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impeding the rays of the sun, seemed ed as well from the outside as from to hasten him to his bed, bringing within. Proceeding with caution, Feearlier on the night, for the arrival of lix gently pushed the door open, but which Alvarez and bis party so apx- was scarcely able to distinguish clearly iously longed. It came at last, and the the objects that presented theniselves, conspiring clouds shot out every twink- from the quantity of smoke which filled ling star, whose ray might bave too the great, and almost only room of the soon betrayed the approach of the venta, for the lofts above stairs bardly death-bearing guerillas. They left deserved to be so called ; this was a their ambush, and gaining the road combination of the smoke which the they arrived within a few yards of the strong wind prevented from ascending venta unperceived. The soldiers had through the ill-contrived chimney, and retired within it, to their supper ; and that which had passed through the apparently mirth presided at the ban- mouths of the soldiers, who were requet, for the rude noise of their loud galing themselves with the tobacco of laughter fell upon the ears of Alvarez which they had robbed Felix. and his companions. The open shed “ The noise of their mirth had a by the side of the house was still occu- little abated, or rather was drawn to pied, as when Felix and Julian passed. one point by the attention of the whole The horses of half the detachment were to the song of one man, who was ranged under it, ready for mounting ; amusing his comrades and himself, by their bridles only were wanting, and singing a French chanson de table : these were suspended from the pum- and this temporary silence rendered mels of their saddles on one side, more electric the shock which was whilst the sabres of the dragoons bung produced by the pistol of Felix, with on the other. A solitary sentry paced which he effectually and eternally sialong this line of horses, and the clang lenced the voice of the singer. of his empty sabre sheath, as it drawled “The confusion that ensued is not along the ground, responsive to his to be described, and it must be left to measured footsteps, was the only sound the imagination to picture the bloody from without the ion which mingled sacrifice of which it was the prelude ; with the indications of mirth from if any are revolted at the scene which within.

presents itself to their minds, let it be “ Having ascertained from this cir- remeinbered, that the Spaniards were cumstance that their horses were guard- seeking redress by the law of retaliaed but by one man, Felix advanced to tion, when no other law was respected, the shed with his band.

and that in the execution of its dictates "• Qui vive ?' vociferated the sen- of taking life for life, they were puntinel.

ishing, by a rapid and almost instanta“ The answer was a fatal one. The neous death, those who were delibesoldier fell deprived of the power of rately and wantonly inflicting torture, repeating the question or giving the and committing murder under the most alarm. The horses were quickly bri- aggravating circumstances of cruelty. dled, and the sabres in the hands of Nor can it be said that they were panthe guerillas, who were before only ishing the innocent for the guilty ; for armed with such weapons as could be although the dragoons of La Matilla concealed--pistols, koives, and dag- were not perhaps the ravagers of the gers. A sufficient number of the party valley of Almaraz, yet the infection remained with the horses to protect had spread too far in the ranks of the them, whilst others, headed by Julian, French army; the thirst for plunder, went round the house in search of the and the consequent indifference, or other stable, where they expected to delight in the production of human find the remaining horses. Alvarez misery, was too general for any part of led the rest of his men to the venta. it to escape its influence : and Alvarez The door was confined by a wooden felt, as the work of death was going on, latch, which was capable of being raise that although no hand there bad held

VOL. 4.]

Felix Alvarez.

237

the brand that fired Las Casas, nor wife, though not possessed of personal fixed the fatal knot that deprived his beauty, from her situation as head of father of life, yet, that he was avenging the society in the town, was courted, the destruction of many another village, flattered, and attended by all the French and the fate of many another parent. officers of the garrison. A beautiful and

“ The guerillas were not long in premature spring day, although in the effecting their purpose. The manner bad season of the year, had tempted in which the soldiers were surprised, Dona Juana, to propose a ride into the and the confusion of mingled friends country, which proposal was agreed to and enemies in the venta, greatly by three French officers, who accomassisted them. Five or six of the men panied her. The day continued fine, who were in the stable with the unsad- the conversation was pleasing; the dled horses, when Julian's party had Senora, flattered by all that was said to attacked them, had opposed no resist- her, thought not of returning, and the ance, but saved themselves by flight; ride was lengthened much beyond the of the rest of the detachment, not one distance from the town, at which pruremained to tell the tale : one of the dence would have told them to stop, guerillas had been killed, and two for unescorted parties of French, or slightly wounded. Those who had afrancesudos, as the Spanish advocates fled would certainly alarm the troops at of the French cause were called, were Caceres or at Truxillo, and a speedy often attacked and massacred by a retreat was necessary. They posses- crowd of peasants, if they ventured too sed themselves of the horses and arms far from their head-quarters. of their victims, and having taken all "Nothing occurred to excite the idea that was found of any value about of danger in the minds of this party, untheir persons, they assembled round til they met a dragoon at full speed Alvarez to receive his orders.” coming towards them; they stopped

After this exploit, Alvarez and his him, and inquired the cause of his patriotic followers secreted themselves alarm. Tbis man was one of a piquet ia the Sierra, where they gradually of four men, which was stationed ja increased in numbers and in discipline, a neighbouring village to enforce the to the great terror of the French, and perforinance of a requisition for prothose disloyal Spaniards who adhered to visions, which bad been sent there. them. The following is a curious in- The provisions were ready and loaded stance of guerilla warfare and simmary on the mules; but they were prevented punishment.

from commencing their journey by the “ Amongst the inhabitants who con- arrival of Alvarez and his patriots, tinued in the different towns occupied guided by the information of one of by the French, there were found inany the villagers. Three of the plquet who not only adhered to the cause of were sacrificed ; the fourth escaped by the mock King, but who accepted and fight, but was ciosely followed by some performed the functions of civil offices of Felix's inen. During the time which under his government. The excuse of the dragoon took to tell his story to such of these as afterwards thought it Dona Juana and the officers, the pur. necessary to excuse their conduct was, suiers appeared in view, and at the sight that, being acquainted with the existing the dragoon again set forth, accompala wsand customs of their fellow-citizens, nied by the three officers and the lady, and partaking of the evils resulting from all of whom applied every weaped of the intrusion of new ones, they were excitement to the animals which bore more likely to reconcile the old with them. But fear suspended the powers the new state of things, and to render of the lady, and fatigue those of her the burtheo less intolerable than a horse ; she was left behind by her stranger and a foreigner, not to say a flatterers, and overtaken by the guerilFrenchman. A rich aod respectable las. In their hands her life was sale : inhabilant of Xeres was of this number; but inbappily for her, one of them was he exercised one of the bighest civil a towosinan ol Xeres, to whoin she offices in Xeres, under the French. His was well kuowa. Upon recognizing her, he told his companions, in a few towards Xeres, whilst the laughing words, ber name, raok, connexion with patriotas galioped off in an opposite the French, and the public employ- direction." ment of her husband. This was too This is no fictitious anecdote : our Aagrant an instance of desertion from author, in a note, assures us, that the the patriotic cause to pass unpunished; report of this story found its way to yut the sex of the criminal forbade the Cadiz, and was the subject of conversummary execution of the punishment sation, at the time it huppened, in many which the crime merited. In this dif- societies, where the unfortunate lady to ficulty, one of them suggested an ex- whom it occurred was known. pedient which they instantly proceeded We have not room to follow Alto put into execution : having made varez in his various adventures. Sufthe unhappy lady dismount, they tied fice it to relate, that having been seher horse to a tree, and some of them verely wounded, and taken prisoner by proceeded to tie her to the trunk of the French, whom he had pursued too another, with her face to the tree, eagerly on their expulsion, his life was round which her arms were bound : a preserved, he regained bis liberty, and number of pieces of sharp prickly furze returned to Seville. Here be meets were then tied together in a bundle, with Ismena, whom affection, and the with which one of the guerillas without report of his danger had brought thitbceremony inflicted such chastisement er. Being now mistress of her fortune, upon the raging and blushing Senora she united her fate to his ; and the as is not unfrequently administered by wife of El Vengador henceforth para severe pedant to his idle or wicked ticipated in all his toils as commander scholars. Having continued this ope- of the regiment of the Patriotas de la ration until they had rendered it high- Sierra Morena. From this time Alvaly inconvenient, if not impossible, for rez and his regiment were attached to the lady to make use of her horse, ac- the British army, which they accompacompanying their more impressive ar- nied through the remainder of the peguments with a great variety of patri- ninsular war : and their patriotic Olic admonitions, they released her achievements only terminated with the from the tree, and politely offered to storming and subsequent capture of assist her to remount; which assist- the fortress of San Sebastian, where ance she was, however, under the Alvarez discovered his long-lost sister, necessity of refusing, and taking her and killed the traitor Mosquera. horse's bridle, she turned her steps

Concluded in our next.

CUSTOMS IN MODERN PERSIA.

From the Literary Gazette, Sept. 1818. A SECOND JOURNEY THROUGH PERSIA, ARMENIA, ASIA MINOR, &c. BETWEEN TIE YEARS

• 1810 AND 1816. BY JAMES MORIER, ESQ. &c. &c. LONDON. 1818. THE manners of Persia are as singu- grievance was chiefly attributed to

larly e..hibited in popular move- Mirza Ahady, who, having been rements, and in the lesser circumstances leased from prison at Teheran, was perof life, as in their government, religion, mitted to return to Fars, to raise such and superstitions. To the former case, sums on the people as would satisfy indeed, as is not unfrequent in more en- the demands of the King. lightened countries, the innocent often Mirza Ahady, in conjunction with suffer for the guilty, as the following the Prince's mother, was believed to story witnesseth:

bave monopolized all the corn of the “ About this time (of the Embassy,) country, and he had no sooner reached great discontent was manifest at Shiraz, Shiraz, than he raised its price, which owing to an increase in the price of of course produced a correspondent adbread and there were symptoms of in- vance in that of bread—Ventre affame surrection among the people. This n'a point d'oreilles-the people became

VOL. 4.]
Manners, &c. in Modern Persia.

239 outrageous in their misery. As is (Lady's Ousely's accouchement.) His usual, in all public calamities in the dress, when he came to the AmbassaEast, they commenced by shutting their dor, was composed of a felt hat, the shops in the Bazar. They then resort- crowo of which was made like ours, ed to the house of Sheikh-el-Islam, the but with two long ears projecting belore, head of the law, requiring him to issue and two siinilar bebind. Others of his a Fetwah, which might make it lawful troop were dressed in the same way; to kill Mirza Ahady, and one or two all looking grotesque ; and I conjecmore, whoin they knew to be his coad- tured that nothing could give one a jutors in oppressing them. They then better idea of satyrs and bacchanalians, appeared in a body before the Prince's particularly as they were attended by a palace, where they expressed their suite of monkeys, headed by a large grievances in a tumultuous way, and ape, which were educated to perforın demanded that Mirza Ahady should all sorts of tricks. They carried copbe delivered up to them. Mahomed per drums, slung under the arm, which Zeky Khan was sent out by the Prince they beat with their fiogers and ibe palm to appease them, accompanied by Mirza of their hands; some snapped their tiuBauke, the chief baker of the city, who gers, making a noise like castagnets, was one of those whose life had been others played the tambourine; and denounced. As soon as the latter ap- when all this was put into motion, with peared, he was overwhelmed with in- their voices roaring in loud chorus, the sults and reproaches, but he managed scene was unique.” to pacify them, by saying, “What The people of the country were in criine bave I committed ? Mirza Ahady general polite and hospitable, though is tbe mao to abuse. If he sell us corn sometimes they Hed from the approach at extravagant prices, bread must rise of the Embassy in dread of the requisiin consequence." In the mean time, tions for provisions and carriage :Mirza Ahady had secreted bimself from “At Chors, and indeed at every the fury of the mob; but being coun- village by which they passed, they lound tenanced by the Prince's mother, and it the fashion for the Ket Kboda and consequently by the Prince himself, he the inhabitants to come out, stand by let the storm rage, and solaced himself the road side, and make a regular doo by making fresh plans for raising Dative of the village to the Anibassador, more money. The price of bread was by saying, “This village is yours, and lowered for a few days, until the com- we are your slaves.'” motion should cease; and as it was At an Eelaut encampment of black necessary that some satisfaction should tents, however, says the author, “As I be given to the people, all the bakers was making a sketch of them, of the in the town were collected together, and tree, and of the village, an unbreeched publicly bastinadoed on the soles of their urchin, who could scarcely lisp, saluted

me with the appellation of Kiupek oglu, The Looties, or Buffoons, attend at a dog's son. Then came an old Shepall merry-makings or public festivals, herd, with grave and suspicious looks, disregarding all delicacy in the style who said, "There are some tierce dogs and manner of their wit:

in these tents which will bite you, if “Princes, Governors of Provinces,&c. you stay here much longer.' Upon as well as the King, have a band of these which I detained him as a sentinel over fellows in their pay, and they are looked his dogs, of which he did not much apupon as a necessary part of Persian statr: prove ; for it was easy to discover that they are composed of the most profligate his apprehension for my safety was of men, and can only advance in their only another mode of expressing his jeaprofession by superior ribaldry. Some lousy about a pack of his ragged and of them are endowed with great natural dirty wives in the tent." I wit, which was the case with the Luoti Their women are indeed most zeaBasbee, or chief Looti, who attended lously guarded, as a droll adventure at the Ambassador on this occasion, Tabriz will shew :

leet !!!"

“ The keys of the gates are kept by of which the husband was both a the Governor of the city, and a camp drinker and a vender. But as the was formed without the town. One of Prince had prohibited the sale of this our serjeants going to the camp, having liquor and of wine, under very heavy arrived too late at the gate, went to the penalties, none was sold except in a Governor's house to seek the key. He clandestine manner, and that to persons inquired for the Governor, and was in- well known. The noises that issued formed that he was within ; he proceed- from the adjoining houses were quite ed, and unknowingly found himself on characteristic of Persian domestic life. a sudden in the harem, in the midst of In my immediate vicinity lived an old many women, who shrieked out when morose Persian, who daily quarrelled they saw him, and sought to hide them- with his women ; and I could distinselves. He there felt himself assailed guish the voice of one particular female, by numerous weapons, that were direct- whose answers, made in a taunting and ed at him by a man as well as by the querulous tone, did not fail to throw women; and finding himself closely him into passions so violent, that they pressed, he aimed a blow at the former, generally terminated in blows, the noise which alighted upon his mouth. The of which, accompanied by correspondsufferer proved to be the Governor in ing lamentation, I could distinctly hear. person, and who in this attack, asserted “Then, bordering on the garden that he had lost two teeth. Remon- wall, scarce twenty yards from where I strances were instantly made 10 the usually sat, was a society of women, Ambassador for this intrusion of one of five or six in number, the wives and his countrymen into a spot so sacred to slaves of a Mussulman, who were either a Persian; but the whole business was dissolved in tears, sobbing aloud like very good-naluredly forgiven, as soon children, or entranced in the most indeas an explanation had been made that cent and outrageous merriinent. Sometheserjeant had erred through ignorance times they sang in the loudest tone, alone.”

accompanied by a tambourine; and In his lodgings at Tabriz, Mr. Morier then they quarrelled amongst themhad some slight opportunities of observ- selves, using every now and then exing the domestic habits of the natives. pressions of no ordinary indelicacy. Houses are taken without ceremony Accident once gave me a view into their from their owners, and assigned for the yard, where I saw three women surresidence of any persons protected by rounded by children, seated on the bare the court. It was twelve years since stones, smoking the kaleoon. They the owner of the abode provided for wore a large black silk handkerchief the Ambassador, had possessed his round their heads, a shift which deown house, and it was very unlikely scended as low as the middle, a pair of that he would ever occupy it again, as loose trowsers, and green high heeled it is no sooner left by one tenant than slippers ; and this I believe may be it is immediately given to another. Mr. considered as a sketch of every Persian Morier's habitation “belonged to an woman's dress within the harem, ia Armenian family, the head of which hot weather. was a Keshish, or priest: it consisted “ But there are poises peculiar to (he proceeds) of several rooms, built every city and country; and none are upon terraces, looking upon two sides more distinct and characteristic than of a square, besides several other small those of Persia. First, at the dawn of unconnected rooms, situated here and day, the muezzins die heard in great there. A garden was attached to it, in variety of tones, calling the people to which were apple, pear, cherry, walmut, prayers from the top of the mosques ; and sinjid (jujube) trees, besides rose- these are mixed with the sounds of cowtrees. Beneath my chambers were two horns, blown by the keepers of the under-ground rooms, where lived one hummums, to inform the women who of the priest's sons, and his wife. One bathe before the men, that the baths of the rooms was a magazine for arrack, are heated, and ready for their reception.

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