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. In the second year of the same King, that he incur the pain of felony in this which will ever be a matter of bargain, the engraver's wages were, as before, case.'

and consequently ever in a state of Huce iwenty pounds per annum.

Notwithstanding the disappoint. tuation.' And, in his sixth year, the salary of ments which inust have been perpetu.

(To be continued.) the warden's clerk was nine pence a-day.' ally experienced from the professions of

The salary of the warden of the these alchynists, it is certain that a re- A Narrative of Travels in Northern Miot, is now 4341. 2s. and that of the liance on the powers of their art, con- Africa, in the Years 1818, 19, and eograver 5001.

tinúed solate as the 17th of Edward IV. zo, &c. &c. By Captain G. F. The supply of the Mint with bul- as appears by u warrant of that mo- Lyon, R. N. lion was in early times considered to benarch, to John Frensh, affording him

(Concluded from p. 199.) a circumstance of too much importance protection to practise a true and a AFTER the death of Mr. Ritchie, of to be trusted to natural means alone; profitable conclusion in the cunnyng or which we gave an account in our last and the aid of alchymy was, therefore, transmutac'on of metals.'

number, Captain Lyon determined to resorted to for that purpose. Thus the We conclude, for the present, with penetrate to the southward of Morgold of which the nobles of Edward some judicious observations on the de zouk. Having secured such of their Ill. were formed, is said to have been preciation of money :

effects as they intended to leave, our produced by Raymond Lully :

• From the variations in the price of author, accompauied by Belford, set *Ashmole, in his notes upon Norton's bullion, has arisen the necessity of reduc- forward on the 13th of December, Ordinall, and Hermes Bird, has given a ing, from time to time, the actual weight The itinerary presents many details very circumstantial account of the bring- and value of the coins ; but their further of general interest, but we shall notice ing of Lully into England, by Cremer, depreciation, as to their effect in ex. only some of the most prominent. At Abbot of Westminster; of his agreeing to change for other commodities, has been Zuela, where the inhabitants are nearly make the King rich by his art, in conse influenced in a great measure by the in all white, very hospitable, and peacequence of that monarch's promise to en- creased quantity in circulation, which has ter into a war against the Turks; of his reduced their value, in like manner as the able, our author was told of a remark. refusal to work any longer, when he same circumstance will reduce the value able fowl, which would greatly excite found that Edward would not keep that of any other article of exchange. That bis surprise. The shrief had brought promise; and of his being clapt up in the this is really the case, is amply to be a cock and hen of the breed froin Tower in consequence.

proved from the progressive reduction of Egypt, and what was inost singular, "The gold,' he says, 'is affirmed by the interest of money. From the 5th they both crowed. . These rare animals an unwritten verity) to have been made chapter of the statute 3 Henry VII. it proved to be nothing more than by Raymond Lully, in the Tower of should seem, that, by an erasive process, geese. Arriving at Gatrone, on MoLondon; and besides the tradition, the wenty per cent. was sometimes paid hammed's birth-day, every thing proinscription is some proof; for. upon the But it was not until the 37th year of Henreverse is a cross fleury, with Lioneux ry VIII. that the legal rate os interest was

mised a gay meeting, and the young inscribed, “ Jesus autem transiens per determined by statute, when it was or

Tibboo girls were full dressed on the medium eorum ibat;" that is, “as Jesus dained that not more than ten per cent. occasion. They are light and elegant passed invisible, and in most secret man- should be taken ; and after several re-in form, have aqueline noses, tine teeth, ner, hy the midst of the Pharisees, so ductions, at various times, it was brought and lips forined like those of Eurothat gold was made by invisible and secret down to five per cent. in the 12th year of

peaus. Their costume is graceful; art amidst the ignorant."

Queen Anne'; at which its legal rate has the hair is plaited on each side in such That Edward was, in some degree, a remained stationary until this present believer in the powers of alchymy, and, time.

a manner as to hang down the cheeks

like a fan. therefore, not improbably the dupe of • Its actual rate, however, has been

A piece of leather is tasLully, will, I think, appear from the fol- perpetually, and necessarily; varying, tened from the front to the back of the lowing record. The patent roll of his through every period, since it first receiv- head, in the centre, and through this third year states, that the King had been ed a legal sanction.

ale passed twenty or thirty silver given to understand, that John le. Rous, During a war, when the necessities rings :and Master William de Dalby, could of government create a powerful compe. On each side of the head, they wear pake silver by art of alkemony; that they tition in the money market, it cannot be an ornament of gold and rough cut agate, hd heretofore made it, and still did procured at the interest which the law has and round it, above the ears, a bandeau make it; and that by such making of prescribed ; and even government itself of coral, cowrie shells, or agates; several that metal, they could greatly profit the is obliged to exceed the established rate, light chains of silve having round bells realm ; he, therefore, commanded Tho- either by an actual increase, or by a pro- | at the end of them, are attached to the mas Cary to find them out, and to bring fit which the lender expects to make froin hair, and, when dancing, produce a please them before the King, with all the instru: the transfer of part of ihe securities given ing scund. Their necks are loaded with ments, &c. belonging to the said art. If to him.

gaudy necklaces, and one-half of their they would come willingly, they were to When a few years of peace have well-iormed bosoms is shown by the ar. be brought safely and honourably; but, brought back a portion of that wealth rangement of their drapery; their arms if not, they were to be seized, and which the war had carried out of the are bare to the shoulders,'having above brought before the King wherever he kingdom, then the value of money begins the elbow neat silver rings of the thick might be. All sheriffs, &c. were com- to decrease, and it may be borrowed at ness of a goose-quill, and on the wrists manded to assist the said Thomas Cary. less interest than five per cent., because one or two broader and flatter. In the ear This belief in the creation, or, at least, the competition in the market is then on they wear three or four silver rings of vastransmutation of metals, was, in the reign the contrary side to what it was before, rious sizes, the largest in circumference of Henry IV, so firmly established, that and there exists a greater eagerness to hanging the lowest. Their most singular we find, in his fifth year, a statute which dispose of inoney than to borrow it. ornament is a piece of red coral, through solemnly " ordained and established that • From this, which is the natural course a hole in the riglat nostril, which really rone from henceforth shall use to multi- of things, we may learn how ineffectual, does not look unbecoming. The dress is ply gold or silver, nor use the craft of and consequently how impolitic, it is to a large shawl of blue, or blue and white in ultiplication; and if any the same do, I attempt to fix, by legal restraints, that' cotton, of which they have a variety of

The date te re in and poslanided propertyedte and his



patterns, fastened over the shoulders and ous state. across the bosom, and hanging in grace close to the houses, and there are seve- possession of the better classes, and is ful folds, so as to show the back, right ral stagnant pools of water pear the cultivated for them by the free servants breast, and right arm bare. These castle. Of the natives of these parts rience exactly the

and slaves, who work alike, and expe.

treatment, dresses are very short, and exhibit the leg to the calf; but with all this display,

we learn, that
• The Tibboo of Borgno are all Kaffirs, relations at the decease of the owner ;

Lands generally descend to the nearest their general appearance offered nothing but are quiet inofensive people, living in but if he dies without heirs, or is put to offensive or immodest. • They tripped out all the evening to ex booshi, which are so closely woven. that clains them as his right; the owner, not

houses made of palm-leaf mats, called death for an alleged crime, the sultan hibit their tinery, and were proudly point. the rain cannot penetrate thein. I have withstanding, can, jf he pleases, buy or ed out by their mothers, who were visit

seen huts of this description at Gatrone sell, without being bound by any sort of ing in our neighbourhood. As our hostess had a very pretty daughter, all the and Tegerry, and consider them superior entail or clause, against parting with fayoung people came to call on her, which | 10 the Fezzan houses in general

. Very mily property. 'Houses are held in the afforded them a pretence for looking at habitants subsisting chietiyon dates, are leased, or sald, the price is generally

same way as the lands. When grounds the two new Mamlukes, who had just ar

which grow rived. I sat on the sand, at the door, and of an inferior kind, and on the flesh of date trees on the premises; it happens,

there in immense quantities, proportioned to the number of wells and was much gazed at, not in the Arab way; their sheep, goats, and cainels: they however, not unfrequently, that the palms but by stealth, froin behind their little have alio a"small breed of black cattle, are the property of one man, while

the shawis

, and peeping through the palm but these are chiefly used for milking land on which they grow belongs to anobushes.

The arms of these people I have spoken ther. The gardens are entirely cultivat* As it was the custon on this night, for of in a former page. Their dress has very led by the paddle or hoe, and parcelled the girls to dance through the town in little variety; and, except the skins of out into squares of about three feet, harevery direction, I heard druins, bagpipes, animals, they have only such and the usual accompaniment of tin-pots. cloth» as they soinetimes obtain from their ing little channels to them, for the purAt midnight I was called up to see ihem

of irrigation. Much dung is used, perform at our door. They were directed trading neighbours which they wear, and the sandy soil of old gardens almost by an old woman, with a torch in one


assumes the appearance of earth. From hand, and a long palm branch in the hind, hanging down as low as the knees. the great labour requisite to keep there other, and sung, in chorus, verses which few of the inen have any other covering non-resident to have lands in Pezzan ;

Boys and girls are entirely naked, and spots in order, it would not repay any she recited to them. Three nen sung than a leather wrapper round the loins; though I am confident that such possessand played on drums with their hands; all have the head bare. Marriage, accord- sions would be respected, as there are and by their motions regulated the dancing to the accounts of the Arabs, who vilcers, who were to advance or retreat ac

many absentees who have large groves of cordingly. The tallest girls were placed cruelties, is unknown among them, and lify them in order to excuse their own

palms, which their relatives, or those emin the centre, while the younger ones the women are in common; brothers and exact account of. The difficulty of hind.

ployed by them, keep, and render up an forned the wings, and they then danced sisters live together, and confess it when ing willing, honest, faithful, or contented in a circle, round their governess. The asked. They have no knowledge of a workmen, is very great, and each master lookers-on had torches of palm leaves, God; they are, nevertheless, peaceable and sung occasionally in chorus.

or agent is obliged to attend constantly • The chief object in the dance, seened and neighbourly towards each other.

lo his own inmediate property or charge; One or to be the waving, gracefully, from right mitted that there was a great Spirit, who been, attended for generations by the

two whoin ( questioned, ad.

some gardens, however, are, and have to left, and in tiine with the inusic, a light shawl, which was passed over the where he was to be found? They i nagine

inade them; but laughed when I asked same family of labourers.' shoulders, the ends being in the hands. thunder and lightning to be produced by

The government of Fezzan was onde They employed their feet, only to ad- their deceased friends, and are, there. hereditary; and the office of kadi still vance orr treat occasionally; but accom fore, very fearful during a stosin. They continues so.

Mukui's military force, panied the change of time by movements at the blood of camels when baked over if he presses the Arabs into his service; of the head from side to side. At a given a fire; and they also will eat animals sometimes amounts to five thousand signal they all knelt, still going through which die a natural death. Lizari came Io Morzvuk, the pavishment ing their vere: They danced so exactly with cloches, and inade him as comfort of crimes is the saine'as at Tripoli

, ale uniform, that it appeared like witchcraft; the Ghrazzie, had for the lat forty-two und are in time, and were dressed so much in able as we could. Neither he, nor any of ready noticed. The men drink freely,

very good humoured druukwhen, on a sudden, every torch was extinguished, and the fairies vanished, to days, lasted any other food than dites; he ards, but hospitality, the Arab virtue, exhibit in some other part of the town.'

was fat, bowever, and so were they all, | is vokuown in Fezzan. Of slavery and

which is a strong proof of the nutritivus the slave-trade, our author says, We would gladly here finish the acquality of that fruit."

• In Morzouk, about a tenth part of the count of the Tibboo wonen, when it is On the 16th of January, Captain population are slaves, though many have so much in their favour; but justice re Lyon returned to Murzouk, and his been brought away from their country so quires us to add a terrible drawback seventh chapter contaios such informa- young, as hardly to be considered in that on their charıns—they are immoder- tion respecting the country of Fezzen, light. With respect to the household ately fond of tobacco, • with a great as he has been able to collect. The slaves, little or no difference is to be perportion of which every mouth is cram- soil is generally a sandy desert; little ceived between them and freemen, and med. On the ind of January, our grain is produced, and the people de- they are often entrusted with the attairs of traveller arrived at Tegerry, the south-rive their chief subsistence from the their master. These domnestic slaves ar ern limit of Fezzan. The castle walls, dates. Sheep and youts are too exo of the family to which they belong, 0.0

rarely sold, and on the death of any which forinerly çoromanded the town, pensive for the poorer classes, and even

or more of them receive their liberty, are about thirty feet thick at the bot. among the opulent, there is no man who when, being accustomed to the couatry, tom, and ten at the top; they are com- can afford to eat meat more than three and not having any recollection of their posed of mud, but are now in a ruin- 1 times a-week :

own, they marry, settle, and are conse

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quently considered as naturalized. All ornamented with one. They are called tion to the Tripoli ladies: feeling, howslavery is for an unlimited time, unless goobba.'

ever, great pity for her, I consented to when a religious feeling of the master in- 1 Among the few notices of natural fake ber under my charge. Lilla Fatma, duces him to set a bondsman free on any history which this work contains, we whom this unfortunate female had served great festival, on the occasion of a death, find the following:

for a whole year, allowed her to come or, which not unfrequently happens, from a wish to show his approval of the slave's me, which was really very curious ; it had money to help her on her journey.'

A little blackish rat was brought to away without giving her even a shirt, or services.

a head resembling that of a badger, with At Zleetum, our author says, " It was, when the people were more the same peculiar marks by the side of I was much amused by the songs of opulent, the custom to liberate a male or the face ; its tail was long, black, and the Negresses while pounding wheat; female on the feast of Bairamı, after the rather bushy. Belford and myself com- they sang all their country airs in chorus, fast of Rhamadan. This practice is not trived to make a cage for it, out of a tin and there was in their wildness much entirely obsolete, but nearly so. The canister, and I discovered that it had the beauty. Their Boori

, or songs used in slaves are procured from the inland traders, or on those lawless expeditions 1 power of clinging to the bars, and climb- sorcery, were particularly striking, and have already mentioned.

ing with its back downwards; it was they kept time to the music with their * Respecting the offspring of slaves, it very fierce, but I had great hopes of wooden pestles and glass armlets, which may not be uninteresting to observe the three other animals

, called by the Arabs was thus explained to me: the three girls

being able to bring it home, as well as sounded like cymbals. One of the songs regulations existing in Fezzan, which are, athub, which resembled lizards in many who sung it were pounding in the same as far as I can collect, the same as in all respects, but were much more clumsily mortar, and regulated their beating, ich Moslem countries. * A Khadlein, or negress , bearing a child their tails

were broad, and covered with they sung. At first she pounded slowly,

formed, and slower in their motions ; 1 cording to the circumstances of which by her master, cannot afterwards be sold, but must be maintained for the reinainder their fore paws, which they had the keep up their spirits, as the warriors

scaly spikes, and they could hang by one telling the other two that they must of her life by him, or any person to whom he may marry her; and her child is free, head and nose much resembling those of would bring more trophies than any one

power of closing on any object; their would soon be at home, and their lovers and equally entitled to support.

the hawk's-bill turtle, and, to a certain else; they then increased their time, and A negress having a child by any man degree, they changed their colour as ca- sang a song of triumph, the warriors bebut her master, (even though the parties meleons do. should be marricd,) is the mother of a

ing supposed to have returned; when, slave, she herself not being free.

Our author being unwell, was rub- suddenly, they beat without measure, • Should the female slave of one man bed with an Arabic compound for the singing in a very shrill and rapid manner be with child by the male slave of ano- fever, by a white woman of Tripoli, of as for one who was dead. They then

ceaseıl beating altogether, and sung a trio, ther, the infant so born becomes the pro- whom we learn, that

in which two endeavoured to comfort the perty of the master of the female, and • About eighteen months before this

girl who had lost her lover, she appearing can, as well as its mother, be sold. period, the bashaw, one evening, surpris- Inconsolable

. At length they agreed to "'A child, the offspring of a free wo- ed his black wires and a party of their fe- have recourse to sorcery, to ascertain if man by a slave, partakes of its mother's male friends, making merry, or, in other

he died nobly: A goat was supposed to state, and is free.

words, very drunk and noisy, and playing be killed, each of them examining its en• It not unfrequently happens that mas- all sorts of extraordinary pranks; on sight trails, and singing several incantations, unters allow family slaves to marry without of him they fled in all directions, leaving til a' happy sign was discovered, when liberating them; but their children are in his presence, his wife or wives, with slaves, and can be sold, although it is not this Tripoline woman and a negress slave with a very beautiful chorus. The mas

they resumed their pestles, wioding up considered honourable so to dispose of the latter had her throat cut immediate ter of the girls forbade their singing them. These children, and, indeed, all ly, in the presence of her mistress,-the those born in the country, are called wives were threatened with death, and any more, even though I earnestly reShushan.'

the white woman, named Sleema, the quested that they might be suffered to On the 9th of February, Captain doctress above-mentioned, received five continue; be said it was unholy, and that Lyon left Morzouk, to return to Tripo- hundred bastinadoes; she was then allows they were as great Kaffirs now, as before li. As this is ground on which we haye ed to depart, but the bashaw, afterwards to be the Prophet of God.' already accompanied him, our further thought proper to send after her, with an

We now take our leave of Captain order that she should be strangled. She extracts will be very few, and rather

was fortunate enough to escape, and after Lyon, and, although he has not added desultory than otherwise. Our author wandering about for some time, attached muchto our stock of information respect, was at Sockna on the 28th of Febru- berself to Lilla Fatma, who was also ex. ing Africa, yet wethink he has furnished ary, and he says,

iled and given to Sheikh Barood, with many useful hints and notices, which . This morning being the first of their whom she arrived safely at Fezzan. The may be of considerable service to fospring, and a day of general rejoicing, it poor woman, owing to severe illness, was ture travellers. One value this work is the custom to dress out little tents or on the brink of the grave during her stay certainly possesses---faithfulness; the bowers on the tops of the houses, decorat- at Morzouk, which made her determine ing them with carpets, jereeds, shawls, on leaving the place, and braving every and what appeared to him of interest,

author modestly narrates what he saw and sashes. A gaudy handkerchief on a danger by a return to Tripoli. On my pole, as a standard, completes the work, coming away, she put herself under my without attempting to astonish his which is loudly cheered by the little chil- protection, and I promised to intercede readers by marvellous adventures; and dren, who eat, drink, and play during the with the bashaw for her pardon. As she when we consider, that he may have day in these covered places, welcoming was emaciated and very weak, I allowed trusted much to the notes of Mr. the spring by songs, and crying continu- her to mnount my camels, and I fed her Ritchie, and did not, in the outset of ally, " o welcome spring! with pleasure during the journey. She certainly was the journey, expect to be called on to bring us plenty." The women give en- not a very interesting figure, being much furnish a narrative, it is not surprising tertainments in their houses, and the day marked with the small-pox, and resemis quite a holiday. From the top of our bling, in form and person, a little fat man;

that it is in some parts less complete house these little bowers had a very pret- and I was well aware that I should not than could have been wished. ty effect, every roof in the town being I make a very beautiful or virtuous addi- A number of lithographic plates, drawn by Captain Lyon, illustrate and more anxious to prevent forgery than notes

manufactured by machinery in ornament the work.

the Bank Directors,—that commis- America were subinitted to the celebrat

sioners have been appointed to investi- ed wood-engraver, Mr. Branston, in orA Practical View of an Invention for gate the subject, and that immense der to have his opinion as to the possibithe better protecting Bank Notes sums have been expended to procure a of these specimens was so bulky and com

lity of forgery. The machinery for one against Forgery. Wustrated by va- note that cannot be initated. To a

plex, that two waggons would not contain rious Specimens. By John Holt certain extent we will admit all this; it, and it required six weeks for the fixing. Ibbetson, Esq. 810. pp. 68. Lon- but, as perfection is not a plant of The other specimens were from a less don, 1821.

earthly growth, we must scarcely ex- complex, but still difficult and expensive So much has already been written on pect to attain it; and although there progress. Mr. Branston, in order to con. the prevention of forgery in a moral may not yet have been discovered a since the Bank Directors of the folly of point of riew, that it is soarcely neces- plan perfectly secure from imitation, their undertaking, made perfect fac-simi

) sary to notice it. It is, however, a yet several have been invented, which subject on which the legislator, the would render the initation so difficult distinguished from the originals. Some

men, so as they could not possibly be merchant, and the moralist, must feel on the one hand, and so easy of detection of the fac-similes did not occupy more a deep interest. The numerous vic-on the other, that forgery would be than three or four hours each of the time tims to a criine of recent date, declare nearly annihilated. In justice, how- of this able artist, and the two waggon-load either the inefficiency of capital punish- ever, to the Bank Directors, we copy specimen was equalled in less than twentyments, or the waotou negligence of the following article, which has appeared four hours! those who perinit the crime to be so in some of the newspapers, containing

So much for the plans adopted or easily committed. The facility of forg- an account of their latest labours :

tried by the Bank of England : we now ing Bank of England notes is the • We understand that the plan adopted

come to notice one which has been great temptation; and while they con- by the Bank of England for the formation neglected by them—the plan submittinue to be so wretchedly executed as of a new bank-liote, and which has for ted by Mr. Ibbetson, the author of to be imitated by any engraver's appren- some time past been pursued with the the work before us. Those who have seen tice of one year's standing, that temp- greatest activity, has completely failed in this gentleman's work on “Eccentric tation will continue, even though the its object, notwithstanding all that has Circular Turning,' need not to be told of sacrifice of human life should increase been said to the contrary.

his ingenuity. it appears, that among a hundred fold. Of that sacrifice of cimens were exhibited to the Bank by Directors, Mr. Ibbetson sent one.

• In the first instance, a variety of spe- the various plans submitted to the Bank late years, we have a melancholy proof some of the most eminent and ingenious in a returo made to the House of Com- gentleinen of the profession, none of Convinced that whatever is executed mons on the 15th of last month. It which were deemed eligible. It is said by the hand may be imitated by the is a 'Statement of the Number of Per- that a plan was afterwards submitted by Sir hand, Mr. Ibbetson's is confined to sous convicted of any crime connected Wm. Congreve, and was nothing more machinery engravings for letter-press with the Forgery of the Notes of the than a compound ora consolidation of the work, and he says, he always considerBank of England, in each of the years, This was accepted, and immediately put offered a protective power, and many

best features in the rejected specimens. ed that 'engravings of that description from the year 1790 to the year 1820, into execution, under the management, advantages beyond engravings of any both inclusive.' From this list, it ap- we are told, of Mr. Applegath, on other sort. In this opinion, he is conpears that there were no convictions whom an annuity of a large amount Girmed by the Report of the Society of until the year 1797, the period when had been previously settled for life, as a

Arts. cash payınents were suspended, and, remuneration for his services, and his un- The machinery used by Mr. we believe, one pound notes first issued. dertaking the sole management of this ar- Ibbetson has been invented by himself, In that year there was only one capital duous and extensive concern. After notes and his work contains abundance of conviction. In the year 1820, there

to an enormous amount had been finished, specimens, which combine the utmost were not less than 352 convictions! 77 cost of machinery, including the sums description will afford any idea ; they

the expense of which, together with the elegance and precision. Of these no capital, and 275 for what is terined the paid to ditferent artists, amounted in the need only, however, 10 be seen to be minor offence, that of having forged | whole to UPWARDS OF ONE HUNDRED AND Bank notes in their possession. The TWENTY THOUSAND POUNDS, ali artist, in a

admired. A few extracts from the total number of convictions, from 1797 few hours, made a fac-simile of the new work will, couvey a tolerable idea of to 1820 inclusive, have been 1981, of Bank-note, which was so well executed, the author's plan. He says,which 461 were capital. The Bank of that the difference between the two notes • The machinery which I have conEngland does not possess the means of could scarcely be discorered. It is sup- structed, combines the principle of the stating or distinguishing the punish-Eured, cost, on an average, three pence fortuitous nature.

posed that each note that was manufaco geometric pen, with others of a still more ments inflicted for the said crimes; but, sterling. We have this account from a I have before mentioned that the inas forgery is the unpardonable sin, it gentleman who had full opportunity of ventor of this pen enumerates no less would not, we believe, be exceeding ascertaining the fact. We understand than one thousand two hundred and sethe number, if we suppose, that not that the fac-simile was produced upon renty-three different curves, which, in its less than four hundred of our fellow the lithographic system. To this state simple form, it is cap.ble of producing; çreatures have been executed in the ment, for the perfect accuracy of which and every additional contrivance which is last twenty-four years for forgery on

we are not of course responsible, we may made to such simple forin, necessarily the Bank of Eugland.

add the following fact froin our own per multiplies that number. A different fi. This is a serious charge against some

sonal knowledge:-When the Bank Di- gure is the inevitable consequence, not

rectors first determined to adopt the plan only of every different combination of the persons, and woe to that may by whom proposed by Sir W. Congreve, and which whole number of curves, but also of every the offence cometh.' We shall,

was a mere pilfer from the American different adjustment of the machinery. I doubt, be told that po persons are' mode of invention, specimens of various I will not attempt to calculate the nuinber


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of figures that may be thus produced ;-it | Mr. Bran-ton cannot copy them, as he ductions may possess, is, I therefore may be considered to be endless; for it may have been to the contrary.

consider, beyond the influence of indivi. would take no less a period than The four uppermost of the eng avings, dual opinion, and can only be decided by 117,000,000,000,000,000 years to effect in the plate against fol. 28, forined a part actual experiment-by, submitting them all the figures which might be produced of those which Sir Wm. Congreve pur- for imitation to some artist of superior tafrom only twen!y-four curces, supposing chased at Mr. Stewart's, and which Mr. lents. that ten figures were produced every mi- Branston said he could copy.

"Mr. Silvester, an eminent engraver, nute.

• It may, however, be said, that al- residing in the Strand, when questioned The accompanying plate furnishes a though a perfect fac-simile may not be by the Society of Arts, (as appears by their specimen of the kind of figures this ma- produced, either by machinery or by Report,) gave it as his decided opinion, chinery produces ; and I have no hesita- hand, yet the imitation may be sufficient. that nothing could be engraved that tion in saying, that if I was ever so desi-ly good to impose on the public. To might not be successfully imitated. Havrous of executing a fac-simile engraving, prevent this, I introduce a test which will ing, since he delivered this opinion, subI should despair, even with the same ma-enable every one to detect any imitation mitted to his inspection some of my specichine, of accomplishing it. Not having that is any thing less than a perfect copy. nens, he said, that the principle of them taken any memorandum of the adjust- | The engravings are so executed as to be was new to him; that it was, clearly, inment of the machinery, by which the fi-imprinted in detached parts; and, in ap- possible to imitate them by copp r-plale gures were produced, I consider that there plying the test, the sides of the engravings engraving; nor, as he thought, could is as little probability of my obtaining which are opposite, when brought into thev, by any other mode of engraving, be them again, as that I should produce cor- juxta-position, will perfectly coincide, successfully imitated by hand? responding curves by dropping a thread line for line, and form pörfect figures It is not a little singular that every on the table. It may still be argued that this test, independently of its affording engraver admits the total ini possibility the engraving might be copied by hand. facility to the public at large of examining of copying Mr. Ibbetson's specimenis To this part of the subject I have not into and determining upon the genuineness by hand, but some think that they been inattentive. milar engravings to the opinion of the gree of difficulty against imitation. It is might be copied by, machinery; and most ingenious and expert artists, some of not only necessary that the figure should all the first rate mechanics in London whom were inclined, at first, to think be correctly copied, but also that the line express their opinion as decidedly, that they might be copied, but, subsequently, of division should intersect the various they canoot be copied by machinery, admitted the impossibility of effecting it curves, precisely in the same manner as whilst some of them imagine they may by hand. I have, however, heard of one in the original. The engraving here in- be copied hv hand. The conclusion engraver who persisted in the possibility serted affords an illustration of this test which Mr. Ibbetson draws from these of their being copied, and that he himself If the edge of one part be folded down, circumstances is, that a form of pote would do it. I trust I shall be pardoned and brought into contact with the edge of the digression, but I really cannot help the other part, it will be instantly per: cessfully imitated.'

may be contrived that cannot be sucsaying, that I think the carver might asceived that every line coincides, and that well be expected to imitate, with his the two parts form a whole and perfect f.

Whether this desideratum is attainachisels, an engine-turned snuff-box, as that gure. This separation of the engraving ! ble or not, we cannot determnine, bat the engraver should be expected to imi-consider to be altogether fortuitous. Mr. Ibbetson appears to us to have tate machinery engravings without the have never found it practicable to effect made a very near approach to it; and, aid of machinery. But, to proceed; if, it twice in the same place; and supposing although the Bank of England has not contrary to the opinion of other artists, it otherwise possible to copy such a ma-adovted his plan, yet, as they apand to my expectation, that engraver were chinery engraving, the introduction of able to copy my machinery engravings, this line of separation would oppose an

pear to have failed with all the others, it would operate, I conceive, as a very insurmountable difficulty.

we hope they will give it a trial. At trising deterioration of my plan, when it • Another modification of this test is, all events, it must be of great advanhecame known that he was no other than to imprint one part in black and the other tage to country bankers; and to them the ingenious and exquisite artist, Mr. part in red, in the manner represented in we recommend it, as we do the work to Branston, I have no object for conceal- the accompanying plate ;, in which case the ingenious, and to all who feel in ment, and will, therefore, relate the fact the black and the red lines must every the least interested in the prevention of as it occurred.

way coincide.' • In the course of last summer, Sir

forgery and in the progress of the arts.

The rose engine has been pained as Wm. Congreve, (one of the cominissioners for preventing forgery,) accompanied affording the necessary protection in The Lyre of Crispin, containing the

Ibby Mr. Branston, repaired to the shop of

Sorroros vf Memory, and other Po

On the Mr. Stewart, ivory-turner, in Oxford betson, however, rejects it.

ems. By Two of the Craft. 1mo. Street, and purchased my book on Eccen-comparison of the rose engine with

Londo, 1821. tric Circular Turning, with some

of his
says. -

When the names of Holcroft, Bloom. my machinery engravings, which Mr. T'wenty years' experience in the con. field, and Gifford, occur to our recolStewart had to dispose of. Mr. Branston trivance, construction, and employment seemed to consider the figures were of machinery, taught me that the princi- lection, we cannot but feel some, res formed by circles. Mr. Stewart inform- ple of the rose-engine was not sufficient spect for the craft and møstery' of ed him that they were not. Mr. Branston ly fortuitous for the object I had in view: shoe making.' We rejoice at every then observed, that, whether they con- and I was, therefore, led to the contri- effort which tends to exercise the gesisted of circles or not, he was confident vance of the machine I have constructed. nius, and to better the condition of the he could copy them. How far he may The result of the rose-engine depends on adventurer, and we have been successful I do not know, but the will and skill of man, and is, conse: great excuses for those who, mistaking it is natural to conclude that he did not quently, within his control. The result the bent of their talents, often misdisucceed; for, after what passed, I think, of the engine. I have constructed, depends rect their studies. With these feel art an impression of his engraving. of man, and which, consequently, place ings, we took up the Lyre of Crispin. From the concurring opinion of other his will and skill at defiance. The rela. We did more, we read ita task not artists, 1 ani, however, as confident that tive protective power which different pro- easily accomplished, we coufess, and

pp. 120.

own), he

can even make

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