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Mr. Mitford on Sea Serpents.

15 1811, at Gibraltar; Lord Cochrane, being quite out of our ideas of proporCommissary-General Macdowel, and tion with respect to its body. They Captain Hardinge of the engineers, were never came nearer to the surface than passengers.* I mention them thus par six feet, so we found it useless to attempt ticularly as they are living, and can con them with a harpoon. The men bathed tradict me if I state any thing which is amongst them unmolested, nor did they not correct.

abandon the vicinity of the vessel on the After relieving with a supply of pro- occasion, which confirmed me in my visions the Portuguese fortress of Me- opinion that, from the size of the mouth, lillo on the coast of Barbary, and an they were incapable of being dangerous choring for one day before the celebrat- to men. We saw them every day during ed ruins of Oran, we entered the bay of our stay, untilour removal into the Mole, Algiers, and moored the vessel about when they left us, or rather we left three miles to the eastward of the city, them. An old Greek renegado told me where vessels in common do not ride.. they were common in the bay, but he had Our motive for chusing this position was never known any of them being caught. in order to sound the bay as secretly Achmet, the admiral's pilot, then on as possible. The depth of water might board the fifty gun ship, destroyed shortbe nine fathoms. One of the cables was ly after by Lord Exmouth, said they cut under water on the second day of were regarded by the fishermen with a our anchorage, I apprehend by the coral superstitious reverence, who believed if rocks, near which place the ship was. they left the bay the fish would also A seaman remarked to me from the poop, leave it. where he was fishing, that he believed They had not, to me, that “ carved': the devil in the shape of a serpent had appearance noticed by the Americans, cut our cable, and was now along-side as I might have discovered that and several long as the ship. I immediately looked other peculiarities of forin in them by a over the gangway and perceived four of more narrow scrutiny, but I imagined these reptiles sporting in the water: they were only curiosities to myself, and they appeared to me about thirty feet scarce worth recording in my journal. I in length, of a dark brown colour, with did however record them from a practice a slight silvery tinge on the belly, and on never to omit noticing whatever passed each side of the head : the head was under my own observation. I pointed small, and in thickness of body the size them out to Lord Cochrane and the other of a stout man's thigh, tapering towards passengers, and if I recollect aright, his the tail. I observed them frequently Lordship said they were not uncommon, roll over, stretched at full length, and or words bearing that construction. when preparing to advance, the head was After this statement, “ the American raised and the tail rolled upwards like a serpent,” losing its claim to novelty, is coach wheel in size nearly to the middle divested of much of its interest; as it is of the animal's back; lowering its head, no more wonderful that the serpent of which seemed to have been raised as a the Mediterranean should be seen on necessary action to preserve its balance that coast, than the whale of Greenland in folding up the tail, it darted forward on the coast of Cornwall. with considerable velocity, unfurling it

I am, &c.

J. M. MITFORD. self as it advanced. The sailors vainly Fitzroy Place. endeavoured to catch one of them, let P.S. The master of an American vesting down shark-hooks with different sel arrived at Penobscot asserts his havbaits. My opinion was, that the mouth ing encountered at sea a serpent full one of the animal

, which generally appeared hundred feet long, and in thickness open when the head was reared, would greater than a water cask. This fornot admit a bait larger than an orange, midable animal reared itself several feet

out of the water, took a look at the ship, Captain Hardinge, a man of consider- and quietly glided away. An alidavit is able talent, took views of the city mole and said to be preparing for the master batteries whilst the master of the brig and crew to establish this extraordinary sounded the bay minutely, under pretence fact. This account is given in Lloyd's of grappling for the lost anchor. I should list, which alone renders it worthy of believe Lord Exmouth acted upon Capt: notice. The dimensions of a water cask Hardinge's plan, as that gentleman remarked to me in case of a bombardment the very

are various, barrels, butts, and pun. situation occupied by the Queen Charlotte cheons, and those called gang-casks on on that memorable event afterwards taking board of merchantshipscommonly contain place.

two hundred or more gallons, and are

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On the Clerical Dress.

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at least three feet in diameter; if the the whore of Babylon. In the injunc-
latter is meant, astonishing" indeed tions of Queen Elizabeth, published in
must be the size of this animal; if by the year 1564, when the disputes ran
" water cask” is meant the burrel in high about vestments and ceremonies,
common use, about one foot in diameter, the tippet is expressly mentioned as a
more astonishing still must it be in the part of the ordinary dress of the clergy
former case, as the master's fears must to distinguish them from laymen and
have magnified his powers of vision, and recusants. Bishop Guest, of Rochester,
in the latter it may be accounted for by who at that time undertook to answer
suffering him to have passed a cable the objections of the Puritans on the
washed off some ship's deck in a gale of subject of the habits, defended the use
wind, which I think not improbable. of tippets and gowns from the charge of
About twelve years ago an American being popish, by observing that the
captain trading for furs, saw on the shores lawyers wore similar ones without giv-
of New Zealand an animal of the serpenting any offence to their squeamish
kind which rose out of the water and brethren.
looked into his nuin-top; of this fact It is not a little remarkable that the
“ an affidavit was also prepared but descendants of the old nonconformists,
never administered;" perhaps this may while they take great pains, both in
be the same animal, and the discoverer preaching and printing, to set forth the
the same person. I have heard more merits of their ancestors as confessors
extraordinary things asserted by Ame- in the cause of religious truth, should
can captains, whose accounts cannot be themselves adopt the very usages which
too cautiously received, but to this I give those fiery zealots condemned with as
no credit. 6. Jonathan" had heard of much bitterness as if they were inatters
the serpent, and determined to have a that concerned faith or morals.
share in the glory of fixing it as a native The Dissenters at the period alluded to
of " the Columbian Ocean.” National carried the spirit of opposition to such a
vanity is deemed preferable to truth by pitch as to refuse to enter the churches
most American seamen, and the above where the habits were worn, or organs
may be set down as a fit companion to were used ; and when they met the re.
the Scotch Mermaids which were exhi- gular clergy in the streets they reviled
bited in the western isles, and were ac them with the coarsest epithets, set the
tually sworn to by several Scotch persons refractory mob upon them, and even
and second-sighted old women. I see spit in their faces. At present things
no reason to alter my opinion, that the have undergone a wonderful change ;
serpent of America and the Mediterra- but whether for the better or the worse
nean are of the same species, and not I shall not stop to enquire; while in
uncommon, though rarely noticed. The the church irregularity prevails, and
difference in size will soon be reconciled, every man seems to think himself freed
and as America is the land of the mar- from canonical obedience to the rubrics
vellous they are entitled to forty or fifty and his ordinary: the Dissenting teachers
feet extra upon such an occasion. I ex adopt organs, the clerical ornaments,
pect some other captain, on the strength and in some instances the liturgy and
of this great discovery, will import us a surplice. A friend of mine lately hap-
parody to its honour on the famous na- pened to be at a considerable town in
tional song, such as-

Buckinghamshire, where sceing a numHail Columbia! favour'd strand !

ber of respectable looking gentlemen in Filld with snakes by sea and land. black, he thought very naturally that it

was the episcopal or archidiaconal visita

tion; and he was confirmed in this opiMR. EDITOR,

nion on going into the parlour of the THE tippet, a part of the clerical inn where he put up, and meeting with dress, enjoined by the 74th canon, and a dignitary as he took him to be, attendabout which your judicious correspon ed by a well-dressed footman, who was dent EccLESIÆ Amicus inquires (vol. ix. brushing a handsome silk gown

and casp. 491), was commonly inade of silk or sock, which he very carefully folded up satin, but sometimes of dark fur, worn and replaced in a purple bag. My friend about the neck and reaching to the being a sound churchman afterwards bosom. This was one of the ecclesias asked the landlord when the service tical habits which the Puritans vilified would begin, and why the bell did not with the opprobrious epithets of the ring: to which enquiry he was answered, trappings of Antichrist and the rags of that the gentleman in the parlour was



1818.] Tour of the Austrian Archdukes in Great Britain in 1815-16. 17 the renowned orator, Dr. C. of London, gathered the roots from alternate ridges or near it, who was come to preach be- after a severe frost, and having used fore the Association of Dissenting Mi- these unripened potatoes for immediate nisters at the Meeting-house.

consumption, they spread about the depth July 4, 1818.

N.S. of an inch or more of the earth, from

which they had taken the potatoes, over MR. EDITOR,

the other ridges which had not been THE high price of sheep and wool can disturbed. This top dressing had both hardly fail to induce speculators to oc excluded frost and supplied fresh nucupy more pasturage with the fleecy triment for the produce. The potatoes sources of emolument; therefore the first gathered were soft and did not keep friends of agriculture ought to extend well; but the last ripened thoroughly tillage to wastes unfit for Hocks; and as and grew to a large size. many of these tracts are supposed to be Auchterbluir, June 2. B.G. peculiarly liable to frost, allow me, through the channel of your useful mis- JOURNAL of a Tour in England in cellany, to make known a species of 1815-16. From MS. Notes of the grain which never is injured by the Archdukes John und Lewis of Ausmost rigorous seasons. The wild oat springs up in certain situations, when (Continued from p. 399.) the sown seeds want sufficient vigour to HAVING received a third series of outgrow and starve the spontaneous the remarks of these illustrious Travelproduce. This grain is distinguishable lers on England from Vienna, we reby a number of fine hairs round the husk sume our extracts. where it joins the stalk, and it ripens a The manufactory in which casks are month earlier than the earliest cultivated made by machinery, which we saw in oat; drops into the earth; resists the Glasgow, is very remarkable. The posmost intense cold while exposed all sessor of it gets the birch wood from the winter, and its blade hails the first Scotch mountains, and the oak from breath of spring, arriving at maturity North America. All the wood is cut by when all other crops are quite green. circular saws, which are put in motion In Siberia the oat is a periodical gift of by a steam engine. By the first cut the nature. Probably, like our wild oat, the wood receives the proper length for the seeds lodge in the soil till genial warmth pipe staves. We saw wood eight inches excites the vegetative principle. I have thick cut in a moment. The workman been disappcinted by birds picking up lays the piece across two iron bars, and the seeds sown in rich soils, and there- presses it against a second saw, which fore have had recourse to flower-pots cuts the block lengthwise into as many for these and for a few seeds of the staves as its thickness allows. In the double-eared barley, the rest having met space of one minute, from twelve to fourvarious disasters from domestic fowls, teen staves were cut in our presence, birds, and children. Those remaining from two and a half to five feet in length; promise a vast return, and I shall here- the sides of the staves are also fashioned after accurately detail the particulars. I by saws. Thus prepared, they put ought to add that the wild oat yields them into the machine by which they some meal, though of a coarser quality are to be bent. Every size of casks has a than cultivated grain; and in the year machine of its own. A table bears a 1782, when frost destroyed the crop in double bar of iron circularly bent, acall the Highland districts, many families cording to the curve which the stave is owed their chief sustenance to the wild to receive; on this table is a contrivance, oat.

like the cutting-blade of the saw mills, The present crop of cultivated grain upon which the stave is laid; it is is very promising, and we may hope re- brought to the saw by a handle: a secent distress will urge all ranks to use cond presses it together : the saw is the invaluable blessing with economy. narrow, and the stave, pressed in the diMay the writer presume to terate the rection of the arc of a circle, receives the fervent wish that the surplus be pre- necessary curvature. This stave also reserved to compensate for future defi- ceives from the saw such a bending, ciencies !

that by means of the connection beI cannot conclude this letter without tween the two iron bars and the cutting communicating an expedient by which blade, it takes the second form. some sagacious poor people saved a part The staves of birch wood are then made of their potatoes last year.

They up into bundles for sale. Those of NEw MONTULY Mag.–No. 55.



18 Tour of the Austrian Archdukcs in Great Brituin in 1815 - 16. [Aug. 1, oak wood they make into casks in the pany who undertook the construction of manufactory itself. For this purpose the it by consent of Parliament, is called pieces of wood which are to form the the Society for the Navigation of the head are first put together, and the Forth and Clyde. The expenses amountwhole put into the cutting machine, by ed in the year 1799 to 421,525l. sterwhich it is seized and quickly turned ling; which sum was by an act of Parliaround in a circle, in the middle of which ment recognised as the Company's capiis the machine. By means of a cutting tal. The number of share-holders is at iron the rim is cut circularly; two other present one hundred and twenty-eiglit; slanting pieces of iron smooth the rim. and the income it was said amounted in The workman can at pleasure draw the year 1815 to 50,000/. sterling. 'i'lie these irons farther away or nearer to canal of Monkland, which belongs to him, and the bottom of the cask is thus another Company, is united with the finished in a few moments. They bore Clyde canal. holes in these bottoms, that they may be The city of Glasgow becomes more fastened together with wooden nails. As extensive and beautiful every day; althese casks are designed for rum, the most in every street old houses are seen aroma is extracted by a particular pro to vanish to make room for beautiful cess. When the staves are placed in buildings; only last year about four order, they put the cask into an iron hundred new houses were built. The cylinder of the same form and size. The many manufactories, the navigation on cask rests on a moveable cross over an the Clyde and in the canal, the neighbouraxis, the cylinder stands perpendicu- hood of the sea -all these greatly conlar, the staves project a little over its tribute to enliven the city and its enedge, and an instrument consisting of virons. But the poverty of the people three cutting knives is now put on this seens, howerer, to be greater than in rim; one of the irons makes a cut in other British cities. which the head is to be fastened, the se The defection of the American Colocond cuts off the top rim, and the third nies was a severe blow to the trade of planes it. When this is done, the iron Glasgow, from which it has, however, hoops are put round, and the cask is perfectly recovered, through the new finished. These casks form a principal sources which have been opened to it in export article to the American islands. the West Indian markets, and the Eu

The circular saws and the hoops are ropean continent; and these have been made in the same manufactory; the greatly facilitated by the navigation of former, of steel bands, from Sheffield, the canal and the Clyde. which they cut and file; the hoops are In the year 1768, a bridge was built of wood, and are bent without the aid over the river Clyde, which has seven of fire. The saw-dust and the chips are piers, built in a curve against the stream, distilled in a great retort, from which in order to break the force of the curthey obtain vinegar as well as tar. sent.

We also viewed the great Clyde Ca From Glasgow you may visit the nal, the navigation of which is of the Highlands of Scotland ; but the bad seautmost importance to the trade of son, and constant fogs, hindered us from Glasgow, Liverpool, Dublin, Belfast, taking this journey. The country is Londonderry; and also Leeds, Newcas- fine ; handsome villas surround the oity, jle, and Hull. It may be said that all the and on the north the mountains rise in coasts of Great Britain and Ireland, in an amphitheatre. Ben-lomond, one of iheir trade with Russia, Sweden, Nor- the highest mountains of Scotland, as way, Denmark, and all the north part well as those which surround Lochloof Germany, derive essential benefit mond, are visible. from it, as it shortens the distance from On the 2d of December, we left Glasabout eight hundred to one thousand gow, and took the road to Edinburgh, miies. This canal is particularly of great only turning a little aside to see the importance in winter, during the season Carron Works. The road leads over the when ships cannot sail round Scotland. hills and the Monkland canal. So much In that season three ships are employed as we could distinguish through the in the canal in breaking up the ice. thick fog, the country lies high, and is

The construction of this great work well cultivated. Beginning at Kilsyth, was begun in the year 1768, and finished fourteen miles from Glasgow, where in the year 1790; it reaches the river horses are changed, you leave the valley, Clyde near Bowlingbay, and hoth seas in which the canal flows, to your right; thus have a communication. The Com at which place a marsh has been forincd,


1818.] Tour of the Austrian Archdukes in Great Britain in 1815–10. 19 The digging of the canal was here the hundred tons melted annually, and two most difficult, on account of the thick thousand labourers are employed. The slime, which in some places is fifty feet river. Carron puts the machines in modeep, at the bottom of which loain and tion, and for the dry season a reservoir of sand are first met with. The canal was thirty acres in extent is kept up. This obliged to be dug in a turf-ground. undertaking belongs to a society. Be.

An iron rail-way goes from one coale sides this establishment, Scotland poomine to the canal, and crosses the road. sesses many foundries and meltingThe country between Edinburgh and houses, which furnish every year thirtyGlasgow, as we were assured, is the two thousand seven hundred and sixtyrichest in coals of any in the whole tons, the ton at 71. sterling, which country. All the hills of the southern amounts to 229,327). sterling; and seven chain of the Pentland range, to the thousand six hundred and twenty perNortherly granite and basalt mountain, sons gain their livelihood by this instiare supposed to be full of coals, and tution. Eleven foundries in Glasgow would, it is crlculated on these data, be alone employ above a thousand persons, enough to supply the consumption of and the value of their produce is above Great Britaiu for a thousand years to 500,000l. sterling.

We returned from Carron to Falkirk. Where thc marsh ends, the water de. From this place the road leads along a clines to the East, and here the sluices well-cultivated chain of hills covered begin. You then reach Falkirk, a little with country seats and parks, to Lintown, in which there is the great coal ma- lithgow, a sinall place consisting of illgazine for the Carron works. Two roads built houses. Here we saw beggars for lead to it. The Carron works lie in a the first time. The country beyond it beautiful valley, two miles to the north is high and well cultivated. Night of Falkirk, and the great number of overtook us eight miles from Edinthe ever-smoking chimneys announces burgh, and we were only apprized of our them already at a distance. Nobody is entrance into the city by the bright illuadmitted without the permission of the mination in the streets. owners. The building is immensely EDINBURGH.-On the 3d of Decemlarge, and regularly built along the ber, being Sunday, we could see nothing Carron, which is navigable to the canal. in the town, and not quite to lose the The ore is purchased in the neighbour- day, we determined on a visit to the ing mines, and two hundred tons are Castle. There was a thick fog in the used every week. The coals are, ac- forenoon, but it afterwards dispersed, cording to the old custom, piled up in and permitted us to enjoy the prospect. heaps of four feet high, from six to eight The King's Hotel, in which we lived, feet broad, and from twenty to thirty lies in the New Town, in Princes'feet in length. There are in every heap street, opposite the Old Town. The six flues to promote the current of air;, appearance of it is very singular, as is the carbonization is completed in fifty, the situation of Edinburgh in general. sixty, or seventy hours. "The coals do In front of us was a broad street, and not lose much of their mass. The raw beyond it a ditch,* which separates the iron is melted in six reverberatory fur New Town from the Old Town. This daces, and here they make cannon, and latter rises upon a hill towards the a great many other articles of the coarsest Castle, which lies to the right. AQ as well as of the finest quality. In the carthen mound is made across the ditch, six furnaces twenty tons are melted at about the centre, to form a communicaa time. We saw a great variety of tion between the two towns; to the left manufactured goods, from the largest is a bridge. The Catholic church in cannon and carronades for the royal the New Town is large, and newly navy, to the most elegant chimney or built in the gothic style.

The New naments.

Town is handsome ; its straight and There is also in this foundry a great regular streets, as well as many fine machine to bore the cannon; the gun is buildings, distinguish it advantageously; placed in a horizontal position; the among the latter, the Register Office is borer lies on a carriage, which is ad- built entirely in the Italian style, only it vanced towards the cannon; the latter is rather disfigured by two little towers. turns round its axis without advancing. The Lord Prorost and General WThis mechanism is put in motion by a met us at half past twelve, and accomfall of water.

So do their Imperial Highnesses de There are nearly six thousand five nominate the bed of the Nor-loch!

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