of strictly forbade any body to take any ignition. We have, however, evidence thing from it. His excellency, however, of another kind, amply proving the petook two pieces himself, and sent anoth- culiarities of these bodies. It is, that, er to Duke Sigismund of Austria. This although they have fallen in very difstone weighed 255 lbs.
ferent countries, and at distant periods,
vol. 4.] Stones from tke Moon-Power of Steam, 8c. 123 when submitted to chemical analysis, assuming what is impossible ; and the they all agree in component parts; the persons who have taken up this conjec, metallic particles being composed of ture, have assumed one impossibility nickel and iron ; the earthy of silex and to account for what they conceive to be magnesia.
another ; namely, that the stony bodLarge masses of native iron have been ies should come froin any other source found in different parts of the world, of than our own globe. the history and origin of which nothing The notion that these bodies come very accurate is known. Such are the from the moon, though it has been great block of iron at Elbogen in Bohe- laughed at as lunacy, is, when imparmia; the large mass discovered by Pal- tially considered, neither absurd nor las, weighing 1600lbs. near Krasnojark, impossible. It is quite true,that the quiin Siberia : that found by Goldberry, et way in which they visit us is against in the great desert of Zahra, in Africa ; such an origin ; it seems, however, that probably also that mentioned by Mr. any power which would move a body Barrow, on the banks of the Great Fish 6000 feet in a second, that is, about river in southern Africa ; and those three times the velocity of a cannon noticed by Bruce, Bougainville, Hum- ball, would throw it from the sphere of boldt, and others in America, of enor- the moon's attraction into that of our bipus magnitude, exceeding thirty tons earth. The cause of this projective in weight. That these should be of the force may be a volcano, and, if thus imsame source as the other meteoric stones pelled, the body would reach us in seems at first to startle belief; but, about two days, and enter our atmos, when they are submitted to analysis, phere with a velocity of about 25,000 and the iron they contain found alloyed feet in a second. Their ignition may by nickel, it no longer seems credulous be accounted for, either by supposing to regard them as of meteoric origin, the heat generated by their motion in We find nothing of the kind in the earth. our atmosphere sufficient to ignite them,
To account for these uncommon visa or by considering them as combustibles, itations of metallic and lapideous bod- ignited by the mere contact of air. ies, a variety of hypotheses have been While we are considering the possisuggested.
bility of these considerations, it may be Are they merely earthly matter fused remembered that, in the great laboraby lightning ? Are they the offspring tory of the atmosphere, chemical changes of any terrestrial volcano ? These were may bappen, attended by the produconce favourite notions ; but we know tion of iron and other metals; that, at of no instance in which similar bodies all events, such a circumstance is withhave in that way been produced, nor in the range of possible occurrences ; do the lavas of known volcanos in the and that the meteoric bodies, whicla least resemble those bodies, to say no- thus salute the earth with stony showthing of the inexplicable projectile force ers, may be children of the air, created that would here be wanted. This is by the union of simpler forins of matter. merely explaining what is puzzling, by
From the London Monthly Magazine, Aug. 1818. TT has been our rare fortune, in the prog- it is our glory, in regard to several of them,
I ress of this miscellany,to be the harbingers that, in recomiending them, we have often · of the various important discoveries which, stood alone, and have generally been oppos during the last twenty-five years, have done ed by contemporary journalists, and not unbonour to the genius of man. Notwithstand- frequently by professors of science. We have ing the lofty pretensions of learned bodies now to announce another application of phiand societies, we have, with few exceptions, losophy to the arts of life, so pregoant with been the first to draw these discoveries from advantages, and so extensive in its purposes, obsrurity, and exhibit to the world their as to threaten an entire revolution in the clai.ns in a clear and popular manner; and economy and formation of our domestic es
tablishments. In the Number for April last, er triumph of philosophy than philosophers ve introduced the details of a system of themselves have ever contemplated. warming houses, by means of the steam gen- Mr. W. Aust, of Gray's-lop Road, has inerated in a small boiler, worked in any out. vented an instrament for freeing the shaft building, and conveyed by pipes to hollow- horse whep fallen with a loaded cart. The sided cylinders placed in the rooms of a instrument consists of the simple addition house ; and we stated in such clear terms the to the common props of the cart, of an iron advantages of this elegant mode of propagat- bar and hook, about half their length, attaching beat, that the work-shops engaged in the ed to the top of each prop, and a bent iron manufactories have had more orders than a
orders than prong at the bottom, to prevent their slipthey can execute. The experiments made piog: the props are strengthened with an in the course of these erections have, howev- Tro er, determined a fact which cannot fail to
- iron ferule at each end. lead to a great extension of the system. It.
♡ The Oolite, or freestone, found at Bath, is appears that steam, conveyed in pipes nearly
riu very soft and porous, is easily penetrated by, half a mile in length, has suffered at the er
and absorbs a considerable quantity of, watremity no sensible diminution of heat ; conse
ter. It has of late been formed into winequently, hot steam may be diffused for pur
coolers and butter-jars, in place of the composes of heating houses, in a radius from the "
The mon biscuit ware, and, from the facility with boiler of at least half a mile; and perhaps
which the water passes through it, so as to adeven of two, three, or more miles. Here
Here mit of evaporation at the surface, it succeeds then is a principle by which beat may be
very well. But the most ingenious applicaconveyed from a public boiler or magazine,
tion of this stone is in the formation of circuwhere it is generated, to any desirable dise lar Pyramids, having a number of grooves
cut one above the other on its surface; these taoce ; and thence may be conveyed into houses for the purpose of keeping the rooms :
ramids are soaked in water, and a small at any temperature, just as gas for light, or
hole made in the centre filled; salad seed is water for culinary purposes, is now conveyed
then sprinkled in the grooves, and, being sapinto them. We thus divest ourselves at once!
plied with water from the stone, vegetate
L and, in the course of some days, produces a of coal or wood fires, of all their smoke, filth, and, in and dangers; and also of chimpies, grates,
crop of salad ready to be placed on the table. and their accessories. In cost, the ratio is
:: The hole should be tilled with water daily, very high in favour of the heat of steam, as
e and, when one crop is plucked, the seeds are ten to one, and twenty to one, according to
to brushed out and another sowo. circumstances. In effective heat, in whole- The number of persons executed for Forsomeness, in enjoyment, and in luxury, there gery, in England, from 1790 to 1818, is 146! can be no comparison. Tbus a bushel of re- Mr. Sainuel Young's second publication of fuse coal and cinders, costing eight-pence or Minutes of Cases of Cancer, at the Cancer loa shilling, will boil a copper for fifteen hours, stitution, instituted by the late Mr. Whit. and generate steam enough to keep tepor bread, merit me notice of the entire body of twelve rooms at a uniforın and equally dif- the faculty ; and to the afflicted they will fused temperature of sixty or seventy de- recommend themselves. To the cases Mr. grees. Of course it is the same whether Young has added an appendix, containing a these rooms are in one house, six houses, or reprint of his valuable dissertation on the natwelve houses ;* and hence the incalculable ture and action of cancer, with a view to a advantages of this application of steam. regular mode of cure, which was first publiske Houses, manufactories, schools, churches, ed in 1805. hamlets, villages, cities, and even the great Mr. Birkbeck's Letters from the Nlinois metropolis itself, may thus be heated from
are characterized by the same good sepse one or many boilers, or from one or many
and benevolence as his former productions. stations, as may be most convenient. Smoke, Nothing but courage to undertake the voythe nuisance of towns, will thus at once be exterminated; because that which is gener- f
age appears to be necessary to enable any ated at the public boilers may easily be con
her family, which is not quite devoured by taxes, sumed, or condensed. We thus also clear
tythes, and bigh rents, to settle in social se
curity, as freeholders, in the most genial clisociety of the stigma and the crimes of chim
mate and most productive soil on the globe. ney-sweeping ; and diminish the hazards Ti
The two last no country possesses in moreenand the horrors of those conflagrations which viable degrees than England; but, alas ! the are as dangerous to our property as our lives. passions of wicked ministers, and of the borIn fine, we expect that these observations ough-faction, have destroyed the bounties of will, in due time, have the effect of render. He
lor renaer Heaven. It remains to be seen, whether the ing Steam-heating Societies as general, as popular, and as lucrative, as Gas-lighting Socie- force a more just and rational policy, so as
uomanageable minority will be able to enties; and we hope, in consequence, to wit
to keep our industrious population at home : ness, in the universal success of both, a great, if not, then we tear the political liberty of
# It is proved, by experiment, that every su- the two Americas will draw from us our life's perficial foot of a metallic hollov cylinder roill best blood, in hundreds, and even thousands, heat 250 cubic feet of air, at 600, 70°, or 80o, of such nobles of nature as Mr. Biskbeek. as may be desirable. A cylinder, four feet All Europe, indeed, without an entire rehigh, and sixteen inches diameler, that is, have generation of its social and political system, ing sixteen feet on the inside, will therefore heat must, from the operation of the same cause, 8000 cubic feet of air, or a room thirty feet soon become a mere caput mortuum, like square and nine feet high. It appears, also, modern Greece, or Asia Minor. According that one small boiler will keep four such cije to Mr. B. in this land of Canaan, land sells linders at 70° of heal; and, therefore, will heat at the rate of two dollars an acre ; wheat is twelve rooms, that ure eighteen feet square, and 3s. 4d. per bushel; and beef and pork 2d. per eight feet high.
pound. The soil is fertile and easy of tillage
Intelligence-- British Agriculture, 1818.
there is nothing to be deducted from the of the eye, this spring, a membrane covering profits for poor-rates, tythes, or rent; and the external surface of the retina in man and the taxes amount to about one farthing per other animals. acre. At the end of fourteen years, the stock of a proprietor will be accumulated, and the
Miss Thurtle's History of France, from the worth of his estate increased, and oo renew
e earliest Periods to the second Return of Louis al wanted : besides, the capital required by
hy XVIII,---is a book constructed with ability, an English farmer, at least donbles that re
for the use of young persons. quired by an Illinois proprietor. For about M. de Chateaubriand's three first volumes half the capital required for the cultivation of the History of France are, it is said, on of worn-ont soils in England, a man may the eve of publication, establish himself as a proprietor there, with every comfort, and the certainty of establish- AGRICULTURAL REPORT, AUG. 1818. ing his children as well or better than him. The cbarm is dissolved, a reaction has sucself. To labouring people, and to mecban- ceeded, and, in despite of the ice islands, and ics, this country seems to afford every oppor- the conjectures of the learned, we have at tunity to obtain comfort and independence, length and in turn enjoyed a summer as high with the certainty of escape from the calam- in temperature as apy, or most of thouse, ities both of war and peace,---from uppres- which used to warın our ancestors. Harvest sion and taxation. The government imposes commenced, some ten days or a fortnight no taxes, and the whole system of internal since, in the south-western counties, and will taxation has been abolished by a late law, soon become general. The long-continued which, at the same time, decreed a large drought has greatly injured all the crops,--sum for canals, bridges, &c. Mon. Mag. wheat, it is to be hoped, least of all, as most
The Journal of a Residence in Iceland, dur- able to endure drougit, and generally proing the years 1814 and 1815, by Ebenezer ductive in dry seasons. In solne, perhaps Henderson, D. D. a missiopary irom the Bi- mapy, parts, the wheat will be undoubtedly ble Society,---bears the most ample evidences a great crop ; in others, middling, beiuw au of his zeal. Where the researches of bois average ; and, upou sralding gravels, and predecessors do not furpish Dr. Heoderson weak and arid soils, the produre will be with data of theories, be exhibits a wonder- light. The wheat plaot has been universally ful degree of assurance in getting out of his tinged with mucor, in consequence of atmosdepth; that is to say, to get footing in the pheric vicissitude and drought; and considcredulity of his reader, by torturing into erable quantities of blighted and smutted his journal some verse of his Bible, or some wheat may be expected. The woole of the shred of poetic rodomontade. Dr. Hender. spring crops---barley, oats, beans, peas, will son calls his journal, " My Assemblage of be short, throughout Englapd; in some parts, Wonders ;" and, truly, he makes it marvel- the barley will barely return seed. On the lously edifying, by ilustrating inal y parts of other hand, letters from various districts in the sacréd writers, from the volcanic moun- Scotland represent barley and oats as probataips, herds of rein-deer, hot-springs, the ble to be the best crops, the wheats not promAurora Borealis, and Scandinavian poetry. 180g to reach an average. Hay, of every Nothing can be more ridiculous than many species, well got, but universally light ; and of the tides of the poems which compose the green food never more scarce, affording a prosodiacal Edda, or teacher. One of these cheerless prospect for winter. They wlio, sublime aod reverend pieces is, “ A dialogue having land well adapted, stocked it with between Thor and the ferryman Harbard, lucerne, will have ample reason to applaud who would not, on any account, row him their foresight and economy. Little progress across a river ;” another treats of " a visit has been yet made in turnip sowing, for want from Thor and Tyn to the giant Hyrmir, in of rain ; and great part of the plants, alreaorder to procure from this last gentleman, dy above ground, have perished, with the ex** a kettle in which to feast the gods ;” and ception of some of the northern counties, another, is a song about " a hand-inill, in where some showers having opportunely talwhich two giant girls were wont to grind len, large bread ths of turnips have been sowa, gald," for his Majesty of Deomark, King and are in a healthy and flourishing state. Troda.
Ibid. Hops and fruit, particularly the orchard There are a number of modern Greeks
of modern Graele fruits, promise to be most abundant, equal to pursuing their studies at Munich, Wurtz
the most producuve seasons; pears and
plums are said to be exceptions. Many hap burgh, Gottingen), Jena, and other German Universities. Ai Wartburgi, one of the La
plantations are as clean aod pure, in leaf and studeots is son to a Prince of Epirus. They
bine, as the oldest planter bas witnessed. purchase many books to take with them to 19
( The potatoe crop greatly in want of rain.
The weather has been exiremely favourable their native country; and great effects may, we think, be anticipated from this importa
for the sheep-shearing, and the clip will be tion of enlightening literature, as well as
most valuable, as wool is perhaps higher in from the acquisition of knowledge in the
price than ever known before, and still ap- ' polities and science of Europe.
parently advancing. Both fat cattle and
lean somewhat lower; stores considerably LADY MORGAN is at present in London
at present in Londop so, on account of the want of food, Pigs superintending the printing of her new work
scarce and dear. Milch and in-calf cows entitied “ Florence Macarthy." It is anoth
greatly in request; and horses, of good qualer national tale, belonging, it is said, to pre ity, at extremely high prices. The demasid sent times and manners.
from abroad for English well-bred mares has Dr. Jacob, demonstrator of avatomy in the been greater, within the last twelve months, University of Dublin, has discovered and than ever before experienced, dernoustrated in his lectures ou the diseases