Page images




1819.] Correction of an Error respecting the Mayor of Chester. 503 and Gentlemen,” proves the liability to terations and embellishments as you which men of the most acute understand- think necessary for "getting up" 'the ings are subject, of considering the same whole in a manner calculated to excite matter or circumstance in conírary points the attention of the public.—The triof view: and to this source may be ADES, &c. which are given by Sir Phillip traced the greatest part of those contro Richards (for we know him by no other versies with which the world is at pre name in this neighbourhood) as norelsent inundated.

ties in his superannuated Magazine, On the entire subject, there is no were printed and published in a collected doubt that Dr. Johnson and Mr. Farmer form twenty-five years ago. I am, &c. would have perfoctly agreed; whereas, Caerlleon. CAMBRO-BRITTANICUS. a purtind view of it, occasions one philosopher to be struck with horror, whilst

SABINA; the other is merely excited to risibility! That there was nothing essentially Or, Scenes at the Toilette of a rich Roman “blasphemous," or “ridiculous," in the

Lady. passage allwied to, may be deduced from

(Continued.) the circumstance of an eminent dissenting minister, and a man whose literary attainments were universally acknowledged -I mean the late Dr. FORDYCE) Different kinels of head-dresses and hair

pins vorn by the Roman Ladies. as erting gravely from the pulpit, that “Jesus Christ, considering his educa

IN the early and ruder ages of Rome, tion, was very much of a gentleman."

before the introduction of luxury, the Yours, &c. LAICUS. simplest, and probably the most general, Widcombe Crescent, Bath,

head-dress was formed by twisting up Dec. 5th, 1818.

the hair, after separating it on the forehead, and making a kind of roll round the head. This roll was confined by a

narrow band, (tein, fuscia,) such as MR. EDITOR,

may still be seen on many antique fcTHERE is an error in your corre

male leads. This head-dress was very spondent's, THOMAS AP Richards, let- convenient for fixing on the crowns ter, in the Magazine for last month. which the Roman ladies wore during The name of the mayor of Chester, hung sacrifices and festivals. The crown was by Reinallt, was Brown, and not Byrne: placed upon the roll of hair; and from in other respects the story is correct; antique monuments it would appear, but I fear there is not plot enough for that a sinilar kind of head-dress was a single duodeciino, unless the tale be common among the Grecian women, extended by the addition of more inci- who never failed to combine

grace with dent. It is well known, that, for centu. simplicity. The hair thus twisted up, ries, Chester was the scene of continual was formed into a bow either on the bloodshed: the Welshmen attended the back or front of the head. The vestals great fairs in multitudes; and quarrels were the models which the Roman maand death were the general consequences. trons imitated; and as the former The Weish towns on the borders exhi wore a veil descending from the crown bited the same scenes.

But it must not of the head over the shoulders, and be supposed that Brown the mayor at- concealing the hair, the married wotended Mold fair in bis civic capacity: men adopted the same dress, with he was there, no doubt, for purposes this difference, that they allowed a connecied with his business as a draper; few artfully arranged curls to play and entering into a party quabble with

over the forehead. Fashion, however, some of his fellow-citizens who accom soon added a new ornament to this cospanied him, fell a victim to the fury of tume: it was borrowed from the Greeks, a man, who could be considered as little and consisted of a kind of semi-rircle, better than Rob Roy, or any other pre or bandeau, placed on the forehead, and datory partisan. There are certainly so ingeniously surrouded with hair, many tales connected with the Welsh

that only the most prominent part of border feuds, which, were they thrown the semi-circle projected from among into “ a tangible shape," would prove the hair to form the diadem. Luxury, liighly interesting: Perhaps I may be taste, and extravagance continued to in enabled to collect a few for you, leaving crease; and when Rome became the it to your discretion to make such al- rallying point for the people of


504 Sabina,

(Jan. 1, nation laying claim to polished manners advice that tasteful connoisseur gives to and refined taste, the licad-dresses of the fair sex: she who has a long counthe Roman ladies assumed an endless tenance should wear her hair flat on variety of forms. The custom of inter- the forehead, letting it fall in large curls mingling pearls with the hair, which was over the ears; but a round face on the introduced during the latter periods of contrary, requires that the hair should the republic, came from the East. When be collected on the forehead in a bow, the ladies visited the temples of the with the ears uncovered. Those expert Egyptian gods, they usually wore on females, who contrive to adapt every their heads, during the mysteries, fea new fashion to the natural form of their thers, lotos, flowers, and other emblems countenance, and make it augment the of fertility and nature. The famous advantages with which nature has adornIsis table presents abundant proofs of ed them, will be astonished to find, that this custom. From the age of Sylla the old master in the Art of Lord has to the close of the seventh century after betrayed their secret. The most elethe building of Rome, the worship of gaut head-dress is always that which, Isis and Serapis became general through- gives the most agreeable oral form to out Italy. Having thus constantly be the countenance. All the infinite vafore their eyes the deformed statues of riety of head-dresses worn by the Rothe Egyptian gods, the Roman women man ladies, may, however, be divided gradually became accustomed to their into two principal classes. The natural monstrous head-dresses; and they at hair, curled with bot irons, was encircled length admired all that was inost ridi- by a bandeau of gold or precious stones, culvusly preposterous. Every new con- separating it from the artificial hair, quest, every triumphal procession, taught which was combed smooth: this headthese women, so eager for novelty, some dress was so extremely elegant, that we new method of tyeing, plaiting, or curl- are tempted to recommend it to the ladies iug their hair. But nothing produced of the present day. Another way was, so great and singular a change in the to divide the hair into several braids, fashion of head-tresses, as the conquests which were first twisted round the head, of the German tribes of Belgium and then collected on the crown, and conthe banks of the Rhine. The taste for fined by a long pin. A single glance of the fair and reddish hair, common among one of these liend-dresses will prove that the inhabitants of the banks of the they could not have been formed without Rhine, the Scheldt, and the Nieuse, was the addition of false hair. A third faso general, that it became a perfect ma shion consisted in hariny curls op the nia. The Roman ladies, not satisfied forehead, and braids on the back of the with importing from these barbarous head. This form is mentioned by Orid, regions all kinds of pomatums and soaps, Propertius, Juvenal, and Martial. The for transforming their hair to the ad- inventire genius of the Roman ladies mired yellow colour, but they robbed and their slaves soon, however, intros the fair-haired Cattian and Secambrian duced a thousand varieties of this fashion. women of their natural tresses; and The wires of the Emperors and their shops were established at Rome for sel. faronrites seem to have enjoyed the ling plaits and bows of German hair, privilege of rendering prevalent the which the Roman ladies fixed on their fasliions which they themselves prefer heads with all the art imaginable. Not red; and the amateurs of medals, by the very long back this rage for fair hair form of the head-dress, readily distin prevailed in France; it was merely a guishi a Poppæa from a Plotina, and revival of the fashionable fully of the Matidia, or a Faustina, from a Sæmia, Romans. Enormous sums of money &c. were squandered away to change black What simplicity, and yet what art and hair into yellow and red; and when the ingenuity, were displayed in the little taste for extravagance had reached the instruments which the slaves of the very utmost degree, the use of gold hair- Roman ladies employed in arranging powder was introduced.

these edifices of curls and plaits on their When Ovid wrote his Art of Love, mistresses heads! My readers are of course the ladies had invented so many dif aware that they used combs of polished ferent modes of twisting, curling, and bes-wood, or ivory, frequently ornapláiting their hair, that he says he might mented with carved work, and that their as well attempt to count the acorns on curling-irons consisted of a single round a large oak, as to enumerate all their picce of iron, provided with a handle. ephemeral fashions. What excellent But the Roman ladies knew nothing of

14 Yhdistes !!!

1819.) Sabina.

505 powder-bags and puffs, and what we rinthian capital, on which appears a call pomatums, for confining and smooth- figure of Venus holding her hair coning the hair: powder, made of starch, fined in both her hands; Cupid, who and pots of pomatum, were things never stands beside her, presents her with a seen in the dressing-room of a Roman circular mirror. On another of these lady. The soaps and gold-dust which they pins, which is likewise surmounted by used for giving the hair a yellow tinge, a Corinthian capital, are two small were of a very different kind, and be- figures, representing Cupid embracing longed to the class of cosmetics. Our Psyche. A third is ornamented with modern hair-powder owes its origin to two busts, the smallest of which is Vea disgusting cutaneous disorder, and was nus leaning on the pedestal of a little introduced along with the establishment figure of Priapus; with her right hand of lazarettos, and the custom of wearing she touches her foot, which is elevated." linen next the skin, in Europe. The Count Caylus, in course of an excavaladies of the court of Louis XIV. were tion on Mount Pincio, at Rome, obthe first who wore hair-powder, and they tained an ivory pin, three inches long, were soon imitated by the courtezans. surmounted by a well executed female A learned antiquary asserts, that the bust.-There is likewise preserved a custom of wearing hair-powder is an bronze pin, four inches long, which, inimitation of the mourning of certain stead of a head, has a little statue of the oriental nations, who strew ashes on ddess of Plenty, holding a cornucopia, their heads. It is highly probable, that with her other hand resting on a dolphin those who first put flour in their hair Her head-dress is quite in the Egyptian had more than one reason for covering taste, from whence we may infer, that themselves with ashes in expiation of the the lady to whom this little trinket their sins. The Roman ladies had no belonged was a zealous devotee of the knowledge of these filthy customs; but goddess Isis. It is impossible to sce they were the more lavish of their pre- these pins without admiring the taste cious essences, which were poured on by which the ancients were guided in the hair before it was coinbed and ar the most trifling particulars. How, inranged.- But how did they contrive to deed, could more ingenuity be displayed support this edifice, which was the fruit in ornamenting so small an object as of so much labour?-With the help of the head of a pin? Can there be a a single pin, skilfully run through the more charming idea, than to make the bow. This pin is worthy of attentive God of Love perform for his mother examination, as it affords a fresh proof the same service which slaves and lovers of the ingenuity of the ancients, who, rendered to their mistresses. The even in the merest trifles, never neg- wreaths and aigrettes of diamonds worn lected to combine utility with the most by the ladies of modern times, may be exquisite taste.

costly--the hand of the jeweller may The pins, the use of which was to render them splendid and valuable; confine on the crown of the head or they may excite astonishinent; – but forehead, the hair, strings of pearls, and they will never give rise to the charming other ornaments, were necessarily of ideas which the elegant taste of the antolerable length. Those which still ex cients must have inspired. ist are about seven or eight inches long, so that some notion may be formed of the quantity of hair used in making a Glykerion, the Dealer in Flowers and Garhead-dress. Some are extreinely simple,

lands- The Chaplet of Isis-Garland of having merely an eye or opening at the Parsley for the Head-Garlands of Roses thickest extremity, through which, pro

of Pæstum for the Neck-Wax Fruits. bably, the bandeau or string passed, Clio, the chambermaid and confidante which separated the back hair from the of Sabina, now hastily enters and incurls on the forehead. The thickest forms her mistress, that Glykerion, the end of these pins is usually surmounted well-known Alexandrian dealer in garby an ornament of elegant workmanship, lands and flowers, desires to be admitted like those in the museum of Portici. -- to her. “She is attended," continues “ Among the silver pins," says Winkle. Clio, “ by two young slaves, carrying, mann, in his Essay on the Discoveries in handsome baskets, the newest and at Herculaneum, « four are remarkable most tasteful flowers, partly natural and for beauty and exquisite workmanship. partly artificial. She has been told that The largest, which is eight inches long, you have no time now ta spare, and that instead of a head is terminated by a Co- she had better return in the afternoon New MONTHLY MAG-No. 60. VOL. X.

3 T


506 Sabina.

(Jan. 1, before the hour of bathing. She will shaplets and actually found the signifnot, however, take any denial; and ap- cant Greek words,'" My life and my pears as though she has something which soul,” embroidered in one of the riba she can deliver only into the hands of bands.* the Domina herself.

It is obvious that this chaplet was not Sabina, who had waited with secret an ordinary article of sale; nay, perhaps, impatience for this morning visit, nods . the reader may have already guessed that approbation; and the loquacious Gly. its object was nothing less than to effect kerion, with all the natural and artifi- a secret assignation by the aid of the cial treasures of Flora's kingdom, is in- flower-dealer. The young knight Sa. stantly admitted.

turninus, who had lately become the What abundance of the choicest and favourite lover and cicisbeo of our Do. most elegant festoons, garlands, and chap- mina, had yesterday, at parting, concert lets, Glykerion now displays to the eyes ed this sign with her, and had found of the eager Domina and her astonished means to gain over to his interest the of slaves ! She bore, with justice, the name ficious Glykerion, who was not accus. of that celebrated feinale who rivalled tomed to refusc any other occasional em her lover, Pausius, the famous painter of ployment in addition to the trade of Sicyone, in the art of blending the varie- making chaplets, for which her country gated beauties of flowers. In the one was so renowned.t Sabina now knew, kalathiskos, for so the curiously-woven from this distinguished chaplet, that flower baskets were denominated, were every thing was prepared for the most the loveliest children of Flora, which solemn nocturnal devotions (pertigia seemed to have just sprung up in the foot- lium) in the sacred temple of the bene. steps of the dancing goddess of love. The volent Isis, who so readily affords relief gilly-flower, the narcissus, the lily, the to all the distressed, and can even pre crocus, the hyacinth, and the rose, en- scribe the most eficient remedies for the twine the young shoots of myrtle with sufferings of tender lovers. She conseingenious variety and the nicest atten- quently knew also what she had to do tion to the shades of colour and resem- and, in a whisper, directed the trusty Cho blance of smell. You might exclaim with to make the needful preparations for an Gothe's new Pausius :

interview in the temple of Isis the follow. " What shall I first-what last admire ? ing night. These blooming flowers ?

Not till then had Sabina either time The skillful hand?-or the selecting mind ?" or inclination to examine, with atten- Nevertheless, all this display was so tion, the baskets of flowers and chapleti far from satisfying the inquisitive looks of which the young slaves still held on their the lady, that she scarcely deigned to heads, or to chuse what she should bestow upon it a hasty glance. It was

want for the evening. “Here, Spatale, not till she examined the second basket cries she, “ run and hang this fragrant that rays of joy were seen to illu- garland of Egyptian lotus upon the sta mine her countenance.

She there tue of the great health-dispensing godfound the most recent fashionable

dess that stands in my chamber, in the

productions, consisting of branches and little golden temple beside my bed, and flowers, imitated in metals and other sub- forget not to swing round the silver sisi stances; among which she spied the chap

* It was then the fashion in Rome to era let, the arrival of which she had so anxi. onsly expected ever since she first enter. Greek. zw xal Yuxs were magical words,

press all tender and flattering things in ed her dressing-room. It was a chaplet as may be seen by Martial and Juvenal. of Isis, such as was worn at solemn as

+ Egypt, subsequently to the time of Aler. semblies and sacrifices, by those initiat- ander the Great

, was the only centre of ed in the mysteries of the great Egyp- Grecian refinement, supported by Asiatic tian goddess. The body of the chaplet luxury. The art of making chaplets was was composed of tresses formed of the likewise carried to the highest degree of per most delicate rind of the papyrus, twist- fection in that country, which, according to ed and fastened with elegant knots. Athenæus, produced flowers all the year Palm-leaves, of silver, resembling rays,

round. It was, therefore, natural enough projected from it at small intervals. that at Rome, where every nation was es From behind, where the ends of the

teemed only in proportion as it contributed

to the pleasures of the luxurious masters of chaplet met, hung two ribbands, which the world, a strong prepossession should were suffered to flow, on either side over prevail in favour of Egyptian Power-girlt the shoulders. Sabina hastily seized this and dealers in chaplets.




[ocr errors]

** I beg

from three times in a circle from right Pæstum fixed, in the most modern taste, to left. We shall stand in need, to-day, to soft bandeaus of linden-bark. You of the protecting care of the goddess who know we have discovered the secret of nourishes all beings."

keeping them fresh for several days. “And now, dear Glykerion,” conti- And were it even for infusion in beDues she, “ what novelties of the verage, nothing could surpass these roses kingilom of Flora have been imported of Pæstum."* from Alexandria in the ficet of mer- “ I shall trust entirely to you, my dear chantmen that the day before yesterday Glykerion," replied Sabina, wit

unusual arrived at Ostia ? For what kind of chap- condescension. Give me one of those lets hare you had the greatest demand chaplets. But what treasures are consince the last Apollinarian games? Yon tained in that basket, in which I perceive know how stedfastly all eyes are fixed nothing but green plants ? Have you upon me. My husband gives a great en- transformed yourself from the Egyptian, tertainment to-day, and it is necessary queen of flowers into the mother of Euthat I should appear in the newest style ripides, the tragedian, and taken up the of fashion."

trade of selling chervil and anis?" Domina," replies the artful Glyke- Sabina laughed. The whole circle of rion, with a smile scarcely half suppress- her surrounding attendants did the eil, and yet with a respectful inclination, same, and pointed contemptuously to the the silk fancy fowers, after Indian pat- basket of green cherri). Glykerion was terns, are still universally in fashion, for so far from being disconcerted, that she chaplets for the hair. Here," continued appeared to be the only person in the she, taking the basket from the head of company who was in the right, one of the boys, and shewing a fragrant pardon, Domina," said she, “ for not garland, in which the flowers of the shewing you, at first, this new and wonlotus, intermingled with the leaves of derful production of a most skilful garthe Indian spikenard, were as naturally dener on the Tusculan hill (Frascati); imitated in silk as if they had been plucked but rou prevented me by your quesonly the same day from among the banians tions concerning the novelties of my naon the shores of the Indus or Ganges, tive country. Know then, that these " you see the newest that the flower:

are garlands of water-parsley (apium), dealers of Alexandria have sent me. which my friend, the gardener, of 'PušThey are sprinkled with essence of roses culum, has such a method of rearing, and cinnamon, but just invented and that in delicacy and beauty of appearance brought by the last fleet from India to it is not surpassed by the hair of Queen Egypt. As to garlands for the neck and Berenice ;- which, as you know, now bosom, t even the all-fructifying Nile shines a star in the firmament of heaven. cannot dispense, from his boundless How admirably would a garland of this stores, any thing more beautiful and be parsley decorate, this evening, your coming than these leaves and roses of charming locks, which the hand of na

ture herself has formed into such relo* The primitive use of the sistrum was, gant curls and ringlets. Our ancestors, undoubtedly, to accompany, in some mea- it is true, likewise wore garlands of this sure, the lamentations made for Osiris. In kind of parsley : but they knew not, in process of time the real motive of this cus:

those days, how to improve it by art. tom was lost; and it appears, that the Ro- People tell many curious things concernman females shook the sistrum just as in ing its secret virtues and ancient origin, modern times there are persons who mechanically repeat prayers with beads.

and give it the mystical appellation of + Garlands for the Neck.--At entertain

blood of the Corybantes. But I ought ments the guests usually wore two wreaths; one on the bead ; and it was even pretend- from the cháplets, to infuse them in wine

* It was customary to pluck the leaves ed that this custom was beneficial to the

and to drink them with it. Pliny, who rehealth, a fact which the physicians, Mnesi

lates a curious anecdote of Cleopatra's cur. theus and Callimachus have attempted to prove in their writings. The other wreath Anthony of his distrust or her, by means was worn round the neck, because, as it was

of an impoisoned chaplet, calls it, to drink judiciously remarked, the perfume of the chaplets-coronas bibere. wreath on the head was lost to the person * Aristophanes, in his comedies, often who wore it. Flowers were, therefore, worn indulges in sarcastic allusions to Euripides, on the neck and bosom, that the sense of on account of his mother, who is said to emelling might be gratified as well as the have sold chervil and other culinary veget. other senses. :


ܠܐ ܝ ܐܬܗ 32

« PreviousContinue »