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1818.]

M. Chabert-Expedition to the Arctic Regions.

65

Signora Giradelli,who has beenexhibiting The expedition for exploring the archer powers at Edinburgh; and Ivan tio regions, gathers fresh interest every IvanjtChabert, a Russian, who has been day, and therefore we shall bring todisplaying similar qualifications in the gether all that occurs illustrative of the English metropolis. All the stories of subject. St. John escaping from the cauldron of Å letter from Copenhagen communibuiling oil, of Queen Emma walking cates the following details upon the bare-foot over the red-hot plough-share, breaking up of the polar ice. and of the Hindoos walking into nine in “ Four hundred and fifty square miles closures with fiery balls of iron in their of ice have been recently detached from naked hands, now lose the impression the eastern coast of Greenland and the which they were wont to produce, and neighbouring regions of the pole. It almost sink into trifles, compared with was this mass which, during four hunthe exploits of those incombustible per- dred years, had rendered that country sons. The following is a list of the at first difficult of access, and afterwards wonders performed by the northern ad- totally inaccessible, so as even to cause venturer.

its existence to be doubted. Since the 1. He took a red-hot iron, like a spade, year 1786 the reports of the whalers and repeatedly stamped upon it with his have invariably referred to some changes, naked foot, which was quite cool after the more or less considerable, in the seas of experiment.

the North Pole ; but at the present 2. He held his naked foot long over time, so much ice has detached itself, the flame of a candle, which did not seem and such extensive canals are open amidst to affect his skin in the slightest degree. what remains, that they can penetrate

3. Oil appeared to boil in a small without obstruction as far as the 83d debrazier, and he took nearly two table gree of latitude. spoonfuls into his mouth and swallowed “AH the seas of the north abound it.

with these Horiing masses, which are 4. Black sealing-wax was melted at a driven to more temperate climates. A candle and dropped upon his tongue, in packet from Halifax fell in with one of which state two impressions of a seal these islands in a more southern latiwere taken.

tude than the situation of London; it 5. He put several small pieces of burn- appeared about half a mile in circumfering charcoal into his mouth.

ence, and its elevation above the water 6. A quantity of melted lead being was estimated at two hundred feet. poured into a copper vessel he jumped This breaking up of the polar ices coininto it bare-footed.

cides with the continual tempests from 7. He poured aqua fortis on steel the south east, accompanied with heats, filings and then trampled on it with his rains, storms, and a highly electrified bare feet.

state of the atmosphere; circumstances 8. He scraped a red-hot shovel up and which, during three years, have caused down his arm, then smoothed his hair us to experience in Denmark hot winters with the flat side without singing the and cold humid summers. On the same, and lastly, licked the whole cool 25th of May there fell at Copenhagen

five showers of hail, to each of which 9. He took a lighted torch and eat it succeeded a dead calm. as a sallad, and lastly, poured aqua fortis Many mariners are apprehensive on a piece of copper in the hollow of that the ice will fix itself on the eastern his hand.

coasts of America; but whilst the north It is evident, that whatever there may east winds prevail, these floating masses be of deception in these performances, will disappear in the southern ocean. there is still enough of the curious to Some of these floating islands conveyed merit attention. M. Chabert asserts, forests and trunks of trees. · We notice that he is the only nuturally incombus- this last fact principally for the satisfactible being exhibiting; the others using tion of geologists, who attribute to phepreparations which he disclaims. He is nomena of this sort, the rocks of foreign a dark, stout looking man, and his story granite found in the ehain of the Jura is , that he fell into the fire when a year mountains, and conveyed at the epoch old without suffering any injury; and a when our highest mountains were dover. similar accident when he was twelve, ed with water.” from which he also escaped unhurt, de One of the whalers which has arrived monstrated that he possessed the quality in England, states that-it fell in with the of resisting fire.

interesting expedition to the Northrpolo New MONTHLY MAG.--No. 53.

VOL. X.

K

with his tongue.

66 Prevention of Dry-Rol--Hardening Steel Springs. (Aug. 1, in the first week of June, opposite Mag- on the prevention of dry-rot, concurs: dalena Bay, Spitzbergen, lat. 79, 34, ull with several gentlemen who have re- , well.

cently published the results of their exOn the 4th of March, a bottle was perience, that timber, especially for shippicked up on the N.E. side of Eleuthera, building, ought never to be cut till after in lat. 24° 30'; long. 76° 30' W. It con- the fall of the leaf. “ In examining tained a paper incribed, “Ship John masses of oak," says he, “ dug from the Tobin, 8th August, 1915, lat. 22° N. alluvial strata of the country,where it has lony. 27° 30' W. with a fine breeze N.E.” lain for ages, many of thein are found signed, W. Swainson. Were these sim- fresh and sound as the day on which they ple experiments often made, a number of had been torn from their respective them might lead to the establishment of roots. In this case the timber is unia theory in regard to the currents of formly black as ebony, and obdurately ocean.

hard. I was led from curiosity to exThe succession of disappointments ex- amine chemically several of these old perienced in regard to the late attempts trunks, and found a far greater proporto penetrate into the interior of Africa, tion of iron than could be supposed to have not repressed the ardour of ad- exist in the natural state of the tree. venture. Mr. Ritchie, late private se- To this iron I attribute the incorrupticretary to Sir Charles Stewart, has un- bility and high state of preservation of dertaken to reach the Niger and Tom- this antediluvian timber. This extrabuctoo by a new route, and the Baslaw neous iron must have been supplied from of Tripoli has intimated his readiness to the ore of the soil or chalybeate waters: co-operate with the British government in this state of solution it would penein the promotion of the plan. Fezzan trate the substance of the wood, unite is a dependancy of Tripoli; the Bey, by with the astringent principle and prowhom it is at present governed, is a son duce not only the black colour, but such of the Bashaw; and it appears that there a density of texture as almost to resist is a constant communication between the sharpest instrument. Should the Fezzan and Kashna, Bournou, and even period of cutting above recommended be Tombuctoo itself. We learn that the considered incompatible with that imFrench are also turning their attention portant branch of national industry, the to this object, and that the Spanish tra- leather-trade, the same means will season veller, Badia, so well known under his the new timber, and render it proof assumed name of Ali Bey, is about en- against dry-rot, that will cure it in the tering upon an expedition nearly similar old, namely, the application of iron in a to that projected by Burckhardt. state of solution. This can be obtained

Lieutenant Kotzebue arrived on the at a comparatively small expense from a 17th of June at Portsmouth, in the Rus- solution of green copperas, in which the sian ship Rurick, from his voyage of dis- wood must be soaked till it has acquired covery, which lasted two years and the colour of new ink. This would eleven months. In the course of this completely counteract every vegetative voyage, which was at first directed to- principle and communicate durability wards the north, he fell in with a singu- and firmness of texture, with this addilar ice-berg of great magnitude, which tional advantage, that the sulphur of the not only had part of its surface covered solution, penetrating the substance of with earth and mould, bearing trees and the plank, would defend it against the vegetable productions, but a portion of ravages of insects." its water-line covered with a shore form

Steel springs are usually hardened and ed by a deposit of the earthy matter tempered by two distinct operations, washed down from the more elevated being first heated to the proper degree situations.

On this shore a landing was and hardened by quenching in water, effected, and considerable remains of the oil, &c. and then tempered, either by mammoth were found in such a state of rubbing them bright and heating them putrefaction as to produce an intolerable till they acquire a pale blue or grey costench. The Rurick brought away some lour, or by burning or blazing off the of the tusks and other parts of these oil. Mr. Thomas Gill, however, informs immense animals, which had probably us that it is now found that both ope, been preserved frozen for many ages, rations may be advantageously performtill the mass of ice which inclosed them, at once, in the following manner :put in motion by some unknown cause, The steel being heated to a proper dereached a more temperate latitude. gree, is to be plunged into a metallic

Mr Gavin Inglis, in some observations bath composed of a mixture of lead and

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67

FRANCI.

1818.] The Mammoth-Situation of the Tarpeian Rock, &c. tin, such as plumber's solder, heated by ed, and eaten fasting early in the morna proper furnace to the tempering de- ing in the woods when the weather is gree, as indicated by a pyrometer or dry, has performed many cures of pulthermometer placed in the bath, when monary complaints among the High-the steel will be at once hardened and landers. tempered, and with much less danger of A gentleman who recently visited St. warping and cracking in the process Kilda, carried with him twelve Gaelic than if treated in the usual way. It Bibles to distribute among the poor inwould be a further improvement to heat habitants of that place. It will speak the steel in a bath of red-hot lead to the volumes to those who are so fond of illuproper degree for hardening preriously minating the heathen abroad, that out of to quenching and tempering it in the the twelve Bibles, he brought back other metallic bath, as it would thereby eleven, as he found only one among? be more uniformly heated and be in less community of one hundred and ten souls danger of oxidation.

who could read. We pledge ourselves There have been recently discovered (says the editor of the Caledonian Merin the parish of Motteston, on the south cury) for the truth of this statement. side of the Isle of Wight, the bones of that stupendous animal supposed to be Messrs. Truttel and Wurtz have put the Mammoth, or Mastadon: several of to press the Correspondance inedite of the vertebræ, or joints of the back bone, the Abbé Ferd. Galiani, with Madame measure thirty-six inches in circumfer- d'Epinay, Baron d'Holback, Grimm,&c. ence: they correspond exactly in forin, between the years 1765 and 1781, with colour, and texture, with the bones found an Account of the Life and Works of in plenty on the banks of the Ohio, in Galiani, by M. Ginguené and notes by North America, in a vale called by the M. Salli, of Naples. The work will Indians Big-bone Swamp.-Also, in the form two 8vo. volumes, and will be parish of Northwood, on the north side printed from autograph letters in the of the island, the bones of the crocodile possession of the publishers. have recently been found, by the Rev. The same booksellers have also anMr. Hughes, of Newport. They seem nounced a French translation of Bramto have belonged to an animal of that sen's Excursions of a Prussian traveller species, whose body did not exceed 12 in various parts of Europe, Asia, and feet in length. Their calcareous nature Africa. is not altered: but the bones of the mas- M. Dureau de la Malle has submitted tadon (found on the south side of the to the Academy of Inscriptions and island) contain iron.

Belles Lettres, à Memoir on the SituaMr. Joseph Small, gardener, in a com- tion of the Tarpeian rock. He deduces. munication to the Caledonian Horticul- from his researches the following re: tural Society, recommends the following sults :-that the rock shown to strangers remedy as an effectual one against the behind the palace of the Conservators injuries done to the bark of trees by hares cannot be the Tarpeian.—that the rock and rabbits: Take hog's lard and as much of Cormentum and the Tarpeian were whale oil as will work it up into a thin distinct, the one forming the base of the paste. With this gently rub the stems mount of which the other is the summit of the trees upwards, at the fall of the - that the house of Manlius stood opleaf. Once in two years will be sufficient, posite to the Temple of Concord -- that and the innocent nature of the ingredi. the Tarpeian rock was situated on the ents is such that the trees will not be in south side of the Mons Capitolinus, opthe least affected by it.

posite to the Forum, before the Temple The American farmers are said to of Jupiter-that this declivity, surroundprevent the blight in apple trees, and ed by houses may still be seen in front of secure plentiful crops, by the simple pro- the site of the ancient Forum. cess of rubbing tar well into the bark We learn from Bar-sur-Ornain, that about four or six inches wide round each the prefect of the department of the tree, and a foot from the ground. Maese, being informed that some pea

Mr. Joseph Swan, in a paper read tọ sants of the village of Naives, near Bar, the Royal Society, recommends corro- when cultivating their land, had discos sive sublimate as an improved method of vered several antiquities, has given ormaking anatomical preparations. ders to make further researches. As far

An intelligent correspondent says, as they have hitherto been prosecuted, that the tender shoots of Scotch fir peel- they have been attended with complete

68

Book of Tournaments of Duke William IV. [Aug. I, success. A magnificent building has been deric, in 1510. The two following tourdiscovered, with public baths, the cham- neys took place at Munich with three bers of which are painted in Fresco, and knights, Hans Von Preising, Wolf Count were warmed by pipes which conveyed Von Montfort, and Leinhard Von Lichthe heat under ground. They have tenstein. The execution of the helmets found, also, fragments of columns, a Mi- and the armour in gold and silver, are nerva of bronze, tombs, and a very consi- extremely ingenious; the representation derable number of silver and copper coins, of the combat itself, of the plumes of feawith the heads of several Roman Empe- thers, the caparisons, &c. of the horses, rors; various iron and earthen vessels; with devices and arms embroidered on fragments of colossal statues of white both sides, is very characteristic. Facmarble ; the walls of a building covered similies are given of the inscriptions on with cement; antique lamps; a bason every plate, and in general every part of formed in the ground, with mosaic works, the work is executed with scrupulous fi&c. These remains are supposed to be delity. With respect to the matallic copart of a great city, whose origin is of lours, a particular process is employed high antiquity.

to lay them on fast; the gold or silver An extraordinary fish has been taken being laid upon the paper by means of alive at Nantes by some fishermen, who models, and then drawn under the have given it the name of the sea-tiger. press; after this comes the printing of

M. Cuvier has been elected member the lithographic outlines, then the coof the French Academy in the room of louring. M. de Roquelaure: there were eleven M. Von Schlichtegroll is much to be candidates.

commended for his determination not to The Journal des Soans continues to allow this book of tournaments to be be conducted with great ability, and we merely an amusement for the eye, but may venture to say, affords an example to join to it as complete a history as posto our literary journalists in this country sible of these shows, which are such an which they would do well to imitate. In important feature of the times of chivalour future numbers, we shall give a con- ry, and thus to give a very instructive cise view of the contents of this parent contribution to the history of mankind, review.

He intends to treat this matter thoroughly in a series of essays, which will make

the first part of every number, and to M. Von Schlichtegroll, secretary-ge- unite with them a complete literature of peral to the Academy of Munich, is pub- tournaments, and an enumeration of the lishing lithographically the Book of Tour- printed and unprinted books on the subnaments of Duke William IV. of Bava- ject. The Royal Library at Dresden ria, in 34 admirably coloured drawings, contains some account of a book of tourmost carefully painted by Hans Schenk, naments with beautiful paintings, which armourist to that prince, from all the is not at all known; and many interesttournaments undertaken by his master. ing particulars respecting the rare moThis work will be published in eight numents of the tournaments formerly numbers, each containing four large co- held in Dresden, and preserved in a suite loured plates, with the editor's illustra- of six rooms in the Royal Armoury. tions and remarks. The first number is Aloys Senefelder, who may be called already published. The title-page, which both the inventor and perfector of the is also adorned with lithographic orna- new art, desires now to term it chemical ments, is as follows ;—“ The Book of printing, instead of lythography, or Tournaments of Duke William the stone-printing, which is not adapted to Fourth of Bavaria, from 1510 to 1545, it; because other materials, such as faithfully copied in Lithographic Engrar- brass, copper, tinfoil, prepared paper, ings, by Theobald and Clements Sene- &c. are used in it in many cases instead felder, after a Manuscript of that Time of stone. He is on the point of publishin the Royal Library at Munich, accom- ing the history of this art, which has panied with illustrations by ederick spread from Munich over all Europe. Schlichtegroll."

A tragedy, entitled Sappho, has been This first number contains four com- brought on the stage at Vienna, formed bats, the first of which Duke William, entirely on the Greek model; and though still a minor, had at Munich with a completely at variance with the German Count Von Ortenburg; the second in drama, its success is almost without a paAugsburg, with the Count Palatinc Fre- rallel. At the close of the third act, the

GERMANY.

SPAIN

1818.]
Switzerland-Italy-Spain-Africa.

69 author was so loudly called for, that he der the title of Sull Origine de' Numeri was under the necessity of appearing on Romani. (On the Origin of the Rothe stage : he was crowned at the ter- man Numerals), thirty-six pages in mination of the tragedy, and carried in 4to. and a lithographic print. The auprocession to bis residence. On the fol- thor attempts to prove, that the Roman lowing day, a considerable subscription numerals, as well as the ancient Etruswas opened for him, and filled up in the can, originate in the nails which the course of a few hours. He is a young above-mentioned nations, in the earliest man, named Gripalzer. The following period of their history, caused to have paragraph, in addition to what we have fixed annually by their magistrates, not already translated, is from the pen of for chronological purposes, the first in one of the most distinguished critics in the Temple of Jupiter, the last at VulsiGermany:

nium (Bolsena) in the Temple of Nurcia, "The tragedy of Sappho is written in their goddess of Fortune. lambic verse without rhyme, and even without measured prosody, with the exception of an ode to Venus. The author the principality of the Asturias, at an

In the neighbourhood of Counha, in has imposed upon himself difficulties hitherto unknown among the German elevation of 250 fathoms above the level dramatists : he has introduced only six of the sea, and at the distance of a short speaking characters, and has confined league from it, there are many vestiges of himself to a strict observance of the three

a most ancient town, situated at the foot celebrated unities. But M. Gripalzer has of a hill

, though now for the most part avoided the rocks on which even the most destroyed by the peasantry of the neighcelebrated French tragic writers have bouring country. The houses are round, been wrecked; he has not, like them, sa

and were joined together, though with a erificed probability, interest, propriety,

separation between them, each one havand local colouring, to those puerile made of stone, without mortar or any

ing a single door; the walls, which are lavs,"

Several modern Greeks are at this kind of cement, are admired for their sotime pursuing their studies at Munich, lidity, smoothness, and workmanship.Wurtzburgh, Gottingen, Jena, and other There exists, likewise, a piece of wall German Universities. At Wurtzburgh,

of the same kind, and very near a one of the students is called Prince of large bath of granite of a single piece. take with them to their native country, by what machinery it was brought to Epirus. They purchase many books to The weight of this stone is not less than

140 cwt. ; it is not easy to be imagined which may, probably at no distant pe this spot, since there is no stone of this riod, rise again into consequence, both in learning, arts, and arms. A new era is kind nearer than three leagues, and in certainly bursting into existence. Mr. situations whence it is extremely difficult Bramsen, in his interesting tour, ob to remove it. The whole circuit of this served a strong spirit of curiosity and

town on the lower part, which is upon a love of letters, even in the classical but deep rivulet, is full of shells, marine perocky isle of Ithaca.

trifactions, and incrustations, more or

less decomposed, according as they were SWITZERLAND.

on the surface of the ground or below it, A Jake has recently been formed in On the same level there is also a great the valley of Bagnes en Vallais by the quantity of rounded stones, sea sand, fall of ice from the glacier of Chedroz shells, and other similar productions. into the bed of the river Drance, which,

The licentiate Don Pedro Canel Azethus blocked by mountains of ice and vedo, who lives at a small distance from snow dissolving into water, has convert- the above town, and is a person much ed the lover part of the valley into a

devoted to the study of natural history lake 7,200 feet in length, 620 feet broad, and antiquities, after having examined and 180 feet deep at the greatest depth all this ground, has come to the concluon the 14th of May last.

sion, that this town must be anterior to the entrance of the Carthaginians into

Spain. An Essay wlrich Dr. Jos. de Matthæis read in the Archaelogical Society at Another enterprise to explore the terRome, on the 29th of February, 1818, mination of the Niger is undertaken, has now been published by Bourlié un- and, as in all former ones, with sanguine

ITALY.

AFRICA.

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