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advantage it received from a happiness in its application, but retains its intrinsic greatness. This, I think, will appear, by comparing the answers of Aspasia and Lear, in the two last examples, with the following reply of Guiderius, to the rash and foolish Cloten, who had threatened to kill him.

Cloten. Art not afraid ? Guid. Those that I rev'rence, those I fear,

the wise ; At fools I laugh, not fear them.

This sentiment had been noble on any occafion ; on this, it is happy as well as great.

From these observations it is evident, that the variety and force of our senti

H 3 ments, ments, particularly in the pathetic, muft depend on the variety and nature of their anotives. In this the Painter is extremely confined; for among the infinite turns and workings of the mind, which may be exprelled by words, and become the springs of sentiment, there are so few to which he can give a shape or being; and his indications of peculiar and characteristic feelings, are so vague and undecisive, that his expreffions, like their motives, must be [9] obvious and general.

6] H Painting be inferior to Poetry, Music, considered as an imitative art, must be greatly inferior to Painting : for as Music bas šo means of explaining the motives of its various impresions, its imitations of the Manners and Pallions must be extremely vague and undecisive : for instance, the tender and melting tones which may be expressive of the Passion of Love, will be equally in unison with the collateral feelings of Benevolence, Friendship, Pity, and the like-Again, how are we to distinguish the rapid movements of Anger, from

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It is observable, that the same Critics, who condemn so much in Shakespear a neglect of the unities, are equally forward in acknowledging the singular energy and beauty of his sentiments. Now, it seems to me, that the fault which they censure; is the principal source of the beauties which they admire. For, as the Poet was not confined to an [r] unity and fimplicity of action,

those of Terror, Distraction, and all the violent agitations of the Soul > But, let Poetry co-operate with Mue fic, and specify the motive of each particular impreffion, we are no longer at a loss; we acknowlege the agreement of the found with the idea, and general impressions become specific indications of the Manners and the Paffions. · [r) Aristotle, in his Poetics, chap. vi. observes, that the first Dramatic Poets were irregular in the conduct of the Fable; but excelled in ţhe Manners, and in the Dittion : that the Poets of his time, on the contrary, excelled in the conduct of the Fable, but were weak in the Manners, and declamatory in the Diction. By the

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the Poet of the Fables bokation. By the

he created incidents in proportion to the promptness and vivacity of his genius. Hence, his sentiments spring from motives exquisitely fitted to produce them : to this they owe that original spirit, that commanding energy, which overcome the improbabilities of the scene; and transport the heart in defiance of the understanding. I do not mean by this to justify our Poet in all his excesses. It must be confeffed, that he has often carried the indulgence of his genius much too far : but, it is equally certain, that a rigid observance of the dramatic unities is not free from objections : for, as no one simple and confined action can furnish many incidents, and thofe, such as they are, must tend to one common point, it neceffarily follows, that there must be a sameness and uniformity in the sentiments. What must be the result of this? Why, narration is substituted in the place of the action ; the [r] weakness in the manners supplied by elaborate defcriptions; and the quick and lively turns of passion are lost in the detail, and pomr of declamation.

Manners, are to be understood all those sentiments which become indications of Character. The advantage of these in Tragedy, according to Aristotle, confifts in this, that they give us a rule, by which we may judge what the resolutions and actions of the perfons in the Drama will be. After this, he censures the Poets of his time, for being weak in the Manners. As yang rewe TWY ahensweg anders zayaddas mor. Dacier, his Commentator, has

passed the fame cenfure on the French Drama, Aujourd hui, dans la plus part des piéces de nos Poetes, on ne connait les meurs des personnages, qu'en les voiant agir. As both the Greek and French Poets, here spoken of, were rigid observers of the dramatic Unities, these Facts must itrongly confirm what has been advanced on this subject. '

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-de are Hort. May we not add to the objection jection, which has often ftrues : these are

often

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