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IT HE arts of the surgeon and the shopkeeper arranged under the same 11 physician derive their greatest im- head with a Borgia, just as we find the provements and discoveries from the beds edible and the poisonous heads of of the sick and the dying. Physiolo- Fungus classed together in the manuals gists draw their purest lights from the of Botany ? hospital and the madhouse. It becomes Nothing can be more useless, more the psycologist, the moralist, the legis- absurd, than the manner in which histolator, to follow the example, and to ry is commonly written. Between the study with like zeal dungeons and exe- strong and excited passions of the men eutions, above all courts of justice, the of whom we read, and the calmo medidissecting rooms of guilt.

tative state of mind in which we read of In the whole history of mankind, them, tbere exists little sympathy, Tbe there is no chapter more abounding in gulf between tbe bistorical subject and instruction, both for the heart and the the reader is so wide, that things which intellect, than that which contains the ought to excite in our breasts emotions annals of their transgressions. In every of a very different character, are passed great offence some great power is set in by with a far-off shudder of unconcern. motion ; and that machinery which We shake the head coldly when the escapes observation in the dim light of heart should be alive and trembling. ordinary transactions, when its opera- We contemplate the unhappy being tions are commanded by some stronger wbo, in the moment of conceiving, planpassion, gains from their influence the ning, executing, expiating his guilt. distinctness of colossal magnitude. The was still a mau like ourselves, as if delicate observer, who understands the he were some creature whose blood mechanism of our nature, and knows flowed oot with the same pulse, whose how far we may venture to reason by passions obeyed not the same law analogy from one man to another with ours. We are little interested in from great guilt to small-may learn his fortunes, for all sympathy with the much from contemplating these terrible fate of our neighbour arises from some displays.

remote belief in the possibility of its By those who study the hearts of men, one day becoming our own; and we are at least as many points of likeness as of very far, in instances such as these, contrast will be discovered. The same from desiring to claim any such coninclination or passion may display itself nexion. It is thus that the instruction in a thousand different forms and fash- is lost, and that what night have been ions, produce a thousand irreconcilable a school of wisdom, becoines merely phenomena, be found mixed in the tex- a pastime for our curiosity. ture of a thousand characters, apparent. We are more interested in discoverly of the most opposite conformation, ing how a man came to will and cop

I'wo men may, both in action and cha- ceive a crime, than how he perpetratracter, be essentially kindred to each ed it. His thoughts concern us more oiber, and yet neither of them for a mo- than his deeds, and the sources of the ment suspect the resemblance. Should former much more than the consemeo, like other departments of the king- quences of the latter. Men have scrudom of nature, be at any tiine so fortu- tinized the depths of Vesuvius, in 0.pale as to find a Linnæus, one who der to learn the cause of its burning : should classify thein according to ten- Wby is it that moral attract less atten, dencies and inclinations, how would tion than physical phenoinena? Why individuals stare at the result of his la- is it that we are contented to observe bours ? how, for example, should we nothing in the human volcano but its be astonished to find some quiet paltry eruption ?

How many a maiden might have away the little he gained from his share preserved her innocent pride, had she in the profits of the Sun, Too ide learned to view with somewhat less of and too ignorant to think of supporting horror and hatred her fallen sisters, his extravagance by speculation; too and to regard the experience as some- proud to descend from Aline Hostinto thing that might be useful to herself. a plain peasant, he saw only one war How many a careless man might save to escape from his difficulties - Way himself from ruia, would he conde- to which thousands before and after him scend to hear and study the history of have had recourse theft. Bielsdorf the prodigal, whom folly has already is, as you know,situated on the edge of made a beggar! if from contemplat- the forest; Wolf commenced deer. ing the slow progress of vice, we derive stealer, and poured the gains of bs no other lesson, we must at least learn boldness into the lap of his mistress to be less confident in ourselves, and Among Hannah's lovers was one of less intolerant towards others.

the forester’s men, Robert Horn. This Whether the offender, of whom I am man soon observed the advantage which about to speak, had lost all claim to Wolf had gained over her, by means our sympathy, I shall leave my reader of his presents, and set himself to de to decide for himself. What we think tect the sources of so much liberality. of him can give himself no trouble ; He began to frequent the Sun: be his blood has already Aowed upon the drank there early and late; and shar. scaffold.

pened as his eyes were, both by jea

lousy and poverty, it was not long beChristian Wolf was the son of an fore he discovered whence all the moinnkeeper at Bielsdorf, who, after the ney came. Not many months before death of his father, continued till his this time a severe edict had been pub20th year to assist his mother in the lished agaiost all trespassers on the management of the house. The inn forest laws. Horn was indefatigable was a poor one, and Wolf had many in watching the secret motions of bis idle hours. Even before he left school rival, and at last he was so fortunate be was regarded as an idle lo se lad; as to detect hiin in the very fact. Wot the girls complained of bis rudeness, was tried, and found guilty; and the and the boys, when detected in any fine which he paid in order to avoid ipischief, were sure to give up him as the statutory punishment amounted to the ringleader. Nature had neglected the sum-total of his property. his person. His figure was small and Horn triumphed. His rival was unpromising'; his hair was os a coarse driven from the field, for Flannah had greasy black; his nose was flat; and no notion of a beggar for a lover. Wolf bis upper lip, originally too thick, and well knew his enemy, and he knew twisted aside by a kick from a horse, that this enemy was the happy posso was such as to disgust the women, and sor of his Hannah. Pride, jealousy, furnished a perpetual subject of jesting rage, were all in arms within him; to the men. The contempt showered hunger set the wide world before biai, upon his person was the first thing but passion and revenge held him fad which wounded his pride, and turned at Bielsdorf. A second time he e a portion of his blood to gall.

came a deer-stealer, and a second time, He was resolved to gain what was hy the redoubled vigilance of Robert every where denied himn ; his passions Horn, was he detected in the tre pas, were strong enough; and he soon per. This time he experienced the full se suaded himself that he was in love. verity of the law; he had no money to The girl he selected treated him coldly, pay a fine, and was sent straightway to and he had reason to fear that his rivals the house of chastisement. were happier than himself. Yet the The year of punishment drew near maiden was poor; and what was its close, and found his passion inrefused to his vows might perhaps be creased by absence, his confidence granted to bis gifts ; but he was him- buoyant under all the pressure of his self needy, and his vanity soon threw calamities. The moment bis freedom

VOL. 4.]

Christian Wolf.

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was given to him, he hastened to Biels- They sung songs whose atrocity at first dorf, to tbrow himself at the feet of horrified me, but which I, a shameHannah. He appears, and is avoided faced fool, soon learned to echo. No by every one. The force of necessity day passed over, wherein I did not at last humbles his pride, and overcomes hear the recital of some profligate life, bis delicacy. He begs from the wealthy the triumphant history of some rascal, of the place; he offers himself as a the concoction of some audacious vilday.labourer to the farmers, but they lany. At first I avoided as much as despise bis slim figure, and do not stop I could these men, and their discourfor a moment to compare him with his ses. But, my labour was hard and sturdier competitors. He makes a last tyrannical, and in my hours of repose atteinpt. One situation is yet vacant I could not bear to be left alone, with.

the last of honest occupations. He out one face to look upon. The jailoffers bimself as herdsman of the swine ors had refused me the company of my upon the town's common; but even dog, so I needed that of men, and here he is rejected; no man will trust for this I was obliged to pay by the any thing to the jail-bird. Meeting sacrifice of whatever good there rewith contempt from every eye, chased mained within me. By degrees I grew with score from one door to another, accustomed to every thing; and in the he becomes yet the third time a deer- last quarter of my confinement I surstealer, and for the third time his un- passed even my teachers. happy star places him in the power of “From this time I thirsted after his enemy.

freedom, after revenge, with a burnThis double backsliding goes against ing thirst. All inen had injured me, him at the judgment-seat; for every for all were better and happier than I. judge can look into the book of the I gnashed my fetters with my teeth, law, but few into the soul of the cul- when the glorious sun rose up above prit. The forest edict requires an ex- the battlements of my prison, for a emplary punishment, and Wolf is wide prospect doubles the hell of ducondemned to be branded on the back rance. The free wind that whistled with the mark of the gallows, and to through the loop-holes of my, turret, three years' hard labour in the fortress, and the swallow that poised itself up

This period also went by, and he on the grating of my window, seemed once more dropt his chains; but he to be mocking me with the view of was no longer the same map that en- their liberty ; and that rendered my tered the fortress. Here began a new misery more bitter. It was then that epoch in the life of Wolf. You shall I vowed etero al glowing batred to guess the state of his mind from his every thing that bears the image of man own words to bis Confessor.

—and I have kept my vow. “I went to the fortress," said he, “ My first thought, after I was set “ an offender, but I came out of it a at liberty, was once more my native villain. I had still had something in town. I had no hope of happiness the world that was dear to me, and my there, but I had the dear hope of repride had not totally sunk under my venge. My heart beat quick and high sbame. But here I was throwo into agiiinst my bosom, when I bcheld, afar the company of three and twenty con- off, the spire arising from out the trees. victs ; of these, two were murderers, * It was no longer that innocent hearty the rest were all notorious thieves and expectation which preceded my first reVagabonds. They jeered at me if I turn. The recollection of all the misespake of God; they taught me to utter ry, of all the persecution I had experi. blasphemies against the Redeemer. enced there, aroused my faculties from

- a terrible derd slumber of sullenness, * In some parts of Gerinany no man can suffer set ail my wounds a-bleeding, every all of immediate death) indulgence it may be mies with the horror of my aspected Conce, if indeed (considering what the y suiter in my pace-I longed to startle my ene

ent. Even murderers have choses no nerve a-jarting within me. Tredoub ed 2W ATRENEUY. Vol. 4.

east severity of the law, unless he conlt sy his
. The clearest ovidence is not received as an ne

called

thirsted after new contempts as much the scale of life than myself. I had as I had ever shuddered at the old. Dever loved her.

“ The clocks were striking the hour “My mother was dead. . My small of vespers as I reached the market-place, house had been sold to pay my credi- . The crowd was rushing to the church- tors. I asked nothing more. I drew door. I was immediately recognized ; near to no man. All the world fied every man that knew me shrunk from from me like a pestilence, but I had meeting me. Of old I had loved the at last forgotten shame. Formerly I little children, and even now, seeking in bated the sight of men, because their their innocence a refuge from the scorn contempt was insufferable to me. of others, I threw a small piece of money Now I threw myself in the way, and to the first I saw. The boy stared at found a savage delight in scattering me for a moment, and then dashed the horror around me. I had notbing coin at' my face. Had my blood boiled more to lose, why then should I cooless furiously, I might bave recollected ceal myselt? Men expected no good that I still wore my prison beard, and froin me, why should they have any ? that was enough to account for the I was made to bear the punishment of terror of the infant. But my hard sins I had never coinmitted. My ioheart had blinded my reason, and famy was a capital, the interest of which tears, tears such as I had never wept, was not easy to be exhausted. leaped down my cheeks.

"The whole earth was before me ; “ The child, said I to myself, half in some remote province I might peraloud, "knows not who I am, por haps have sustained the character of whence I came, and yet he avoids me an honest man, but I had lost the delike a beast of prey. Am I then mark- sire of being, nay,even of seeming such. ed upon the forehead like Cain, or Contempt and shame had taken from bave I ceased to be like a man, since me even this last relick of myself,-my all men spurn me ?' The aversion of resource, now that I had no honour, the child tortured me more than all was to learn to do without it. Had my three years' slavery, for I had done my vanity and pride survived my in. him good, and I could not accuse him famy, I must have died by my own of hating me.

hand. "I sat down in a wood-yard over “ What I was to do, I myself koew against the church; what my wishes not. I was determnined, however, to were I know not, but I remeniber it do evil; of so much I have some dark was wormwood to my spirits, that none recollection. I was resoived to see the of my old acquaintances should have worst of my destiny. The laws, said vouchsafed mne a greeting—no, not I to myself, are benefits to the worid, one. When the yard was locked up, it is fit that I should offend them ; I unwillingly departed to seek a lodg- formerly I had siuned from levity and ing; in turning the corner of a street, necessity, but I now sinned from free I ran against my Hannah: ‘Mine host choice, and for my pleasure. of the Sun,' cried she, and opened her “My first step was to the woods. arms as if to embrace me-You here The chase had by degrees become to again, my dear Wolf, God be thanked me as a passion; I thirsted, like a for your return !'-—Hunger and wretch- lover, after thick brakes and headlong edness were expressed in her scanty leaps, and the inad delight of rushing raiment; a shameful disease had mar- along the bare earth beneath the pines. red her countenance; her whole ap- Besides, I must live. But these were pearance told me what a wretched crea- not all. I hated the prince who had iure she had become. I saw two or published the forest edict, and I bethree dragoons laughing at her from a lieved, that in injuring hiin, I should window, and turned my back, with a only exercise my natural right of retaillaugh louder than theirs, upon the sol- iation. The chance of being taken dier's trull. It did me good to find no longer troubled me, for now I bad that there was something yet lower in a bullet for iny discoverer, and I wel!

355

VOL. 4.]

Christian Wolf. knew the certainty of my aim. I slew man yielded up his spirit. Long stood every animal that came near me, the I speechless by the corpse ; at last I greater part of them rotted where they forced a wild laugh, and cried, 'no died; for I neither had the power, more tales from the wood now, my - nor the wish, to sell more than a few friend! I drew hiin into the thicket of them beyond the barriers. Myself with his face upwards! The eyes stood lived wretchedly; except on powder stiff, and stared apon me. I was se... and shot, I expended nothing. My rious enough, and silent too. The devastations were dreadful, but no feeling of solitude began to press grievsuspicion pursued me. My appear- ously upon my soul. ance was too poor to excite any, and “Up till this time I had been acmy name had long since been forgotten, customed to rail at the over severity of

“ This life continued for several my destiny; now I had done somemonths.-One morning, according to thing which was not yet punished. my custom, I had pursued a stag for An hour before, no man could have many iniles through the wood. For persuaded me that there existed a betwo hours I had in vain exerted every ing more wretched than myself. Now nerve, and at last I had begun to de- I began to envy myself for what even spair of my hooty, when, all at once, then I had been. I perceived the stately animal exactly “The idea of God's justice never at the proper distance for my gun, - came into my mind; but I remembered a my finger was ready on the trigger, bewildered vision of ropes, and swords, when, of a sudden, my eye was caught and the dying agonies of a child-murwith the appearance of a hat, lying a deress, which I had witnessed when a few paces before me on the ground. I boy. A certain dim and fearful idea looked more closely, and perceived the lay upon my thoughts that my life was buntsman, Robert Horn, lurking be- forfeit. · I cannot recollect every thing. hind a massy oak, and taking delihe. I wished that Horn were yet alive. I rate aim at the very stag I had been forced myself to call up all the evil pursuing--at the sight, a deadly cold- the dead man had done when in life, ness crept through my limbs. Here but my memory was sadly gone, was the man I hated above all living Scarcely could I recollect one of all things; here he was, and witbin reach those thousand circumstances, which a of my bullet. At this moment, it quarter of an hour before had been seemed to me as if the whole world suffered to blow my wrath into phrenwere at the muzzle of my piece, as if zy. I could not conceive how or why the wrath and hatred of a thousand I had become a murderer. lives were all quivering in the finger “I was still standing beside the that should give the murderous pres- corpse, -I might have stood there forsure. - A dark fearful unseen hand was ever,---when I heard the crack of a upon me; the finger of my destiny whip, and the creaking of a fruit wag, pointed irrevocably to the black mo- gon passing through the wood. The inent. My arm shook as if with an spot where I had done the deed was ague, while I lifted my gun--my teeth scarcely a hundred yards from the chattered—my breath stood inotionless great path. I must look to my safety. in my lungs. For a minute the barrel “I bounded like a wild deer into hung uncertain between the man and the depths of the wood; but wbile I the stag -a minute--and another -- was in my race, it struck me that the and yet one more. Conscience and re- deceased used to have a watch. In venge struggled fiercely within me, order to pass the barriers, I bad need but the deinon triumphed, and the of money, and yet scarcely could I buntsman fell dead upon the ground. muster up courage to approach the

“ My courage fell with him — place of blood. T'hen I thought for a Murderer! I stainmered the word moment of the devil, and, I believe,conslowly. The wood was silent as a fusedly, of the omnipresence of God. church-yard, distinctly did I hear it I called up all my boldness, and strode - Murderer !---As I drew near, the towards the spot, resolved to dare earth

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