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100

Portraiture of Napoleon, by the Editor of

[Sept I,

HIM

WHO

SHED

“ The cruel war," said Sir Richard, their firesides against HIS BLOOD

excited by the insatiable ambition of HOUNDS!–Did they attack him, or his the monster BUONAPARTE, continues to subjects ?-No !-Had they been guilty devastate these fine countries. The ven- of any great crimes to deserve to be degeance of heaven sleeps, or it would stroyed in detail, their houses burnt, and vlast the wretch, who, after he had by their city razed to the ground ?-No! singular fortune attained the summit of “Unhappy Tarragonians!-Your cries power, and the ineans of doing so much have been heard by all nations. They good, treucherously seized the royal have created in every breast the sensafamily of Spain, and wantonly invaded tion excited by cries of“ murder," in the that country, for the sole purpose of his high way!—They have extinguished all personal aggrandizement, thereby in- differences of parties and opinions, and volving fifteen millions of people in un- kindled a universal glow of resentment! speakable calamities. The MONSTER Your BLOOD DEMANDS VENGEANCE ON has therefore to utone to the world for the

IT!-MAY YOUR horrors of which he is the sole author ; MANES NEVER BE APPEASED, TILL HE and in this wur of PURE DEFENCE against HAS BEEN MADE AN EXAMPLE TO FUthe most unprovoked aggression, all ge TURE TYRANTS, OP THE CONSEQUENCE nerous, all humane, all free people, must OP SUCH ENORMOUS CRIMES !!-MAY wish success to the cause of the Spa- THESPIRIT OP VENGEANCE,SEIZING ALL niards !"_" If the author of such multi NATIONS, EXCITE MYRIADS OP HEROES plied miseries,” continued Sir Richard, TO UNITE AGAINST SUCH A MONSTER * have any remuins of conscience, may AND HIS WILLING SATELLITES !! Let we not hope that his severest punish “ TARRAGONA" be their watchword, ment is the continuing to LIVE, else when those brave men meet the assasone's nature revolts at the consideration sins of the unhappy Tarragonians, and that he has already survived, at least, victory must always attend their steps !** TWO MILLIONS of his victims, whom in

Such, according to the strong painting Spain and Portugal only he has been of Sir Richard Phillips, was Napoleon the means of consigning to an untimely Buonaparte, when blazing in the merigrave.

dian of his consular and imperial digni“ The circumstances attending the ties; his pestilential course appalled and capture of Tarragona have produced a afflicted the nations with the direst climax in the history of his crimes. We calamities. While thus the meteor hate war-we hate the trade of blood- glared along the political horizon, yet this MONSTER ought not by the com- spreading death and desolation before mon consent of all mankind, to be per- bim, like the pestilential blast, which the mitted to continue his enormities !!! inhabitants of the East have clothed with

“ It is a perversion of reason,” ex the attributes of the demon of destrucclaims Sir Richard,” to palliate or give tion, he was uniformly denounced in the any countenance to such a MONSTER. Old Monthly Magazine as the “violator than whom ROBESPIERRE wus a lamb! of oaths ;" the « enemy of liberty;" a Robespierre was one of a committee second “ Attila,” equally devoid of juswhich 'sacrificed human life to a calcu- tice and feeling; “ a public robber, whom lation that appeared to them to secure it was the duty of all nations to hunt the lives of sixteen millions, at the pos- down and bring to condign punishment;" sible expense of eight; but this Living a faithless ally, whom no obligations MONSTER places his mere personal ag- could bind to the performance of his engrandizement as a counterbalance to the gagements;" "the oppressor of the weak lives of fifteen millions !--Robespierre and defenceless ;" “ an unprincipled usurhad the cause of liberty committed to per and tyrant;" and to sum up all, “a his care, and he deemed great sacrifices monster of perfidy and cruelty, the clidue to the conservation of so precious a max of whose atrocities consisted in the charge; but this ROBESPIERRE of ROBE- wanton immolation of millions of the SPIERRES, having overturned all liberty, human race, for no other end than to destroys in no cause--and has no as- gratify his ess ambition and insatiate signable object-besides the gratifica- thirst for blood !!" tion of destroying !!

It is an old saying that the devil is not " What had the people of Tarragona as bad as he is painted ; but it requires done to him, that such unspeakable cala- the art of Belial, or the front of Moloch, mities should be made to fall on their to paint a being as blackened with the devoted heads ? Nothing, but defend their country against his invasion, and * Monthly Mag. for Sept. 1811.

1818.]
the Old Monthly Magazine.

101 deformity of vice, and afterwards to as- his admirers to devise an excuse for sure the world that the very saune being is enormities, the reality of which they an angel of light. If there be any truth in dare not deny: history, or if the memory of this genera- But mark the virtue of those who set tion has not been completely obtunded, up their own caprice as the rule of moral the portraiture of Napoleon, exhibited action: no sooner does heaven in its in the former volumes of the Old Month- high wisdom turn the counsels of the ly Magazine, is strictly correct in the wicked into a snare for his feet, and lineaments of the features, however high crush him beneath the ruins of his own it may be in the colouring or coarse in ambition, than the same men who cursed the drawing. The facts which gire life himn in his elevation lament him in his to this picture are upon record, even in fall. There is indeed a generosity of the pages of the very work from whence sentiment which feels something like these passages are extracted, and they commiseration for the terrible misforwill descend to posterity with new lights tunes of those who have abused power of information corroborating the fidelity and prosperity to the injury of others. of the portrait. Yet in the very face of But' in pitying the distress of fallen these facts, and his former representa- greatness, the man of liberal feeling and tions lying before him, the consistent integrity will not, even in his own mind, editor of that publication is now from endeavour to find a palliative for the month to month employed in calumni- guilt which provoked retribution.

He ating the powers of Europe, and libelling may be allowed to drop a tear over the his own government for their injustice abject Nero, but a sense of justice retowards-whom? --the once “treacher- fuses to arrest the arm of vengeance, for ous, de rotic, and sanguinary," but now ρέζοντά τι και παθείν έοικε, « he that doth "virtuous""magnanimous"_“ bene ill “tis right shonld suffer." volent”-and“patriotic" NAPOLEON!!! In utter violation, however, of one of

Without eren condescending to assign the most common principles of moral a reason for this extraordinary change of sense, they who uniformly proscribed opinion, or making the smallest apology Napoleon in his splendour as the enemy for having been misled in the judgment of human kind, are now become his which he once formed, and so long conti- warinest advocates and eulogists. The nued to express, respecting the charac- very deeds which constituted the parter of Buonaparte, the conductor of the ticulars of his indictment are turned Old Monthly Magazine now insults his into a theme of admiration, and he readers in every number with panegy- is even held up as an example of rics upon the man whom he repeatedly virtue, on account of acts which the denounced as unworthy of life. Then same party not long since set forth “myriads of heroes" were exhorted, as calling for the lightning of heaven or with the zeal of Peter the hermit, to un- the axe of thc executioner. It is impossheathe their swords "to sweep the ty

sible to reconcile these contradictions, rant and his satellites from the face of and therefore when we find the former the earth.” Then even heaven itself accusers of Napoleon converted into apowas boldly accused of indifference to the logists, and instead of saying that he sufferings of humanity, and of remaining was a monster of tyranny and cruelty, passive while this merciless destroyer of asserting that “ his unpardonable crimes unoffending millions was pursuing his are the being beloved in the countries deadly career, equally unmoved by the which he governed, and the gloriously cries of nature and the rights of nations, defending the independence of France the voice of conscience, and the execra- against endless confederacies of envy and tions of mankind.

malice ;"* we must either charge them Whatever presumption there might with the foulest hypocrisy or the grossest have been in thus arraigning the equity ignorance. We are however told in the of providence, it cannot be pretended same consistent publication “ that oatthat there was any mistake in regard to rages on the moral feelings are generally the crimes which formed the subject of attended by a strong reaction ; and that complaint, or the person by whom they the character of Napoleon was never so were perpetrated. The history of the generally popular as since the 1GNOBLE man and his iniquities remains uncon- sought to debase him, and since the tradicted; Switzerland, Holland, and very LOWEST were employed to insult Spain, record in letters of blood his rob- him !!" beries and his murders ; nor is it in the Now there never was the writer yet power of the unblushing impudence of * Monthly Magazine for Aug. p. 74.

102

On the Influence of Custom and Education. (Sept. 1, that debased Napoleon in language equal Cicero mentions a musician, who being to that of his present encomiast, nor asked what the soul was, answered, have any persons in the employ of go- harmony; upon which he observes hic vernment come near the same honest à principiis artis suo non recessit; he gentleman in epithets of abuse and insult. had no knowledge beyond his art:

But surely if Napoleon has met with Plato's scholars had been altogether unjust treatment from this country, he brought up in arithmetic; they were cannot feel any obligation to the editor of educated solely in the knowledge of the Old Monthly Magazine, who did all numters; and when they afterwards that lay in his power for several years turned the course of their studies to to turn the popular fury against him, as nature, either physical or moral, they one covered with infany, and meriting referred every thing to the harmony of universal hatred. I will not say that numbers. Number with them, was the these philippics had the effect of directing primum ens of every thing, in the anipublic opinion at home, or of rousing the mal, vegetable, and mineral regions; in nations of Europe into resistance to fine, the only dutum in ethics, and the their common oppressor ; but unless the creator of the universe. writer was a downright impostor, such

We mostly argue in the same way must have been the object which he had with Tully's fiddler and Plato's disciples, then in contemplation. His conduct at -difficulter a principiis artis nostræ present has all the appearance of fatuity, recedimus, may take us all in together. and a complete aberration of the intel- The philosopher tells us that the soul of lect, otherwise the recollection of his man is rasa tubula, like a white sheet of former lucubrations would have made paper, out of which therefore it must him more cautious in his censures, and be more than common art that can erase moderate in his praises. Should the the first writing, so as to superinduce a malady, which evidently afflicts him, not new copy unadulterated with the former yet have proceeded to such a length as to text. Thus is the belief of the child be“ tribus Anticyris caput insanabile," confirmed into the religion of the man; his friends would do well to keep from him and we either charitably pity, or most all political pamphlets, newspapers, and piously condemn, according to the difeven books of geography, till' he can bear ferent spirit of our nature or devotions, to hear or mention names and places all those whom we think so wicked or without being thrown into a paroxysm misguided as to differ from our creed. of passion.

We feel a natural kindness in our August 6, 1818. CHIRON.' hearts towards those opinions which we

have imbibed with our milk; they are like ON THE INFLUENCE OP CUSTOM AND foster-brothers, to whom our inclination EDUCATION.

is as strong as to our natural ones. We “Gravissimum est imperium consuetudinis." play and converse with them from our

We imbibe the principles of all things cradles, and as soon as we are able to go as we do the common air, facili haustú, alone, we take them by the hand; we as Lord Bacon expresses it, without sleep with them in our bosoms, and condiscrimination or selection. "Tis neces tract an insensible friendship, or pleasing sary it should be so; for as we begin to familiarity with them, which remove act before we are able to reason, we whatever deformity there may be in the must borrow our notions from others for object, as black and flat noses are more a while at least. The mind needs leading prized in Africa than the most delicate strings as well as the body. In life, as European set of features and comin religion, 'tis through faith we prac- plexion.tise. We are too generally apt to wor It has been well said that “ every ship the first objects we meet with in the man's own religion seemeth to him the inorning of our days, and be supersti- best, because he judgeth of it, not by tiously attached to those unexainined reason but by affection :" like those rudiments of knowledge and science; we philosophers of whom Cicero speaks, acquiesce in our first received impres who had not common charity for any sions without investigation; and these discipline but their own. Hence we find, prejudices obtain such strength in our that the best account we can render of minds by custom and familiarity, that our faith is, that we were bred in it, and they often become not only our belief, most are driven to their religion by cusbut our very reason also.

tom and education. Thus do we judge Quô semel est imbuia recens, servabit all things by our anticipations, and conodorem

demn or applaud them as they may happen Testa diu

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1818.] On the Influence of Custom and Education.

703 to differ or agree with our first opinions. than from reason, duty, or even nature. Almost every country censures the laws, Mothers are generally fonder of their customs, and devotions of every other offspring than fathers are, because they state as absurd and irrational, adhering play and converse more frequently with to their own prejudices beyond a possi- them; and nurses are sometimes known bility of conviction.

to conceive a stronger affection for their “ 'Tis custom forms us all.

fostered infants than either of the “ Born beyond Ganges I had been a Pagan; parents who begat or bore them, as if “ la France a Christian,--I am here a the sympathy lay more in the milk than Saracen.”

the blood. For during childhood we are capable Custom has a power even over the of any impression from the documents imagination, not only of the wakiny of our teachers; witness the self-devoted but the sleeping man; for in our dreams Curtius, the Decii, and the discipline of we are apt not only to think, but speak the Spartan boy. The half-moon or the upon those subjects which have been cross are indifferent to us; and with the most familiar or interesting to same ease we may write on this tasu minds. Let this hint be a warning to tabula the words Turk or Christian! all villains, who have often been known

Hence, therefore, it is, that there is no to reveal by night the crimes which religion so irrational or absurd but has they have been able to conceal by day; its Martyrs to boast of; nor any opinion for providence, still active for its moral so idle or extravagant, but has had some purposes, where ordinary methods fail, philosopher or other to support and contrives frequently to make conscience defend it: tot homines, tot sententiæ, so itself to become its own accuser. Guilt many men so many minds, must ever naturally betrays itself-by looks and accontinue to be an aphorism, while there tions; and Shakespeare, that great remains but one meridian of truth and so anatomist of the human heart, says many parallels of error; while reason

“ The thief doth fear each bush an officer.", is warped by prejudices, and even revelation staggered by scepticism, or under. But to return to my subject. Not only mined by infidelity. In a word, the the inward but the outward senses are mighty sway of custom and education ren

affected by use, as is experienced by perders the rankest follies and improprieties sons, who after being kept for some time sacred ; and usage makes those things ap

in a dark place, and brought suddenly pear proper to a native, that an alien into the light, feel their eyes dazzled by would think strange, uncouth, or vicious! the glare, which others look upon with Pindar calls custom the Empress of the smiths, millers, and those who inhabit

ease and indifference. Thus blackworld; and Seneca terms her the chant of the vicinity of cataraets, both hear and human life, as men steer their course more by her than by reason; accounting rest better in the midst of mills, forges, that most fit and decent which is most in and the roaring of waters, than they practice wherever we abide; and error

would do in a quiet sylvan scene, and serves us for a law, wherever it has ob- grow deaf and disturbed by silence. tained an usage.

The power of custom is so great, that it Custom has erected her dominions proves itself stronger even than nature, even in the science of medicine, and is and at the same time, cannot be either particularly so much respected by the altered or destroyed, but by itself.

That laws may be great Hippocrates, that he goes so far as Montesquieu says, to affirm, that whatever habits we repealed by laws, but custom cannot be have been used to, although hurtful in abrogated but by custom." In short, themselves, are less dangerous than a

this great ruler of our lives and manners deviation from them to those, which are

works within us. so imperceptibly, that more salutary in their own nature.

we are apt to mistake its motions for the And in the courts of Justice, prescription very law of nature itself, operating irreis always esteemed the best title, and sistibly upon our hearts and minds, possession reckoned eleven points of the which when philosophically investigated, law. The common law, which is nothing will appear to be the insensible effects of but ancient usuage, is even now, as ex

usage, prejudice, or education. tensively referred to as the statute-luw,

That affection which we pretend to and is deemed the noblest part of our say every man naturally bears for his constitution. - Custom reigns ab own country, whence comes it but solute over our very affections, and we

from use and custom? For it would love often from use and familiarity, more

be ridiculous to attend to those who

104

On the Influence of Custom and Educalion.

(Sept. 1,

tell us, that a love for our native well as opinions, we may justly consider soil is such an instinct of nature, as it as another nature. A rooted habit makes beasts love their dens, and birds becomes a governing principle, and rules their nests. This partiality arises solely almost equally with the natural one. from civil institution, as accustoming us “ It is (says Tillotson) a kind of new to the same laws, the same ceremonies, nature superinduced upon the old, and the same temples, markets, and tri even as hard to be controlled as the pribunals, the society of friends, the inter- mitive or original one." When we bend course of neighbourhood, the connexions a plant at first, it will for some time enof kindred, and attachments of temporal deavour to recover its naturally erect interests. It may therefore seem ridi- state, till wearicd with the struggle, it culous to think, that there is any acquiesces in the curve, grows crooked common standard of reason among of itself, and would then even require men, since what charms in one coun more force or violence to return it to its try creates disgust in another; and former straightness, than it did before the very imaginary lines which divide to pervert it from the right line. kingdoms, seem likewise to separate We are all naturally of the same clay, the ways of thinking of the different na and Education is the potter's hand which tions, and to make a distinct geography forms us into vessels of honour or dishonin their reason as well as on their map. uor. This,of all means, is the most effectual Hence,' all our interests and affections one towards refining and strengthening being centered in any one spot of the men's intellects and manners, which beglobe, render that spot, as it were, the ing applied at an age when their faculties whole world to each individual inha- like their joints are pliant and tractable, bitant of it; and the customs and man the benefit of it must ners of every state, by becoming fami “ Grow with our growth, and strengthen liar, are deemed sacred, for want of a with our strength." comparison with those of different na. In fault of this noble and necessary adtions. The Greeks and Romans styled vantage our sense and goodness are in a all foreign people Barbari, in respect of manner over-laid in the cradle ; for themselves; the Venetians are of opi- whatever notions or principles we nion that no one has a soul to be saved happen to adopt in our infancy, we gewho cannot pray for pardon for his sins nerally carry with us to the grave. It in Italian, as if religion consisted in is education makes the man, dialect. The Chinese esteem themselves him ; a false step made at first setting the only rational animals on the face of out, makes us limp and hobble through the earth, and have a proverb among all the journey. them, that the people of China see with

“ The slaves of custom and establish'd mode, too eyes, but all the rest of the world with pack-horse constancy we keep the with only one.

road, This narrowness of mind we find per- Crooked or straight, through quags or haps too prevalent among the most ci thorny dells, vilized nations. They resemble the True to the jingling of our leaders' bells, Hernit, who thought the sun shone To follow foolish precedents, and wink. only on his own cell, and that all the With both our eyes, is easier than to think.” rest of the world was hid in darkness. Since education, then, so assuredly is · This is to measure truth by a partial of such power and authority, how acstandard, and to circumscribe her within countable to heaven are those parents too narrow a compass, not considering who are regardless of this great concern that different climates induce different to the temporal, and perhaps eternal munners as much as different dresses, happiness and welfare of their children. year, and different morals too, and that This attention may not always prore in the three distinctions of government, successful, from the example of a few despotism, monarchy, and democracy, the historical instances: Nero was educated subject is actuated by as many different under those wise and virtuous precepprinciples, fear, honour, and self-interest; tors Seneca and Burrhus. The son of so that laws and customs are not things Cicero to his natural stupidity added of merely arbitrary institution, but na drunkenness, and returned from the turally or necessarily following the si- city of Athens and the school of Cras tuations of the globe, or the politics of tippus as great a dunce as he went. And the states.

Marcus Aurelius provided no less than But to proceed, since custom bears so fourteen of the most approved masters arbitrary å sway over all our actions, as to educate Commodus, his successor; yet

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