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son seeins rather to have launched this piad, or pibeth; the Gothic hoa, hy, buad; small balloon experimentally, before he hwad ; Belgic wie, wilk. wat. Aod in our

Saxon hwa, bwe, hwat; Danish hwo, hwilk, commits himself to an ascent in the ancient quho, quhich,quilk, quhat, together large one. He has given us a desultory with the modero who, which, wbai, seem to

Y be included both the Celtic and Gothic pro display of his powers, demonstrating nunciations. -...- Similar mutations have bis capacity for the proposed labour, by crept into French, as escome for spaca;

u: while in Englisb cod, a husk, is pod : and his knowledge of languages, by his

our term peep in all the Northern dialects is acuteness of research, by his chastised keek, from the Gothic ge auga, to eye. soundness of judgment, and by his va- The Gothic or Saxon name for a grasshopper

is lopust, the leaper, from which the Latins rious and comprehensive intelligence. seem to have formed locusta ; and our late If we may form an opinion from the ster is their sea-locust. This perversion ersample, we will predict that the forthsample we will predict that the forth tended to other remote nations ; for the

Christiays of Abyssinia, or more properly coming work will leave us nothing to Habish, say Ketros for St. Peter, -:.:. regret that Horne Tooke never com- Some races of men discover unaccountable pleted his undertaking and will be in aversioo to particular letters, and predilec. itself an extraordinary performance at tion for others : of which R and L are el

amples. The former is entirely excluded in once honourable to its author, delightful favour of the latter by the Chinese, who say to the public, and eminently useful to Fn lan sy, and vulgarly Plance, for France. the Etymologist, Antiquarian, and the Italians rosignuolo for t

Tbe Portuguese say milagre for miracle;

for the Latin lucis. Scholar.

iola, a nightingale; and the French orme is Having mentioned that this specimen the Latin ulmus. is of a desultory nature, it will follow

The Celtic language, including the Helthat our review of it will partake of the lenic Greek, and Latió or Eolian dialects, same character. We might indeed syg. is supposed to have been general throughoat tematize, but the opposite mode will ho

: Europe, prior to the irruptions of those

will hordes named Pelasgi, Meannya, the neighconvey a more just idea of the original, bouring country, or Pelasgeotæ, perhaps and we (consulting as well our own DUA A57,MT, the Gothic tribe, who were called

by the Asiatics the red-haired people; and ease) adopt it.

its affinity to the Arabic, Hebrew, and The English lansnage is derived from the Phænician, like that of the Gothic to the Gothic and Celtic, chiefly through the Anglo. Sanscrit and the ancient Persian, has been Saxon and French dialécts: and the obiect generally admitted. The first establishment proposed is to trace the probable origin of

of of those invaders was said to have been Argos, British words, to mark their adventitious

the white, or town of fair men, and the name changes, and indicate their principal apa

afterwards extended to the whole of Greece. Jogies. *

That particular race may still be distinguisbThe Gallic Celts were more remarkable

ed in Sweden, Saxony, Hanover, apd some for their variable pronunciation and muta

smaller districts, sucb as Darmstadt, whese tion of letters (great causes of obscurity in

Jofty stature and flaren hair indicate a difetymological inaniries) than even the Welsh ferent descent from the cross made, swarthy and Irish. The Latin barba, the beard, was

inhabitants of Hesse Cassel, Bavaria, and with them barf, varef, barv, parw, warf : the

Suabia ; while an evident mixtare is obser. Gascons were Vascons, Wassones, Bascops,

vable among the English, Belgians, Dana,

and Prussians. - and Biscayans. H, g, and c, when initial letters, were generally confounded among On the other band, the Goths denominated the Celts, by indistinct guttural sounds to themselves Gaut or Gautr, Got, Jotor produce energy ; but k has frequently taken Jotun, which they consider as a mese differtheir place in modern days, since they be- ence in pronunciation, meaning, like riess or came objectionable for their harshness. The ruse, powerful men, giants, or warriors. The intermutations of p, q, c, h, and k, are very formation of their name may be traced with extraordinary. P, reversed, appears to have some probability from the Gothic A, to have formed q, which probably was introduced or possess, which produced, aud, aut, Swed. into the alphabet at a later date, .... ish od, Saxon ead, Teutonic od and ot; all of Allowing for such singularities, the affinity

te them signifying wealth, power, happiness, of European language is observable in the

riches, beatitude; and hence were apparentqui, quæ, quod, of the Latin, which takes i

ly derived our words God and good : the cui in the dative case; the Irish ci, ce, ciod;

Latin bonus signifiesgood, rich; dives, divus, the Greek ποιος, ποιη, ποιον; the Eolian κοιoς, al

d; opulence and divinity. The Greek Iratos MOIN, KOLON ; the Arinoric and Welsh, pi, pa, Goths as Andin or Odin, the Persian Ay: 10,

bies, also, was wealth and Pluto, knorn to the

Hebrew Adoni, the Almighty, whom the * It is singular that at this very time M. Von Wolker, Prvate Secretary to Prince Esterhazy, at Vien

Syrians called Mammon. The chief who na, is preparing for the press an Etymological Dic. conducted the Goths into Scandinavia, a tionary, upon a most extensive plan, in which he has pears by bis Gothic names Odin, Wodan, been engaged more than twrive years. Von Wol and Godan, to have been confounded with ker is said to be an accomplished scholar, and per- the Deity, because his paine, like the Per fectly conversant with all the dialects of Grmany, as well as the Anglo-Saxon and Sclayomian tournes. san Udu, the Gothic Aud, denoted power:

Editor, as the arabic Akbar is applied to designate

VOL. 4.]

Etymology

Flanders

Wearing the Breeches.'

397

f Jor

God or a mighty prince in the sense of our The Gothic Flalander, Flat-lander, is word Lord. Tie Bodh, Voda, or Vogd, of Flanders; and its inhabitants Flamen, or the Indians, Tartars, and Russians, the Flamensk, men of the flat or plain, FlemBut, Bud, Wud, of the Persians avd idola- mings. trous Arabs, the Qud or Khoda of all the The Gothic gauw or gow, properly a tribes from Turkey throughout Tartary, the meadow, although sometimes ased, like the Godami of the Malays and Ceylonese, ap- Persian gaw, for a vale, was converted into pear to be merely different pronunciations the Latin govia, in the names of many places of Wodan, especially as bodh or boodh in bordering op streams of water, whence Sanscrit and the common dialects of Hin- Brisgaw, Turgaw, in Germany ; and Glasdoostan is used for our Wednesday or Odin's gow, Linlithgow, in Scotland. day. ..-..

From Brik, Brok, bracchæ (gothic,) the The Goths pot merely in name, but from

break, breech, division, or fork of the body, speech, manners, country, and their own

the clothing called breeches, are derived; tradition, were the Getæ of ancient authors,

and brek or bragd, also signifying to stripe better koowo to us with the article prefixed. or variegate, the probable distinction of these as Sgptæ, Scacæ, or Scythians. Scandinavia,

linguis' ancient warriors in their dress, we can trace the Skanisk or Sca

andes. th

the pow common phrase "of wearing the Skaçan of the Goths, signifying a shelving

vine breeches," to the wear of that party-coloured shore, is applied to the extreinity of Jutland

una garment which was an emblem of superior at the entrance into the Baltic sea; and the

rank and authority. modern Scania, the southernmost coast of Our court of Hustings is the Gothic hus Sweden, may have been Skagen idun, to thing, the aulic forum ; and the Yorkshire which the Latin termination was annexed. riding, rett or ried thing, a justiciary meet. There they distinguished themselves after ing. Thing corrupted into hing, and ing by their relative position3, as Normen, Sudder- the Saxons, may be traced in the names of men, Austrgautr, Westrgautr, Danen, and many places,* such as Reading, Lansing, for Saxon, which in our laoguage would be landsthing: and our lath, a district, is merely northmen, southmen, east-Goths, west-Goths, the Saxon leth contracted from Lathing, a islanders, and sea-borderers. The Goths law conrt with the portion of territory within used Sun as well as Sud for the south, and its jurisdiction. called the Swedes, Suens, or Soenski, the The Gothic Lad-wig, renowned warrior, Latin Sueones. The Gothic eyna, ön, Danish was Hludivig, or Hluwig in Saxon, and oen, islands, with the article de, our the, formed the low Latin Chlodovicus or Ludowould be de on, the islands, and denote the vicus, which became successively Cloud, aquatic territory of the Danes, called Dæn- Clovis, and Louis, with the French. mark in Saxon; the Gothic mark, narz in various etymons have been assigned for Persian, being our marchi, a boundary. Ion, Britain without any advertence to the word the island, is Jona; and mi on, the middle bro, so

bro, so universal among the Celts of our island, Mona.

islands and of Gaul, where it is also proThe inhabitants of Germany were in speech

nounced bru or broed; which, like the SyGoths, particularly the Teutons, whose

those riac baro, Gothic byr, signifies a populated proper name was Thiuden, from the Gothic

country. The Armoricans now call England thiod or tiod, folk, subjects, people; and

bro saos, the land of the Saxons ; and the thus Suithioden, the south nation or Suder- Welsh and Irish have the term in common mapnia, was Sweden. The Thiodans or Tentous seem therefore to have been colo- brogue: brûaidh, a compatriot; and broed

use, saying bro aeg, a country accent, or pists from the Goths in general; and Thiodsk,

sk, dyn, a countryman or Briton; tan, in both now pronounced Teudsh or 'leutch throughi

ugil Irish and Welsh, is an extended or flat terriout Germany, Tudeschi in Italy, and by us tory : so that broed tan, like Gaul, might Dutch, means strictly belonging to the nation. have served to distinguish the plain from the The Vandals apparently were not known

mountainous country, until time had rendertill a later date their name originated in ad

ed the name general to the whole Island. the Gothic vanda, from which we have our The Welsh Prydan, for Britain, from the verbs to wend and to wander, converted by Gothic prudd, beautiful, adorned, was only the Teutons into Vandel; a name which

used poetically. designated some bordes of emigrants, com The Hebrew pinoah, Bov, modern Greek pelled by over population to leave their na- bouno, and Celtic pen, signify a mountaiu tive soil in quest of new possessions.

or cliff; and the Latin pinna, in some cases, has the same meaning: wbile the Portuguese na is more

re particularly applied to a etymology, defined the countries and serrated ridge or hill, Albion may thereboundaries of the Gothic tribes, our

fore have been the albæ pippæ or white chills:

voless coufounded with Albany, which, as it anthor proceeds to illustrate, by many would seem, denoted exclusively the highreinackable examples the influence lands of Scotland. The Welsh al pen and which their gradual progress over the

Irish al ben correspond with the Latin alta

pionæ, high mountains, Alpennines, Alps. South and West had upon the Celtic Breadalbane, from the foregoing etymons, language. language. It would swell this notice is It would roll this norire is therefore the Irish bruaidh al ben, the

region of lofty bills; and Hispania may thus to a great length, were we to indulge have been Hispena, a corrupt pronunciation ourselves as much as we wish in trans- of Cispinna by the Latin colonists on that

side of the Pyrennees. Cale was the ancient cribing these examples :- we must be

name of Oporto; and the surrounding Jiscontent with abridging a few of them. • Worthing seems to preserve the original.

trict being forined into a sovereignty was London, in both Welsh and Armoric, is called Porto Cale, corrupted into Portugal. lyn din, the lake or pool city. The word din

The Scots and Picts were no doubt ori. or dinas, in this composition, is the Hebrew ginally the same people: but a considerable dun, Goth tun, Irish dun, a town: and lin, a change in their language and manders was nearly all the Gothic and Celtic dialects, is afterwards effected by fortuitous circumstaq- a pool. EDINBURGU is idun (gothic,) a ces and different pursuits. It is well knowo mountain or precipice, and burgh a city. that, ever since the earliest ages of our his- DUBLIN, the Irish Dubh linne, or black tory, adventurers from the shores of Scan- pool, corresponds exactly with its Welsh dinavia made annual excursions into Ireland name of Du lyn, from dubh, or du, Hebrew and Scotland, to plunder cattle for their deio, Gothic dauk, Teutonic duh, black, and winter subsistence. On such predatory lin, as in the fo, mation of London, a pool. warfare were founded the poems ascribed to Ossian or ('sian; a word which, in Irish and We did not guess before that the first Gothie, is the man of song. Homer also sig. oifies the hymner, poet, or psalınıst, and both, syllable of the mingisu, abu welas

almist, and both, syllable of the English, and the last of apparently were imaginary persons, to whom the Irish capital, were the same ! the genuine poetry of the tiines was ascribed by traditionary consent. These Gothic We could further enrich our pages freebooters, called Scouts or Scots, from the with what we deem very interesting nature of their visits, gave orcasion to the matter from this publication; but it is Irish, who still understand Scuite as a wanderer or pillager, to extend the name to so wuch within the reach of all readers, adventurers from Spain or whatever other and opens so wide a field for research country. Their boats were also known in Gothic as skiota, Islandic skuta, Swedish skint and speculation-besides being to

and speculation—besides being the proor skuta, Belgic schuit, Saxon skyte, a scout mise of a larger and more important boat; and the Welsh evidently considered work that we have the less regrei in the Scots and Picts as the same race, for with them Peithas (Pictish) siguitied also a scout taking leave of it, in the confident exboat.

pectation that our quotations, however There are some further very curious unconnected, will excite a strong desire inquiries concerning Scotland and Ire- io the public to peruse the original. It laod, but we must reler to Mr. Thom- will not disappoint expectation. son's Essay for them, and hasten to draw these remarks to a conclusion.

THE DRAMA.

From the Literary Gazette

semblance which the want of reason gives DRURY LANE, Dec. 5, 1818. him to a Brute. The first act closes with a n 1 Thursday, a new Tragedy, entitled scene between the Princess Tarquinia, and

· BRUTUS, or the Fall of Tarquin,' from Titus, the son of Brutus, in which it appears the pen of Mr. John H. Payne, * was pro- that Titus has gained great favoar at the duced at this Theatre. As far as can be court, and has formed an attachment for gathered from a first representation, it was Tarquinia which is favourably returned. In successful; as scarcely a tohen of disappro- the second act, the young Princes and Cole bation was heard during the performance, latinus, are discovered in the tent of Sextus. and some particular scenes were rewarded They converse on their opinions of the fewith “the most rapturous applause." The male character, and being thepce led into the story of Brutus has been frequently drama- famous wager concerning their wives, they tized, and the Author of the present Tragedy post away and find Lucretia surrounded by has so liberally availed himself of the labour's servants, employed io household duties at of his predecessors, as to render his work in Collatia. Sextus is indamed by her beagty. several parts rather a Cento than an original He determines to return privately at the production. He has, however, considerable first opportunity. He does so; and in a merit in adapting the whole for the stage, as scene of tempest and lightning, where well as in the bigber character of a Poet, Brutus is discovered, Sextus enters muffied, where his own composition appears.

haviog accomplished bis infamy, and laughThe play commences with the assuined ingly makes it known to Brutus, who then idiotism of Lucius Junius, who, on the throws off the mask, bursts forth in his real murder of his father and his elder brother by character, and rushes to Collaria, where he Tarqnin, counterfeits the fool, and is res arrives just after Lucretia's death, which be ceived into the family of the King, to make swears to avenge. The body is borne to the mirth for the young priuces. Tullia, the Forum. Brutus addresses the people. They Queen, is left by Targuin the Prood, (they revolt. The palace is stormed, and its walls absent with his army before Ardea) Regent shattered. Brutus condemns Tullia to be of Rome, Alarmed by dreams and portents, taken to Rhea's Temple, wbere the body of she sends for Lucius Junius from the camp, her muro

her murdered father i

ited. She that a watchful eye may be kept over him, horror-struck at the idea, and swears, if but whep he arrives, she is disarmed of her dragged thither, to starve herself to death. terrors by his grotesque answers, and orders She appears in the temple, mad. She fancies that he shall be called Brutus, from the re- she hears groans from the portal of the • A native of Boston, New England,

Tomb, wbich she forces opeu, and there di

VOL. 4.]

Nature's Diary for FebruarySpitzbergen.

399

covering the monumental figure of Servius all over the stage, and it falls with a treTullius, recoils, fancying in her frenzy that mendous crash, while the burning buildings it is his Spectre, and dies.

in the distance produce a grand etfeet, as In the meantiine, Tarquinia reminds Titus their flames reflected on the glittering spears of his pledge. Titus is induced to join a and banners of the army of Brutus. party for the liberation of Tarquinia, and of the literary character of this play we attempts to escape with her to the camp, at shall probably say more in a future Number. Ardea. They are detected, intercepted,

TUMBLING. Titus is coodeinned by his father as a traitor, On Monday, Harlequin Gulliver was reand the play terminates with the death of vived, in order to afford an opportuvity for a Titus.

celebrated French tumbler to exhibit feats Tous it appears that the minor plot is of " which have delighted and astonished all equal interest and force to the major; and the courts of Europe"!! The audience at as they are not skilfully interwoven, the Covent Garden seemed to have some obie blemish is the more tiresome to the spectator. tion to be delighted and astonished, and there Premising that the scenery was very effec- was a good deal of disapprobation expressed tive, we proceed to notice the acting against the conversion of the National

Kean seemed to conceive the part allotted Theatre into a Mountebank's Booth. This for him very justly; but he proved misera- objection however is not, as a painter would bly deficient in his voice, particularly in say, in keeping. Too much spectacle, panhis oration over the dead body of Lucretia. tomime, and buffoonery, is connived at, to His best acting was when in the second act) make it at all reasonable to oppose any one he meets with Tarquin, who recounts his meminer of the general system ; and if we infamous adventure --his passionate excla- are to have such entertainments for growomations, and the curses he bestows on him, up people, without waiting for the excuse of were given in a fine style, and quite electric Christmas, we may just as well have lumblers fied the house; the scenes also between as posture-masters. Monsieur Mahier's Brutus and his son Titus, were given with a jumps and gambols finally triumphed, and good deal of nature,---but according to the the applause he very generally received, historical character of Brutus, he ought to shewed that "all the courts of Europe" had have continued to the last the inflexible not been so silly as might have been thought patriot that would not suffer the ties of nature from the terms in the play-bill. This perto have the least effect on him, whereas, ac- son has been a great favourite among the cording to the Artor or Author, Brutus pos- French minor and provincial theatres, and sessed the finest feelings of a father, and was we observe that the Paris Journals announce overwhelmed with grief in parting from his that he and Monsieur Chalon do not intend son before he pronounced judgment against returning 6 till Christmas, laden with guihim. There was also too much tipe takenneas"! Having delighted all the Sovereigns up in this interview. The destruction of of Europe, it is but a reciprocity that these Tarquin's palace is well managed. It is so meritorious rren should be delighted with constructed that the large stones and frag- our sovereigns. ments of the building are literally strewed

THE NATURALIST'S DIARY,

FEBRUARY, 1819. From the London Time's Telescope, 1819. pears till about the 10th of February. N the course of this month God, as A glimmering, indeed, continues some

the Psalmist expresses it, “reuews weeks after the setting of the Sun : then the face of the earth;' and animate and succeed clouds and thick darkness, inanimate nature seems to vie with each broken by the light of the Moon, whicha, other in opening the way to spring. is as luminous as in England, and, duThe woodlark (atauda arborea), one ring this long night, shines with unfailof our earliest and sweetest songsters, ing lustre. The cold strengthens with renews his note.

the new year; and the Sun is ushered The few fine days towards the latter is with an unusual severity of frost. By end of this month afford many oppor- the middle of March, the cheerful light tunities of cultivating our knowledge of grows strong ; the arctic foxes leave Nature, even in her minutest works. their holes : and the sea-fowl resort, in

Some particulars of the severity of great multitudes, to their breeding the winter in Russia, Sweden, &c. have places. The sun sets no more after the already been related in our foriner vol- 14th of May ; the distinction of day umes : we shall now give a short ac- and night is then lost. count of this season in Spitzbergen. In the height of summer, the Sun has

The single night of this dreadful heat enough to melt the tar on decks of country begins about the 30th of Octo- ships ; but from August its power deber; the San then sets, and never ap- clines : it sets fast. Alier the middle

of September,day is hardly distinguish- their better proportioned neighbours. able, and, by the end of October, takes Their stature is from four to four feet a long farewel of this country: the days and a half, and their skins are swarthy. now become frozen, and winter reigns From use, they run op rocks like goats, triumphant.

and up trees like squirrels. They are Earth and soil are denied to the fro- so strong in the arm, that they can draw zen region of Spirzbergen : at least the a bow which a stout Norwegian cao only thing which resembles soil is the hardly bend ; yet lazy even to torpidigrit worn from the mountains by the ty, when not incited by necessity; and power of the winds, or the attrition of pusillanimous and servous to a hystericataracts of melted snow : tbis, indeed, cal degree. These are the natives of is assisted by the putrefied lichens of Fioidark and Lapland. The coasts the rocks, and the dung of birds, east of Archangel, as far as the river brought down by the same means. The Oby, are in babited by the Samoeids; composition of these islands is stone, a race as short as the Laplanders, but formed by the sublime hand of omni- much uglier, and more brutalized ; potent Power; not fritted into seg- their food being the carcasses of horses, ments, tranverse or perpendicular, but or any other animals. They use the cast, at once, into one immense and sol- reindeer to draw their sledges, but are id mass. A mountain, throughout, is oot civilized enough to make it a subbut a single stone, destitute of fissures, stitute for the cow. except in places cracked by the irresist

'Hard by those shores, where scarce his freering ible power of frost, which often causes

stream lapses, attended by a noise like thunder, Rolls the wild Oby, live the last of men ; and scattering over their bases rude and And half-enlivened by the distant Sun, extensive ruins.

That rears and ripens man as well as plants,

Here human nature wears its rudest form. The vallies, or rather glens of this Deep from the piercing season sunk in caves, country, are filled with eternal ice or Here, hy dull fres, and with unjoyous cheer snow. They are totally inaccessible, They waste the tedious gloom. Immersed in førs, and knowo only by the divided course;

Doze the gross race. Nor sprightly jest, nor song,

" Nor tenderness they know ; nor aught of life, of the mountains, or where they termi- Beyond the kindred bears that stalk without. Date in the ice-bergs or glaciers. No Till morn, at length, her roses drooping all, streams water their dreary bottoms : Sheds a long twilight brightening o'er their fields, and even eprings are depied. The And calls the quivered savage to the chase. mariners are indebted for fresh water The flowers of the crocus (crocus solely to the periodical cataracts of vernus) appear this month, before the melted snow in the short season of sum- leaves are grown to their full length. · mer, or to the pools in the middle of The vernal and autumnal crocus bave the vast fields of ice.

such an affinity, that the best botanists Yet even here, Flora deigns to make only make them varieties of the sanie a short visit, and to scaller a scanty genus. Yet the verual crocus expands stock over the bases of the hills : her its flowers by March at fartbest, often efforts never rise beyond a few humble in very rigorous weather, and cannot berbs, which shoot, flower, and seed, in be retarded but by some violence offer. the short warmth of June and July, ed : while the autumnal crocus, or safand then wither into rest until the suc- fron, alike defies the influence of the ceeding year. Among these, however, spring and summer, and will not blos the salubrious scurvy grass, the resource till most plants begin to fade, and run of distempered frames, is providentially to seed. most abundant.

Say, what impels, amid surrounding snow, Where the countries have been long co

have been long Congealed, the crocus' flamy bud to flow? inhabited, in all the arctic coasts of Eu- Say, what retards, amid the summer's blaze, rope, Asia, and America, the natives, Th' autumnal bulb, till pale, declining days? with very con vorintions and aventione 'The God of seasons, whose pervading power with very few variations and exceptions,

Controls the sun, or sheds the fleecy shower ; seem to be a distinct species both in He bids each flower his quickening word obey i body and mind, and not to be derived or to each lingering bloom enjcios delay. from the adjacent nations, or any of

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