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The threaten'd combat was to him

Relief;—with weapon bare,
He rush'd upon the warrior grim,

But his sword shore empty air.
Then the spectre smil'd with a ghastly grin,

And its warrior-semblance fled;
And its features grew stony, fix’d, and thin,

Like the face of the stiffen'd dead.
The head a further moment crown'd,

The body's stately wreck
Shook hideously, and to the ground

Dropt from the bolter'd neck.
Back shrunk the noble chief aghast,

And longer tarried not,
But quickly to the portal past,

To shun the horrid spot.
But in the portal stiff and tall,

The apparition stood,-
And Wallace turn'd and crossd the hall,

Where entrance to the wood,
By other door, he hoped to snatch,

Whose pent arch darkly lower'd ;-
But there, like sentry on his watch,

The dreadful phantom tower'd.
Then up the ruin'd stairs so steep, i

He ran, with panting breath,
And from the window-edes'prate leap!

Sprang to the court beneath.
O'er wall and ditch he quickly got,

Thro' brake and bushy stream;
When suddenly thro' darkness shot,

A red and lurid gleam.
He look'd behind, and that lurid light

Forth from the castle came;
Within its circuit, thro' the night,

Appear'd an elrich flame.
Red glow'd each window, slit, and door,

Like mouths of furnace hot,
And tint of deepest blackness wore

The walls and steepy moat.
But soon it rose, with brightning power,

Till bush and ivy green,
And wall-flower, fringing breach and tower,

Distinctly might be seen.
Then a spreading blaze, with eddying sweep,

In spiral surges rear'd,
And then aloft, ou the stately keep,

Fadon's ghost appeared.
A burning rafter, blazing bright,

It wielded in its hand;
And its warrior-form of human height,

Dilated grew and grand.
Coped by a çurling tawny cloud,

With tints sulphureous blent,
It rose with burst of thunder loud,

And up the welkin went.
High, high it rose, with wid'uing glare,

Sent far o'er land and main,
And shot into the lofty air,

And all was dark again.
A spell of horror lapt him round,

Chill'd, motionless, amazed,
His very pulse of life was bound

As on black night he gazed.
Till harness'd warrior's heavy tread

From echoing dell arose;
“ Thank God," with utter'd voice he said,

« For here come living foes.” With kindling soul that brand he drew,

· Which boldest Southron fears, But soon the friendly call knew,

Of his gallant brave compeers.

With haste each wond'rous tale was told, The author next shows, that the How still, in vain pursuit,

moveinents of the automaton cannot be They follow'd the born thro' wood and wold, And Wallace alone was mute.

directed, (as some have thought,) by Day rose; but silent, sad, and pale,

the exhibitor, who walks about the Stood the bravest of Scottish race ;

room, and is frequently at a distance And each warrior's heart began to quail,

from the chest, far beyond the sphere of When he look'd in his leader's face.'

influence. Some stress is laid on the

circumstance, that the machinery is An Allempt to Analyse the Automaton and never 'in motion; indeed, it seems

always exhibited in a quiescent state, Chess Player of M. De Kempelen.


doubtful whether it ever does or With an easy Method of imitating the Monements of that celebrated Fi

ever was intended to move, notwithgure. Illustrated by Original Draw for the occasion, --sometimes, it would ings.

Torchich is added, a Copious Collection of the Knight's Moves over ent with the concealment of the decep:

seem, more frequently than is consistthe Chess Board.

40. London, 1821.

tion, as would appear from the follow

ing extract:This is a very ingenious attempt to de

* In all machines requiring to be wound tect one of the most singular deceptions up, two consequences are inseparable ever practised on human credulity, and from their construction; the first is, that which, for the last forty years, has ex-in winding up the machinery, the key is licited the astonishment and admiration mited in the number of its revolutions ; of every person who has witnessed it, and the second is, that some relative proEven Bonaparte, who made automata portion must be constantly maintained beof kings and princes at his will, was formed, in order to enable the machine

twixt the winding up and the work perfoiled ir an encounter with the auto-to continue its movements. Now these inaton chess-player, although he was results are not observable in the chess. allowed to be as skilful in the game of player; for the automaton will sometimes chess as in war, tható game at which execute sixty-tlıree moves with only one kings delight to play.'

winding up ; at other times, the exhibi. The author, by a reference to the en

tor has been observed to repeat the windgravings which he gives, first shows that ing lip after seven moves, and even three the machiopry within the automaton vertence, without the intervention of a

moves; and once, probably from inad: has no share in the movements, and single move; whilst in every instance, that although it is intended to be un- and the circumstance, though trifling, calls derstood that the whole of the interior for particular attention, (for in these matis first exhibited to the spectators, yet ters, be it remembered, “ trifles light as that there is sufficient room to adınit ihe air are confirmations strong,") the key apbody of a man, who may with great fa-peared to perform the same number of cility direct all the motions of the au- revolving axis was unconnected with

'revolutions: evincing thereby, that the tomaton. He next divides automata machinery, except, perhaps, a ratchet

: into three classses, the simple, the com- wheel and clink, or soine similar apparapound, and the spurious. The first tus, to enable it to produce the necessary class comprises those insulated automata sounds, and consequently that the key, whose movements result from mechan- like that of a child's watch, might be ism alone. The second class are those turned whenever the purposes of the ex. which are moved by machinery, but hibition seemed to require it." possess, at the same time, a communi- This is pretty strong evidence that cation with human agency, though not the machinery has no share in the auimmediately apparent.

The third tomaton's movements; the author next class contains those autoipata which, proceeds to point out a method by under the semblance only of mechan. which any personi, well skilled in the ism, are wholly directed and controlled game, and not exceeding the ordinary by a concealed human agent. To this bulk of stature, may secretly animate class he assigns the automaton chess, the automaton, and sáccessfully imiplayer; for

tate the movements of M. De Kem• However great and surprising the pelen's chess-player. Having shewn

that there is sufficient room in the power of mechanism may be, the moveinents which spring from it are necessari. chest, and stated the way in which the ly limited and uniform; it cannot usurp player might be introduced into it, he and exercise the faculties of mind; it says, cannot be made to vary its operations, so . In this position he will find no difficulas to meet the ever varying circumstances ty in executing every movement required of a game of chess. This is the province of the

automaton; his head being above of intellect alone,'.

the table, he will see the chess-board

through the waistcoat, as easily as through sons around him, and explaining to them Bishoprick of Osnaburg should be in a veil; and his left hand extending be the fable of the bundle of sticks, he ex- the Catholic bishops, and in the Proyond the elbow of the figure, be will be hosted them to reign in union; and in testant branches of the house of Luneenabled to guide its hand to any part of the history of their own family, pointed burg; in consequence of which, Ernest the board, and to take up and let go a out the disadvantages which had arisen chess-man, with no other ** delicate me from the frequent division of the country Christian Louis, was elected bishop.

Augustus, the

youngest brother of, chanism” than a string communicating into petty sovereignties, and the imposwith the fingers. His right hand being sibility of their either acquiring power or Christian died without issue, and was within the chest, may serve to keep in intluence, or even of maintaining their succeeded by his brother, George motion the contrivance for producing the hereditary dignity, unless they governed William, who joined the states of noise which is heard during the moves, and the country as one state. The advice of Holland, in the war against France, to perforin the other tricks, of moving the the aged father had a powerful effect upon and at the end of the campaign, head, tapping on the chest, &c.

his gallant sons. They agreed that the transmitted to the emperor, seventeen In order to facilitate the introduction sovereign power should be vested, withof the player's left arm into the arm of the out restriction, in the elder brother; who, standards and colours out of seventyfigure, the elbow of the latter is obliged on his death, should be succeeded by the two, which his troops had captured from

the to be drawn backwards; and, to account next in seniority. To prevent any future

enemy. The eldest son of the for and conceal this strained attitude, a division, they bound themselves by a so- Bishop of Osnaburg, George Louis, pipe is ingeniously placed in the automa- lemn oath, that only one should marry; afterwards George the First of Engton's hand. This pipe must not be remov- and that they should leave it to the deter: land, served under his father during ed till the other arrangements are com

mination of chance, which of them should this campaign; and, though only fifpleted.

be that one. The lot was cast, and tell teen years of age, his gallantry was • When all is ready, and the pipe re-upon George, the sixth son.' inoved, the exhibitor may turn round the

conspicuous in every action, Ernest wioder or key, to give the impression to his eldest son, succeeded. He died in Jolin, succeeded to the governinent of

On the death of William, Ernest, Augustus, on the death of his brother weight, and to serve as a signal to the 1611, and Christian, the second bro- the states of Hanover, in 1679. He player to set the head of the automaton ther next assumed the government. had previously married Sophia, the in motion.

He supported the Elector, Palatine of youngest daughter of Frederick, King The above process is simple, feasible, the Rhine, who had been elected King of Bohenia, by Elizabeth, daughter of and effective; shewing, indisputably, that of Bohemia, that prince who was James the First of England. In 1692, the phenomena may be produced without abandoned by his father in law, our he was raised to the dignity of Elector, the aid of machinery, and thereby render- Janses the First. In an engagement to which was attached the hereditary ing it probable, that the chess player be with the Spaniards, under Gonzalves office of great standard bearer of the mata, and derives its merit solely from de Cordova, at Fleurus, Christian had empire. the very ingenio's mode by which the his right arm shot off, but took the • No court in Germany, nor indeed in Concealment of a living agent is effected.' field again as soon as his wounds were Europe, was more splendid than that of

The reference to the engravings in healed. He died in 1626, at the age Hanover; and the courtiers of Ernest Authis ingenious dissertation, is so fre- of thirty-six, leaving the government of gustus may be said to have rivalled those quent and so 'essential for the due ex-Luneburg and the command of the of Lonis the Fourteenth in the politeness planation of the principle upou which army to his next brother, Augustus, The old Duke of Luneburg lived in great the chess-player is conducted, that we

who displayed much gallantry in the retirement in his castle at Celle, and selfear we have made the subject but

He died in 1636, and was suc- dom appeared in the splendid circle of

very inperfectly intelligible; but it ap

ceeded by his next brother, Frederick, bis younger brother.' peared to us sufficiently curious for a who died in 1648.

The Elector died in 1698, and was short notice, and to those who may feel George, the sixth son, on whom the succeeded in his titles and estates by a further interest in it, we recommend matrimonial lot had fallen, and who is bis son, George Louis, who continued this brief work, and a watchsul visit to the ancestor of the present royal family to reside with his mother at Hanover, the automaton itself. The collection of England, served with the Swedish until called to the throne of Great Briof the Knight's moves' should be army under Gustavus Adolphus. He tain. Here the Genealogical History seen by all chess-players.

married Anne-Eleanora, of Hesse of the House of Guelph terminates, D'Amstadt, by whom he left four sons and we shall, therefore, pass over the

and four daughters. By an agreement account of the iotrigues at the English A General History of the House of with his brothers, it was settled that court respecting the succession, and Guelph, &c. By Andrew Halliday.

the states should be divided into two the description of Hanover and Bruns(Concluded from p. 120.)

duchies after their decease; that the wick, and pass to the remaining division William the Fourth, son of Ernest eldest of his surviving sons should have of the work, the Records and Original the Confessor, on the death of his fa- Luneburg, or Celle; and the second, Documents of the House of Guelph. ther, in 1546, succeeded to the Duchy Calemburg, then called Hanover: but These records are prefaced by an acof Loneburg, including Celle, in the this arrangement did not take place count of the monasteries founded by magnificent castle of which he fixed until after the death of Frederick, the the Guelphs, and of their sepulchres, his residence. He married Dorothea, lust of the seven brothers, in 1648. previous to Henry the Lion; and an acthe daughter of Christian the Third of Christian Louis, the eldest son of count of the Saxon ancestors of the Denmark, and dying in 1592, left fif- George, on succeeding to the sove - Guelphs, up to the same period. These teen children, seyeu of them sons, of reiguty on the death of bis uncle, fixed are detailed in letters and statements whom the following striking instance his residence'at Celle. By at treaty of from the resident inagistrates, clergyof fraternal aifection is related : peace, concluded in 1642, it was agreed inen, &c. where the monuments or re. Op his death-bed, the prince called his that the alternate nomination to the I cords are to be found. Then follows


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an account of the sepulchres of the «The church of S. Sebastian is one of do not see each other, I should suppose Guelphs, about the time of Henry the the seven basilica of Rome, that pilgrims this accident might sometimes accur, Lion, and subsequent to that period. visit to obtain “absolution and remission especially if the confession be somewhat These documents, though important of poor heretics, who had visited these

of their sins.” But here were wc, a parcel prolix. as materials towards the history of this holy shrines in vain,- for our sins, unab- the churches, there are at least fifty wo.

• For one man that I see at confession in illustrious family, do not afford us any solved, still stuck by lis. Before we left men. Whether it be that men have fewer extract ; indeed, the way in which they the church, one of its retainers begged of sins, or women more penitence, or that are huddled together, without order or us, " for the holy souls in purgatory," it is more repugnant to the pride of man connection, lessens their interest very upon which your friend insisted to avow them to mian, or that women have much. In the historical narrative, to upon knowing what good money could do inore time to think about them, (though which they would have given an in- them there. The man reluctantly replied, for that matter, as far as I see, both sexes creased value, the author has scarcely for them, and that these masses shortened mine. But so it is. However, the men

are equally idle here,) I cannot deteravailed himself of them. The whole the period of their purgation.

do confess. They must. If every true work betrays a want of method and

• Is What rascals these priests must be, born Italian, man, woman, and child, withgreat slovenliness, both in style and ar- if they know their masses will release the in the Pope's dominions, does not con. rangement; and notwithstanding the poor souls that are broiling in the flames, fess and receive the communion at least resources and advantages Dr. Halli- and yet they won't say them without once a-year, before Easter, bis name is day has possessed, we consider his work being paid for it! Is that what they call posted up in the parish church; if he still merely as data towards a History of Christian charity, I wonder?”.

refrain, he is exhorted, entreated, and the Family of the Guelphs, which is as

• The man pitching on his last word, otherwise tormented; and if he persist in much a desideratum as ever.

1o all only replied by recommencing his accus- his, contumacy, he is excommunicated, the requisites of an historian, fidelity Anime Sante in Purgatoria! Carità!” at all to an lialian, since it involves the

tomed whine, of “Carità Signorè' par le which is a very good joke to us, but none excepted, Dr. Halliday is niserably &c. &c.

loss of civil rights, and perhaps of liberty deficient, and his work adds one more · Mr.

then shewing him a pias- and property. Even the Pope confesses, to the many regrets we have often felt, tre, asked him with great apparent serious which I don't understand; for they say that Gibbon did not live to finish his ness and simplicity, how many souls that he is infallible. Then, if infallible, how Dissertation, which would have been a would take out of purgatory. The man, can he have any failings to confess: record worthy of the subject, and which evidently half enraged, but unwilling to Plenary indulgence and remission is one of the finest possible for an his- lose the money, declared he could not of sins,” are liberally otiered here on very toriao.

safely take upon him to say how many | easy terms. I was at first rather startled souls it would deliver from the flames, with the prodigal manner in which that

but he could aver that it would do much full pardon of all transgressions, which the Rome in the Nineteenth Century; con towards furthering the liberation of some Gospel promises only as the reward of laining a complete Account of the of them.

sincere repentance and amendment, was Ruins of the Ancient City, the Re

then began to bargain bestowed at Rome, in consideration of remains of the Middle Ages, and the with him for the number of masses that peating certain prayers before the shrine Monuments of Modern Times, &c. &c. ened them froin one, which he at first of money to certain priests.

were to be said for it; and having cheap- of certain saints, or paying a certain sum In a Series of Letters, written dur

proposed, to four, he gave him the piece • I was surprised to find scarcely a ing a Residence at Rome, in the of money for the “ Ånime Sante," and church in Rome, that did not hold up at Years 1817 and 1818. 3 vols. 8vo. went away.

the door the tempting inscription of • In. Edinburgh, 1820.

• Such a conversation in such a place, a dulgenzia Plenaria." Two hundred days' This work is the production of a live century or two ago, I imagine, might have indulgence I thought a great reward for ly and entertaining writer, who has the got our friend into a hotter situation in every kiss bestowed upon the great black talents and ingenuity to treat with no- this world, than the “ Anime Sante" oc- cross in the Coliseum; but that is nothing

to the indulgences for ten, twenty, anul velty subjects that have long appeared cupy in the other. to be stale, and to reap a rich

harvest stand in St. Peter's: Spaniards, Portu- be boughi, at no exorbitant rate, in many

Confessionals in every living language even thirty thousands of years, that may in fields which have been abundantly gueze, French, English, Germans, Hun- of the churches ; so that it is amazing

what gleaned. The observations of the nu- garians, Dutch, Swedes. Greeks, and Ar- a vast quantity of treasure may be amass. thor, besides being retrospective as to menians, here find a ghostly counseller ed in the other world with very little inthe splendid monuments of antiquity ready to hear and absolve in their native dustry in this, by those who are avaricious which the Queen of cities' still boasts, tongue.

of this spiritual wealth, into which, innotices their present state, and also em- “At stated times, the confessors attend in deed, the cross or riches of this world braces 'critical remarks on the Fine the confessionals. This morning, being may be converted, with the happiest faciArtsma view of the present state of so- Friday, they were sitting in readiness

. lity imaginable. ciety, and a description of the religious were reading. All had long wands, like camel to enter into the eye of a needle

* We are told, that “it is easier for a ceremonies , manners

, and customs of fishing rods, sticking out of the box. The than a rich man into the kingdom od the modern Romans.

people passing, kneel down opposite the heaven ;” but, at Rome, at least, it would The style is pleasing and familiar; confessor, who touches their head with seem to be difficult, nay, impossible, to sometimes, perhaps, too flippant, when his wand, which possesses the virtue of keep a rich man out.' religion is the subject, for we would communicating spiritual benefit to their From several highly interestiog tales respect even the mummeries of Popery. souls. The other day, I was much amused of monastic life which these volumes Rome has been so often noticed in our by accident, a fat old friar sitting in his contain, we select the two following,

which present a melancholy picture of pages, we shall select a few extracts man was pouring through the grate, into the distress which it so frequently como which treat of matters less familiar to his unconscious, ear, the catalogue of her casions. The author is speaking of the our readers :

sins. As the confessor and the confessant convent of St. Sylvestro :

· Mr.

The history of one of the former nuns would be closed against them; and could solved to make us understand something of this convent, as related to me by one they scale the walls, no other would be else, repeated the order, and began to of the sisters, is quite a romance, and in open to them. In this situation, the cour-Aourish their swords about our ears. But its most common-place style. Her name age and presence of mind of the nun

sat with more inflexible resoluwas Sasso Ferrato; she was left an orphan saved them both. She went, dressed in tion than ever, and all that was John Bull and an heiress in infancy, and placed by her lover's clothes, to the house of the in his composition now refused to move. her uncle, her sole guardian, here, with Cardinal Vicario, who was an old friend of For my part, 1 make it a rule never to opthe intention of inducing her to take the her father's; disturbed the family; had pose these pointed arguments, and, thereveil, that ber fortune might descend to the cardinal roused out of bed on the fore, jumped out of the carriage, and purhim and to his family. It happened, plea of the most urgent and important bu- posely contrived to get myself involved however, that, at one of the grand pro-siness; obtained a private audience, amongst the horses and drawn swords of cessions of the Virgin, which the nuns threw herself at his feet, and confessed the cavalry, knowing that I was in no were assembled to behold, the young all. So earnestly did she implore him to real danger, and that would forSasso Ferrato saw, and was seen by the save her and her family from the public get his dignity, and come to my assistcaptain of the guards, stationed at the con- disgrace of an exposure, that, melted by ance, which he accordingly did; but vent, a younger son of the Guistiniani fa- her tears, he followed the plan she sug- otherwise nothing, I believe, but main force mily, and a brother of one of her youthful gested; ordered his carriage, took her, would have got him out of the carriage. companions in the convent. His visits to and one confidential chaplain on whose fi- We saw the papal procession advance up his sister became very frequent, and Sas- delity he could rely, drove to the con- the Triumphal Way, along which the vic, so Ferrato generally contrived to accoin- vent, rang up the portress, and pretending torious cars of so many Roman heroes and pany her friend on those occasions. They he had received information of a man conquerors had rolled in their day of tribecame desperately in love; but the having entered and being concealed in it, umph. His holiness seemed, however, cruel - uncle refused his consent, and by demanded instant admittance to search it, content with the honours of an ovation, arts which intimidated the young and in which, in virtue of his office, could not be for he was walking on foot, and instead of experienced mind of Sasso Ferrato, by refused at any hour. He ordered the ter- a myrtle crown, his brows were crowned powerful interest, which rendered the rified sisters to remain in their rooms, and with a large broad-brimmed scarlet velcomplaints of her lover vain, and by his having dropped the disguised nun in hers, vet hat, bound with gold lace. This hat authority, as the representative of her pa- proceeded in his mock examination till he very courteously took off as he passed rents, fie succeeded in obliging her to she had disrobed herself, and his attendo us, and afterwards made another bow, in take the veil. She only lived two years ants had conveyed away the bundle of her return for our courtesies. Our lacquey afterwards.

clothes; then professing himself perfectly was on his knees in the dust, and all the · Her lover became a maniac, and after satisfied that the information he had re- Italians we saw, awaited his approach in being confined for some time, continued, ceived was false, he left the convent,- the same attitude, then prostrated themduring the remaining years of his life, to taking care, however, next day, to have selves before him to kiss his toe, or ra: roam about the neighbourhood of the ci- the sewer so closed, that it could never ther the gold cross, embroidered in front ty, his bair and beard growing wild, his serve for any thing but a passage for dirty of his scarlet shoes. His robes, which de. dress neglected, and bis iawners gloomy water again."

scend to his feet, were scarlet; on state and ferocious, though harmless in his ac- The author gives a very amusing de- occasions he wears no colour but white. tions.'

scription of the state of society at He was attended by two cardinals, in *I am informed that young nuns often Rome, where there was then a inost their ordinary dress of black, edged with attachment is perfectly Platonic. Indeed, sorts and kinds, remnants of old dynas- horses, the very model of the gilt, scarlet, fall in love with young friars, but that the amusing collection of ex-royalty of all scarlet, followed by a train of servants; so strict are now the rules of female mo- ties, and scions of heirs legitimate and wooden-looking equipages you may have tily be so. But love, it is well known, illegitimate, all jumbled together. seen in children's baby-houses. It looked will break through bolts and bars, and Besides the old King and Queen of exactly like a large toy. grates and convent walls; and love once Spain, there are the Ex-Queen and the • The Pope himself is a very fine veinspired a nun with the project of getting young King of Etruria--the abdicated nerable old man, with a countenance exout of her convent through a common King of Sardinia, turned Jesuit-Louis pressive of benignity and pious resigna. sewer, which however unsavory, a path, Bonaparte, the deposed King of Hol- tion. His is the very head you would covered the world with her sable curtain, cien Bonaparte, the uncrowned King, roads, for exercise, after his early dinner.' she frequently practised, after night had land, living like a hermit--aud Lu- draw for a Pope: Ilave since frequenta and wrapped the peaceful sisterhood in the arms of Morpheus. Her nun's dress living like a prince. Au accidental

Our last extract shall be an account was deposited in her chamber, and the meeting with the Pope in the streets is of the palaces of Rome, and the manexterior dirty garment, with which she thus noticed :passed through the sewer, was exchanged . We were proceeding along the an

ner of living of the nobility :for oge her lover wrapped her in at its cient Via Triumphalis, that leads from the • Palaces, to an English ear, convey an mouth. She used to walk with him some church of St. Gregory to the Coliseum, idea of all that the imagination can figure times for hours, but always returned to her when the coachman observing to us, of elegance and splendour. But, after a convent before the dawa. One evening, “ Viene il papa," drew up close by the certain residence in Italy, even this ob. however, on returning from her romantic side of the roail, and stopped. His holi- stinate early association is conquered, and ramble by moonlight, what was her hor- ness was preceded by a deiachment of the the word immediately brings to our mind sor to find the sewer—the well-known “ Guarda Nobile," who, as soon as they images of dirt, neglect, and decay. The passage-completely choaked up with came up with our open caleshe, com- palaces of Rome are innumerable; but water, and all entrance impracticable. Ma'ided us, in no very gentle voice, to get then, every gentleman's house is a paDiscovery would bring certain destruc- out of the carriage. But whose lace,-I should say, every nobleman's, tion on berself and her lover. Their lives spirit did not at all relish this mandate, for there are no gentlemen in Italy, exwould be the forfeit, or a solitary dun. nor the tone in which it was uttered, ma- cept noblemen; society being, as of old, geon their inildest doom. Concealment nifested no intention to comply, and our divided into two classes, the Patricians and was impracticable; for who would har- servant, with true Italian readiness at a the Plebeians ; but though every gentlebour them? Flight impossible; for lie, declared we were Forestieri, who did man is a nobleman, I am sorry to say, without passports, the gates of the city Ino: understand Italian. 'The officers, re- every nobleman is not a gentleman ; nei

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ther would many of their palaces be con- of ordure and rubbish defiling their co-ceive his vassals, hear their complaints, sidered by any means fit'residences for lumned courts; you ascend noble marble redress their grievances, and administer gentlemen in our country. The legiti- staircases, whose costly materials are in. justice. Perhaps I ought to speak in the mate application of the word, which, with visible beneath the accumulated filth that past, rather than the present tense; but us, is confined to a building forming a covers thein; and you are sickened with they still exercise a sort of feudal jurisquadrangle, and inclosing a court within the noisome ordures that assail youat every diction over their numerous". lekantryitself, is by no means adhered to here. turn. You pass through long suites of anong whom their will is laws. Every house that has a porte cocher, and ghastly rooms, with a few crazy old ta. • Above the door of every palace, upon many that have not, are called palaces; bles and chairs, thinly scattered through the escutcheon of the fainily arıns, we and, in short, under that high-sounding them, and behold around you nothing but seldom fail to see the ș. P. O. R., all that appellation, are comprehended places, gloon and discomfort.

is left of the senate and people of Rome.' whose wretchedness far surpasses the ut- The custom of abandoning the ground. The lovers of light reading will be most stretch of an Engli-h imagination to floor to nenial purposes, except when much pleased with these volumes, while conceive. used for shops, which is almost universal

the more grave student may find much Rome, however, contains real palaces, throughout Italy, and covering its winwhose magnitude and magnifience are as-dows, both for 'security and economy, worthy of his attention. tonishing to transalpine eyes; but their with a strong iron grate, without any glass tasteless architecture is more astonishing behind it, contributes to give the houses Laneham's Letter, describing the magstill.

and palaces a wretched and dungeon-like nificent_Pageants presented before • Though they have the great names of appearance. Michael Angelo, Bramante, Versopi, Ber

Queen Elizabeth, at Kenilworth Case • It is no uncommon thing for an Ita.

tle, in 1575 ; with an Introductory nini, &c. &c. among their architects; lian nobleman to go up into the attics of though they are built of travertine stone, his own palace himself, and to let the

Preface, Glossarial and Explanatory which, whether viewed with the deepened principal rooins to lodgers. Proud as he

Notes. 1200. pp. 114. London, hues of age in the Coliseum, or the is, he thinks this no degradation; though

1821. brightness of recent finish in St. Peter's, he would spurn the idea of allowing his Ir might almost be a question whether is, I think, by far the finest material sons to follow any professsion, save that of the author of Waverley is not entitled for building in the world; and though, arms or of the church. He would sooner to a national reward, even in a comfrom the grandeur of their scale, and the see them dependants, flatterers, eaves-mercial point of view. For, independprodigality of their decoration, they ad- droppers, spies, gainblers, cavalieri ser- ent of the good taste in novel writing initted of grand combinations and striking vanti

, polite rogues of any kind-or even which he has created, and the gratificaeffect,---yet they are lamentably desti- beggars, than honest merchảnts, lawtute of architectural beauty in the exte- yers, or physicians.

tion that he has afforded to millious, rior; and in the interior, though they are •The Fiano Palace has its lower story every production from his pen gives an filled with vast ranges of spacious apart- let out into shops, and its superior ones active impulse to trade. Printers, ments, though the polished marbles and occupied by about twenty different fa- booksellers, book-binders, &c. are imprecious spoils of antiquity have not been milies--among which, the duke and mediately set in motion, the doors of spared to embellish them, though the duchess live in a corner of their own pa. the circulating libraries are closely begenius of painting has made thein her mo- lace.

set, and the most agreeable present dern temples, and sculpture adorned them * It is the same case with more than half that a lover can make to bis mistress with the choicest remains of ancient art—the nobles of Rome and Naples. But yet they are, generally speaking, about the Doria, the Borghese, and the Colon is an early copy of the last novel of the most inconinodious, unenviable, un- na, possess enough of their ancient the author of • Waverley.' The dracomfortable dwellings, you can imagine: wealth to support their hereditary dignity, matic writers pounce on it, while it yet

• I know it may be said, that comfort in and their immense palaces are filled only steams from the press, and the scene England and in Italy is not the same with their own families and dependants

: painter and the machinist are'instantly thing; but it never can consist in dull. Not but that, though lodgings are not let set to work to produce, in as short in ness, dirt, and dilapidation, any where at the Dora Palace, butter is sold there space as possible, a drama on the theu Italian confort may not require thick every week, which, in England, would carpets, warm fires, or close rooins; but seem rather an extraordinary trade for most popular subject of the day-the it can be no worse of clean floors, commo- one of the first noblemen in the land to last novel or romance by the author of dious furniture, and a house in good re- carry on in his own house. Yet this very Waverley.' But the business does not pair.

butter-selling prince looks down with a stop here ; authors of less note find it In habitations of such immense size species of contempt upon a great British an excellent speculation to graft an exand costly decorations as these, you look merchant.

planatory or illustrative tract on the nofor libraries, baths, music rooms, and • Commerce seems to be no longer re- vel. of this character is the work beevery appendage of refinement and luxu: spected in Italy--not even in Florence, fore us, which is a reprint of a curious ry; but these things are rarely to be found where its reigning princes were mer-old tract that is repeatedly referred to in Italian palaces. If they were arranged chants. Yet the proudest Florentine nou in the romance of Kenilworth ; and, and kept up, indeed, with any thing of blemen sell wine, by the flask, at their English propriety, consistency, order, or own palaces. I wonder the profits of this there stiled “ a very diverting tract, writcleanliness, many of thein would be no- little huckstering trade never induced ten by as great a coxcomb as ever blotble habitations; but, in the best of them, them to think of entering into larger con


paper. you see a barrenness, neglect, an all pre- cerns, that they might have larger returns. It appears, from a well-written introvailing look of misery--deficiencies every I wonder it never led them to remember ductory preface, that • Master Robert where—and contemptible meannesses ad. that commerce was the source of the mo. Lanehüm was a native of Nottingham, hering to grasping magnificence. But no- dern prosperity of Italy, But commerce but brought up in London, where he was thing is so offensive as the dirt

. Amongst cannot exist without freedom--a truth that taken under the patronage of the Earl all the palaces, there is no such thing as a princes and people have yet to learn here. palace of cleanliness. You see,-and • 'The palaces of all the ancient Ro- of Leicester, who proinoted him to the that is not the worst,-you smell abomin man nobility have, in the entrance hall, a office of clerk of the council chamber able dunghills, heaped up against the crimson canopy of state, beneath which, and gentleman usher; offices which, as walls of splendid palaces, and foul heaps the prince sits on a raised throne to re-lhe says in his letter, gave him the pri

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